แสงธรรม 1 Saeng Dhamma The Buddha’s Words พุทธสุภาษิต ธมฺมญฺจเร สุจริตํ น ตํ ทุจฺจริตํ จเร ธมฺมจารี สุขํ เสติ อสฺมึ โลเก ปรมฺหิ จ. (๑๖๙) จงประพฤติสุจริตธรรม อย่าประพฤติทุจริต ผู้ประพฤติธรรม ย่อมอยู่เป็นสุข ทั้งในโลกนี้และโลกหน้า By Dharma should one lead one’s life and not embrace corrupted means. For one who lives the Dharma life dwells in peace here and hereafter.
แสงธรรม 2 Saeng Dhamma by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu http://www.what-buddha-taught.net/Books/BhikkhuBuddhadasa ...Continued from last issue... ถามท่านก่อน T he very first level is arannasanna, which means the perception of forest. If where we live it is noisy and confusing we im- “นับสิบก่อน” ตอนเกิด อารมณ์แรง agine it to be a forest, as if it truly is one and we นั้นย่อมแปลง อารมณ์ร้าย ให้ดีได้ really have entered it. We may imagine the for- “ถามท่านก่อน” ตอนจะทำา สิ่งใดใด est to be empty and tranquil, free from disturb- นี่ความหมาย ตรงกัน ฉันรับรอง ing noises. Merely imagining a forest is already one sort of emptiness, but an emptiness that is ถามท่านก่อน นั่นถามใคร รู้ไหมเล่า? child’s play. คือทูลถาม พระพุทธเจ้า ในหม่อมขมอง Higher than arannasanna is pathavisanna, จะตรัสตอบ ถ้วนถูก ทุกทำานอง whereby we create the perception of earth. We ไม่ต้องหมอง หม่นใจ ไปจนตาย become conscious of all phenomena as being merely the earth element. Pathavisanna can ตอนจะโกรธ จะละโมบ จะโง่เง่า eradicate craving for the sense pleasures of vis- ตอนถูกเย้า ให้หมุนจี๋ เป็นผีร้าย ible forms, sounds, odors, tastes and tactile ob- จะตีลูก หย่าคู่ ฯลฯ อย่าดูดาย jects. It is something the young should try. ยั้งใจกาย “ถามท่านก่อน” ห่อนผิดเอย ฯ Here if we wish to ascend further we must create the perception of akasanancayatana, i.e. โดย... พุทธทาสภิกฺขุ create the feeling that there is nothing but infinite
แสงธรรม 3 Saeng Dhammaspace. Space is indeed one kind of emptiness the time of the Buddha. Once having discoveredbut it is not true sunnata. Sunnata is of a higher them they would get stuck in them, unable toorder than vacant. empty space. You don’t have get beyond them. It was like that until the Bud-to be interested in that sort of emptiness. Pay dha found the true sunnata which is the abodeattention to the subtler level of sunnata such of the Great Man. the supreme unsurpassableas that whereby we create the perception that emptiness that I have been speaking of.there is nothing but infinite consciousness. The The commentaries call the experiences ofperception that there is nothing but the infinite sunnata, ‘sunnataphassa’. We know only of theconsciousness - element is called vinnancayat- contact (phassa) of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue,ana. If we ascend even higher we reach the kind body and mind with visible forms, sounds, odors,of sunnata called akincannayatana whereby we tastes, tangible and mental objects. We have nev-mentally create utter nothingness. We don’t al- er had sunnataphassa, the contact with sunnatalow the mind to focus on anything, we fix it on because we know only of rupadhatu and arupad-nothingness. However there still remains the hatu, we know nothing of nirodhadhatu.feeling that there is nothingness. When we come to know nirodhadhatu One step further on lies nevasannanasan- we will experience a new sensation, that whichnayatana, non¬ perceiving perception. It’s said the commentators call sunnataphassa. It is thethat it is neither like being alive nor being dead. name of the Noble Path on the level that trulyTo say that there is perception would be false. destroys mental defilements. When we haveTo say that there is no perception would also developed our practice to the point that it isbe false. There is no labeling or interpretation destroying defilement, there is sunnataphassa.of experience. There is awareness without per- It is like touching sunnata with our hand, ourception. It is so subtle that to call a person in minds come into contact with emptiness.this state alive would be false to call him dead Emptiness as contact relates to the Noblewould be false. This too is a kind of emptiness. Path of one for whom anattanupassana (the in- These six levels of emptiness are not the sight that there is no self nor anything belong-same as paramanuttara¬sunnata. The Buddha ing to self. that there are merely dhammas andspoke of them merely to demonstrate the vari- natural processes) is growing continually. If theous gradations of emptiness. None of them are Noble Path is of this nature it is called sunnatathe emptiness that is the abode of the Great and any contact which takes place on that PathMan. They are the sorts of emptiness that rishis is called sunnataphassa. Anattanupassana theand munis had been groping after since, before cause of that state is a consequence of Dukkhan-
แสงธรรม 4 Saeng Dhammaupassana, the insight into Dukkha. Dukkhanu- mind is not released.passana is like having once tried to take hold If the mind is released then it is empty. If itof fire knowing that it’s not at all something to is not released then it is not empty. Let us lookput your hand in, or knowing that no dhammas at our mind that is either released i.e. empty ofwhatsoever should be grasped at or clung to be- all things or caught i.e. grasping at and clingingcause once taken hold of, they become a fire. If to something. Even at the initial level of practicespiritually we are well conversant with the way the teaching is to look at the mind that is emptythat fire burns and consumes, how it constricts, or vimutti. It is something that is there to beenvelops, pierces and entangles then that is seen within, it is not something to be figured outDukkhanupassana. according to books that we’ve read. Here we must consider that some people Nibbana or sunnata is there for us to see,object that if you haven’t reached Nibbana you even while we are still unenlightened. There iscan’t know anything about it, just as if you’ve the emptiness called tadangavimutti that justnever been to Europe you can’t ever have seen happens to arise, as it is now, when the externalit. But Nibbana is not a material object it is a conditions are right. If we concentrate the mindmatter of the mind and heart. As I have said, in the correct way so that it’s completely undis-right now most of your minds are empty. This is turbed and at ease (more so, one may say, thanalready a taste. Be diligent in seeing that. when experiencing any kind of worldly pleas- Consequently in the scriptural exposition ure) then this is vikkambhanavimutti, release byof the Practice of mindfulness of breathing, in suppression. So even without the samucche-the section dealing with cittanupassana where it davimutti or final release of the arahant, we stilldiscusses the method of looking intently at the have a sample of emptiness to examine, a sam-mind it says that if the mind has lust one knows ple of the wares of the Buddha. If you are inter-that the mind has lust; if the mind has aver- ested you can find such a sample in yourself.sion one knows the mind has aversion; if the Therefore, we should practice mindfulnessmind has, delusion then one knows the mind of, breathing stage by stage, developing kayanu-has delusion; if the mind is depressed then one passana, vedananupassana, cittanupassana, andknows that the mind is depressed; if the mind is dhammanupassana . It is a constant tastingnot depressed then one knows that the mind is of emptiness from start to finish. Finally, we willnot depressed; if the mind is released then one understand emptiness through seeing the pain-knows that the mind is released, (vimutti); if the ful consequences of grasping and clinging.mind is not released then one knows that the Then the mind will immediately turn to
แสงธรรม 5 Saeng Dhammafind contentment with the ayatana of Nibbana. its dictates.So in this way we are able to see emptiness It’s due to this very point that someonecontinually, before actually reaching its su- like Angulimala could become an arahant. Don’tpreme level. There is a progress that follows its explain wrongly, as is often done, the Buddha’sown law or the law of nature itself. When having reply to Angulimala, “I have already stopped.firmly comprehended something by oneself the It is you that have not stopped.” Don’t explainresulting knowledge is firm. It does not sway un- that ‘not stopped’ means that he was still kill-stably like false knowledge or knowledge gained ing people and that Angulimala became an ara-by listening to others. We don’t have to do any- hant because he stopped murdering. Anyonething very much to make ourselves happy, we who explains like that is badly misrepresentingdon’t’ have to go to any great trouble. All we the Buddha because when the Buddha usedhave to do is to empty our minds of greed. aver- the word ‘stop’ here, He was referring to thesion and delusion, or in other words to make stopping of ‘I’ and” ‘mine’,’ to the stopping ofit empty of grasping at and clinging to ‘I’ and grasping and clinging, or in other’ words to emp-‘mine.’ When the mind is empty of greed, aver- tiness. So it is emptiness that is stopping andsion and delusion then it’s truly empty and all it is the only kind of stopping that could haveDukkha comes to an end. Even kamma will of made Angulimala an arahant. If it was stoppingitself come to an end. murdering why aren’t all people who don’t kill In the Anguttara Nikaya, the Buddha states arahants? It is because cessation, the true stop-that when the mind is empty of greed, aver- ping, is the emptiness where there is no self tosion and delusion, empty of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ then dwell anywhere, to come or go anywhere or tokamma ends by itself. This means that kamma, do anything. That is true stopping. If there is stillvipaka (its result), and the mental defilements a self then you can’t stop.which are the cause for the creation of kamma, So, we should understand that the wordspontaneously and simultaneously come to an ‘empty’ is the same word as ‘stop’, the singleend. So we don’t have to be afraid of kamma, word by which the Buddha was able to enlightento fear that we must be ruled by our kamma. Angulimala, even though the killer’s hands wereWe don’t have to be too interested in kamma. still red with blood and around his neck hungRather, we should take an interest in emptiness. the 999 finger bones of his victims. For kammaIf we have created emptiness with regards to ‘I’ to end by itself, to reach the stopping, we mustand ‘mine’, kamma will utterly disintegrate and rely on this single term: empty of ‘I’ and ‘mine’,there will be no way that we will have to follow not grasping at or clinging to dhammas.
แสงธรรม 6 Saeng Dhamma This action of making the mind empty may tiness. To be empty of defilements is to be emp-be called Buddhist yoga, for ensuring that there ty of the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ and then theis emptiness in our action is raja yoga, the high- emptiness that is the freedom from Dukkha isest level or summit of yoga (spiritual endeavor). ensured, for to be empty of defilements is to beBut although we borrow the word raja yoga from empty of Dukkha. To be empty of ‘I’ and ‘mine’Vedanta , in that tradition it is concerned alone is to be empty of all things. That state ofwith the realization of an ultimate self. However emptiness is not the element of earth, water,the Buddha taught that yoga means ariyasacca- fire or air or akincantayatana, akasanancayatanadassana, which means that there is a yoga in or any of those things. The Buddha denied thatthe Buddhist teachings but it is the clarification it was any of those things. It is only nirodhad-of emptiness, making it manifest. So any action hatu, voidness of ‘I’ and ‘mine’, the extinctionthat is conducive to the manifestation of empti- of kamma, the defilements and Dukkha.ness may be called yoga. If anyone wishes to The last point that we must consider isuse the word yoga or is interested in it in any that, as was said at the beginning, emptiness ex-way it should be understood in this manner for ists in relation to all things. Don’t forget that ‘allit to be Buddhist yoga i.e. causing the manifes- things’ are nothing other than dhammas and thattation of ultimate truth. It should be taken and dhammas are nothing but nature or suchness.used in our every mental action, so as to stop They are already empty of self or the belong-the grasping at and clinging to ‘I’ and ‘mine’. ings of self. The dhammas of foolishness, delu-Thus we take the word yoga from another tra- sion and ignorance emerge continually, becausedition and adapt its meaning appropri¬ately. our culture and the way that we live encour-Take for example the word kammayoga - be- age the dhammas of ego and unknowing. Theying unselfish, acting unreservedly for the benefit don’t encourage the dhammas of knowledge.of others, we too have this yoga. If there is no Consequently we undergo the punishment forego - consciousness then whatever we do will our original sin, our original misguided action,be kammayoga. Even with this very basic yoga continually and automatically from the time of- making merit, doing good, sacrificing for oth- its ‘occurrence without ever learning our lesson.ers and helping mankind, these actions must be The young aren’t conscious of it, the middle-performed with a mind empty of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. aged aren’t conscious of it and even many ofSo we don’t have to seek after other kinds of the old are unconscious of it. We should at leastyoga for they all come down to this one yoga, be able to realize it in middle age or old age sothe spiritual endeavor of putting an end to self as to escape the punishment, emerge from theand the belongings of self, or in other words cage of vattasamsara and reach that boundlessmaking emptiness manifest. place of clarity and space. All of this rather lengthy explanation hasbeen aimed at elucidating the single word emp- To be continued
แสงธรรม 7 Saeng Dhamma A Taste of Freedom The Middle Way Within A Dhammatalk By Ajahn Chah http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/chah/atasteof.html ...Continued from last issue... the tail belong to the one snake. T hese words, “the Middle Way,” do not refer to our body and speech,they refer to the mind. When a mental impres- In the same way, both happiness and un- happiness, or pleasure and sadness, arise from the same parent — wanting. So when you’resion which we don’t like arises, it affects the happy the mind isn’t peaceful. It really isn’t!mind and there is confusion. When the mind For instance, when we get the things we like,is confused, when it’s “shaken up,” this is not such as wealth, prestige, praise or happiness, wethe right way. When a mental impression arises become pleased as a result. But the mind stillwhich we like, the mind goes to indulgence in harbors some uneasiness because we’re afraidpleasure — that’s not the way either. of losing it. That very fear isn’t a peaceful state. We people don’t want suffering, we want Later on we may actually lose that thing andhappiness. But in fact happiness is just a refined then we really suffer. Thus, if you aren’t aware,form of suffering. Suffering itself is the coarse even if you’re happy, suffering is imminent. It’sform. You can compare them to a snake. The just the same as grabbing the snake’s tail — ifhead of the snake is unhappiness, the tail of you don’t let go it will bite. So whether it’s thethe snake is happiness. The head of the snake snake’s tail or its head, that is, wholesome oris really dangerous, it has the poisonous fangs. unwholesome conditions, they’re all just char-If you touch it, the snake will bite straight away. acteristics of the Wheel of Existence, of endlessBut never mind the head, even if you go and change.hold onto the tail, it will turn around and bite The Buddha established morality, con-you just the same, because both the head and centration and wisdom as the path to peace,
แสงธรรม 8 Saeng Dhammathe way to enlightenment. But in truth these path of practice fully, but we have not yet prac-things are not the essence of Buddhism. They ticed, or if we have, we’ve practiced only inare merely the path. The Buddha called them speech. Our minds and our speech are not yet“Magga,” which means “path.” The essence of in harmony, we just indulge in empty talk. ButBuddhism is peace, and that peace arises from the basis of Buddhism is not something that cantruly knowing the nature of all things. If we inves- be talked about or guessed at. The real basistigate closely, we can see that peace is neither of Buddhism is full knowledge of the truth ofhappiness nor unhappiness. Neither of these is reality. If one knows this truth then no teachingthe truth. is necessary. If one doesn’t know, even if he lis- The human mind, the mind which the tens to the teaching, he doesn’t really hear. ThisBuddha exhorted us to know and investigate, is why the Buddha said, “The Enlightened Oneis something we can only know by its activity. only points the way.” He can’t do the practiceThe true “original mind” has nothing to meas- for you, because the truth is something you can-ure it by, there’s nothing you can know it by. not put into words or give away.In its natural state it is unshaken, unmoving. All the teachings are merely similes andWhen happiness arises all that happens is that comparisons, means to help the mind see thethis mind is getting lost in a mental impression, truth. If we haven’t seen the truth we must suf-there is movement. When the mind moves like fer. For example, we commonly say “sankharas”this, clinging and attachment to those things  when referring to the body. Anybody can saycome into being. it, but in fact we have problems simply because The Buddha has already laid down the we don’t know the truth of these sankharas, ร้าน TALAY THAI โดยคุณพยุง-คุณจินตนา งามสอาด และญาติมิตร ท�าบุญร้านประจ�าปี ๔ ก.ย. ๒๕๕๔
แสงธรรม 9 Saeng Dhammaand thus cling to them. Because we don’t know of the matter now. Before, you didn’t know, youthe truth of the body, we suffer. thought that man was normal, so you were an- Here is an example. Suppose one morning gry at him. Understanding like that caused youyou’re walking to work and a man yells abuse to suffer. As soon as you find out the truth, eve-and insults at you from across the street. As soon rything changes: “Oh, he’s mad! That explainsas you hear this abuse your mind changes from everything!” When you understand this youits usual state. You don’t feel so good, you feel feel fine, because you know for yourself. Hav-angry and hurt. That man walks around abusing ing known, then you can let go. If you don’tyou night and day. When you hear the abuse, know the truth you cling right there. When youyou get angry, and even when you return home thought that man who abused you was normalyou’re still angry because you feel vindictive, you could have killed him. But when you findyou want to get even. out the truth, that he’s mad, you feel much bet- A few days later another man comes to ter. This is knowledge of the truth.your house and calls out, “Hey! That man who Someone who sees the Dhamma has a sim-abused you the other day, he’s mad, he’s crazy! ilar experience. When attachment, aversion andHas been for years! He abuses everybody like delusion disappear, they disappear in the samethat. Nobody takes any notice of anything he way. As long as we don’t know these things wesays.” As soon as you hear this you are sud- think, “What can I do? I have so much greeddenly relieved. That anger and hurt that you’ve and aversion.” This is not clear knowledge. It’spent up within you all these days melts away just the same as when we thought the madmancompletely. Why? Because you know the truth was sane. When we finally see that he was madEastland Food Corporation ท�าบุญฉลองบริษทเลียงพระสงฆ์ ๗ รูป และบริจาคปัจจัยเข้าวัด $ 3,000 ๒๑ ก.ย. ๕๔ ั ้
แสงธรรม 10 Saeng Dhammaall along we’re relieved of worry. No-one could ness, ignorance is there. Suffering arises straightshow you this. Only when the mind sees for it- away. But the mind passes through these chang-self can it uproot and relinquish attachment. es so rapidly that we can’t keep up with them. It’s the same with this body which we call It’s the same as when you fall from a tree. Be-sankharas. Although the Buddha has already ex- fore you know it — “Thud!” — you’ve hit theplained that it’s not substantial or a real be- ground. Actually you’ve passed many branchesing as such, we still don’t agree, we stubbornly and twigs on the way but you couldn’t countcling to it. If the body could talk, it would be them, you couldn’t remember them as youtelling us all day long, “You’re not my owner, passed them. You just fall, and then “Thud!”you know.” Actually it’s telling us all the time, The Paticcasamuppada is the same as this.but it’s Dhamma language, so we’re unable to If we divide it up as it is in the scriptures, we sayunderstand it. For instance, the sense organs of ignorance gives rise to volitional activities, voli-eye, ear, nose, tongue and body are continually tional activities give rise to consciousness, con-changing, but I’ve never seen them ask permis- sciousness gives rise to mind and matter, mindsion from us even once! Like when we have a and matter give rise to the six sense bases, theheadache or a stomachache — the body never sense bases give rise to sense contact, contactasks permission first, it just goes right ahead, fol- gives rise to feeling, feeling gives rise to want-lowing its natural course. This shows that the ing, wanting gives rise to clinging, clinging givesbody doesn’t allow anyone to be its owner, it rise to becoming, becoming gives rise to birth,doesn’t have an owner. The Buddha described birth gives rise to old age, sickness, death, andit as an empty thing. all forms of sorrow. But in truth, when you come We don’t understand the Dhamma and into contact with something you don’t like,so we don’t understand these sankharas; we there’s immediate suffering! That feeling of suf-take them to be ourselves, as belonging to us fering is actually the result of the whole chain ofor belonging to others. This gives rise to clinging. the Paticcasamuppada. This is why the BuddhaWhen clinging arises, “becoming” follows on. exhorted his disciples to investigate and knowOnce becoming arises, then there is birth. Once fully their own minds.there is birth, then old age, sickness, death... the To be continuedwhole mass of suffering arises. This is the Patic-casamuppada. We say ignorance gives rise to vo- ขออนุโมทนาบุญพิเศษแด่litional activities, they give rise to consciousness ดร. ลัดดาวัลย์ Mikoand so on. All these things are simply events in ถวายปัจจัยเข้าวัด $ 700mind. When we come into contact with some- เพื่ออุทิศบุญกุศลให้คุณพ่อจวน แซ่ติ้งthing we don’t like, if we don’t have mindful-
แสงธรรม 11 Saeng Dhamma The Voice Of Dhamma Essays On The Dhamma By Luang Ta Chi Edited by Du Wayne Engelhart ...Continued from last issue... called the voice of Dhamma:IX. The Voice of Dhamma Give advice and guidance to others to help G ive advice and guidance to others to help them be mindful. People oftenfall into danger when they act negligently In dan- them be mindful. People often fall into dan- ger when they act negligently. They find them- selves in danger because they choose actionsgerous situations a true friend gives advice on about which they do not think carefully. Re-how to reduce as much as possible unwholesome member that possible bodily actions are shownactions—whether by body, by word, or by thought. by what people say and think. In dangerous situations, a true friend gives advice on how to1. Social Responsibilities reduce as much as possible unwholesome ac- Human beings are social animals. They are tions—whether by body, by word, or by thought.born into society, and live within a structure of Developing this idea further, the Buddha givesfamily, social groups, and political nations. Be- this advice:cause of this condition, they are dependent Someone living alone becomes moody.upon the cooperation of family, neighbors, and That person should get a close friend. Whenco-workers to reach peaceful co-existence. It one friend acts improperly, the other can giveis, therefore, natural for humans to wish oth- advice and guidance to keep up spiritual well-ers well. They have an inborn concern about being. People with friends and associates per-the well-being of those in danger. One of the form better as human beings.first Buddhist social principles is that Buddhists As social animals, people have a strong desireshould always be willing and eager to volun- to be accepted and respected by others. They canteer their time and skills to help those in danger. obtain this acceptance and respect by always know-They should always follow the Buddha’s lesson, ing and carrying out their social responsibilities.
แสงธรรม 12 Saeng Dhamma2. The Responsibility to Share Advice come to love him. The voice of Dhamma calls on us to help The Buddha’s voice of Dhamma calls usothers by advising, guiding, and warning them to help our neighbors with our advice, guid-throughout our lifelong journey in search of ance, and warnings. This guidance deserves re-peace and happiness. To speak in the simplest spect since it comes from the Buddha’s manyway, we help those who misbehave by wish- lifetimes of teaching. Following this advice, weing them well and sharing our loving kindness. obtain happy and peaceful lives. We do notWhen we feel true concern for the well-being suffer from revenge or very unfortunate resultsof others and treat them with kindness and re- because the voice of Dhamma guides us intospect, we are carrying out our social responsibili- the Buddhist ethical way of life as we follow theties, and can say that we have Dhamma in our Dhamma model and voluntarily dedicate ourheart and Buddhism as our religion. As mem- lives to serving the Buddha. When the voice ofbers of society and as Buddhists, we are asked Dhamma tells us to act, to speak, to advise, orto practice the Buddhist principle of sharing lov- to think wholesome thoughts, we act accord-ing kindness and advice. ingly. Leading our lives in accordance with the The Buddha’s own use of advice, guidance, voice of Dhamma, we look forward to peace,and warning was best shown when the follow- happiness, and progress, as well as safety fromers of his two chief disciples—Moggallāna and danger. These are the benefits obtained bySāriputta—were bothering the other bhikkhus those who believe in the Buddha and followwho were seriously studying the Dhamma. The the Dhamma.Buddha knew the whole story and met with Although many practicing Buddhists stayMoggallāna and Sāriputta to enable them to attached to the voice of Dhamma and service toanswer the accusations against their followers. the Buddha, others do not. In fact, many leaveThe result of the meeting was that the Buddha themselves open to the voice of the Devil (Māratold Moggallāna and Sāriputta to place the trou- or Satan). They allow the voice of Māra to echoblesome monks on probation, while also inten- in their ears all the time—carried through thesifying their training. Any monk who broke the voices of famous people on radio and televi-rules while on probation would be removed sion. Many become addicted to these peoplefrom the Sangha. Obedient monks would learn and are led into temptation. Instead of listeninggood conduct through living with others in har- to the voice of Dhamma, they follow Māra alongmony and could remain in the Sangha. From the path of evil.this event it can be concluded that those who Sadly, most people do not understandcontinue to misbehave will dislike the advi- that a simple advertisement for liquor or sen-sor, while those who correct their behavior will sual pleasure can plant seeds that ruin lives.
แสงธรรม 13 Saeng DhammaThroughout history, advertising has helped liq- ing the Dhamma in our daily lives, not only inuor, pornography, and legalized gambling exist. times of personal crisis. Unfortunately, theseThe result has been a group of people in society caring efforts are often met with opposition.addicted to alcohol, sex, and gambling. Adver- Sometimes those involved in misconducttisements have a harmful influence on those refuse help because they say they are too busy.who want to be accepted into the crowd. Many They do not have time for such things. Theypeople are tempted to often go to nightclubs, must work from sunrise to sunset to earn theirand become lost in worldly delusion. They living. They appear to have no free time at all.do not understand that the voices they hear My dear friends, this is always the language ofon radio and television are communicating the those who turn away from the voice of Dhamma.temptations of the Devil. This ignorance allows If someone invites those who turn awaythem to be pulled into places of wickedness from what is right to a Dhamma talk, they arelike lambs to the slaughter. Sooner or later they too busy. On the other hand, if the topic of abecome addicted to these environments. In- talk is superstition, health, love, how to becomedeed, it is easy to understand how such people popular, or magic to guarantee long life, bothcan ruin their entire lives just from the influence men and women eagerly crowd into the placeof radio and television advertisements. of the presentation. All seem to have time to Fortunately, caring people in our commu- participate, no matter how far they must travelnity are always willing to reach out and help. or how much it costs.They help by wishing healing and wellness to Sadly, this is the attitude of most people inthose experiencing misconduct. They advise society today. They turn away from the voicethem to go to the temple to learn the Dhamma. of Dhamma towards the voice of Māra or Satan.They also emphasize the importance of practic- This action starts them off on the wrong path.คุ ณ ประสาร มานะกุ ล และครอบครั ว ท� า บุ ญ อุ ทิ ศ ส่ ว นกุ ศ ลให้ บ รรพบุ รุ ษ ๒๕ ก.ย. ๒๕๕๔
แสงธรรม 14 Saeng DhammaBecause of human weaknesses and openness to advice. Appreciating the advice helps them totemptation, people tend to listen to the voice make merit that will support progress in redi-of the Devil, and often lose their way on their recting their lives towards success.lifelong journey. With firm conviction and con- Following the voice of Dhamma and sharingtinued effort, however, we can still guide these with care our advice, guidance, and warning allowlost sheep away from the Devil, even in our us to live our lives safely, happily, and prosper-present society. ously in any environment at all times. So please I raise these topics to encourage awareness. accept and follow the voice of Dhamma.We must be aware when advising, guiding, andwarning others. We should give advice when 3. The Responsibility to Wisely Select Associatesour family, friends, or neighbors are in danger, The Buddha also warns us to carefullytaking the proper action to let them know that choose friends and associates. We should avoidwhat they are doing is wrong. We do this in fools and choose wise friends and associates.ways that will help guide them out of danger. There are four types of fools the Buddha warns One way is to warn our friends when us to avoid: the robber, the hypocrite, the flat-they are misbehaving—by body, by word, or terer, and the tempter.by thought. As we advise them, we can show The robber is an insincere friend. Clingingthem how to guard against future traps. We can to you for personal gain, he will steal from you.also explain the ways in which their improper The robber is a taker, not a giver. He does notactions could lead to further dangers. Then we take care of either his friends or his business. Heguide them to become fully aware of the conse- never gives help, unless he has a hidden reasonquences of those dangers. Thus, the persons in or is forced into it. Thus, the Buddha warns usdanger may learn to become less selfish and to to beware of the robber.understand that their actions may ruin not only The hypocrite gives service to everything bytheir lives but also the lives of their loved ones, words only. Many are hurt by his sweet words.associates, and neighbors. He enjoys talking about the past and the future, When we warn our friends about their mis- but his conversation never amounts to anything.conduct, our plan is to try to protect them from His talk sounds good, and he intends to do well,their unwholesome actions, which must ulti- but his words are not sincere. The Buddha warnsmately lead to defilement. What is more, we us not to take the hypocrite’s words seriously,will also show them how to live righteous and because he is not who is says he is.moral lives. The flatterer will praise you whether you Those who are warned should think about take right actions or wrong actions, in order totheir improper behavior and be thankful for the become your friend and supporter. The Buddha
แสงธรรม 15 Saeng Dhammawarns us to stay firm and remain unaffected by friends, those who are as precious as gems.his flattery. The flatterer only appears to be According to the Buddha, valuable friendsyour friend when he is in your presence. When are of four kinds: the sympathizer, the coun-you are not around, he will gossip about you selor, the helper, and the true friend.behind your back. Like a poisonous snake, the The sympathizer is the caring friend, charac-flatter is full of danger. terized by compassion and loving-kindness. He The tempter always tries to lead us away is a true friend in both body and mind—not thefrom the Dhamma. The approach is direct: he kind to offer lip service. The sympathizer alwaysmakes fools of us by pulling us away to drinking stands by his friends and offers a helping handat nightclubs or gambling at casinos. He may in good times or bad. Whether his friend lives inalso persuade us to get involved in sensual ac- a hut or in a palace, he is at his side. The sym-tivities that leave us sexually satisfied but emo- pathizer loves his friends as much as himself. Iftionally empty. The tempter starts us on the someone speaks with contempt about them, heroad toward addiction to alcohol, gambling, or is ready to fight for them. He will continue tosex. He is the most dangerous of fools, who can fight to the best of his ability until the opponentlead us deeply into evil. surrenders. However, if the opponent changes These are the four kinds of fools that the his stand to honor the friend, the sympathiz-Buddha tells us to avoid. He advises us to keep er will also honor the former opponent. Theaway from them as friends. The voice of Dham- Buddha encourages us to develop close rela-ma warns us to stay away from all harmful mis- tionships with such sympathetic friends. Theseconduct—by body, by word, and by thought. friendships create happiness for all.We should limit our association to sensible To be continuedครอบครัวไชยะกุล ท�าบุญครบรอบ ๕๐ วัน อุทิศส่วนกุศลให้คุณแม่เพ็ญพรรณ Nowak ๒๕ ก.ย. ๒๕๕๔
แสงธรรม 22 Saeng Dhamma ขอเชิญทุกท่านร่วมนมัสการพระสารีรกธาตุ ณ อุโบสถ วัดไทยฯ ดี.ซี. ิ Those who are interested in Thai Theravada Buddhism and members of the general public are cordially invited to Wat Thai, D.C., Temple to pay their respect to or simply view the Buddha relics on display in the chanting hall.ปฏิบัติธรรมประจ�าเดือน ตุลาคมณ วัดไทยกรุงวอชิงตัน, ดี.ซี. 15 ตุลาคม 2554ศึกษาและปฏิบัติธรรมตามแนวพระไตรปิฎก � สาธยายพระไตรปิฎก ภาษาบาลี � ฟังบรรยายธรรม - ธรรมสากัจฉา � เจริญจิตตภาวนา - แผ่เมตตา พร้อมกันบนอุโบสถศาลา เวลา 9.00 A.M.