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Saengdhamma in august 2010

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Saengdhamma Magazine Vol.36 No.424 August, 2010
Wat Thai Washington, D.C.
13440 Layhill Rd., Silver Spring, MD 20906

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Saengdhamma in august 2010

  1. 1. ฉบับวันแม่ ทุกชีวิตมีปัญหา พระพุทธศาสนามีทางแก้ แสงธรรม วารสารธรรมะรายเดือนที่เก่าแก่ที่สุดในอเมริกา Saeng Dhamma ปี ๒๕๕๓ รักของแม่...คือรักแท้บริสุทธิ์ ปีที่ ๓๖ ฉบับที่ ๔๒๔ ประจำาเดือนสิงหาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๓ Vol.36 No.424 August 2010
  2. 2. ศีลธรรมกลับมาเถิด ¾Ø·¸·ÒÊÀÔ¡¢Ø  กลับมาเถิด ศีลธรรมกลับมาเถิด กำลังเกิด ภัยร้าย อันใหญ่หลวง แก่สตว์โลก ทั่วถิ่น จักรวาลปวง ั น่าเป็นห่วง ความพินาศ ฉกาจเกิน  กลับมาเถิด ศีลธรรมกลับมาเถิด ในโลกเกิด กลียค อย่างฉุกเฉิน ุ หลงวัตถุ บ้าคลัง เกินบังเอิญ ่ มัวเพลิดเพลิน สิงกาลี มีกำลัง ่  กลับมาเถิด ศีลธรรม กลับมาเถิด ความเลวร้าย ลามเตลิด จวนหมดหวัง รีบกลับมา ทันเวลา พาพลัง มายับยัง ้ โลกไว้ ให้ทนกาลฯ ั  บทกลอนอันนี้ เป็นอุดมการณ์ในการเผยแพร่ธรรมของหลวงพ่อชีวานันทะ
  3. 3. สื่อส่องทาง สว่างอ�าไพ แสงธรรม ทุกชีวิตมีปัญหำ พระพุทธศำสนำมีทำงแก้ วำรสำรธรรมะรำยเดือนที่เก่ำแก่ที่สุดในอเมริกำ ปีที่ 36 ฉบับที่ 424 ประจ�ำเดือนสิงหำคม พ.ศ. 2553 Vol.36 No.424 August, 2010 Objectives : �To promote Buddhist activities. สำรบัญ �To foster Thai culture and tradition. �To inform the public of the temple’s activities. Contents �To promide a public relations center for Buddhists living in the United States. The Buddha’s Words................................................ 1 THE THINGS WE CLING TO Ven. Buddhadasa......... 3 เจ้าของ : วัดไทยกรุงวอชิงตัน, ดี.ซี. SAMADHI IN BUDDHISM Ven. Prayudh Payutto............ 8 ที่ปรึกษา : พระวิเทศธรรมรังษี WHY ARE WE HERE Ven. Ajanh Chah..................... 11 กองบรรณาธิการ : ความส�าคัญของพระไตรปิฎก โดย..พระพรหมคุณาภรณ์...19 ดร.พระมหำถนัด อตฺถจำรี ปฏิบัติธรรมประจ�ำเดือนสิงหำคม................................. 22 พระสมุห์ณัฐิวุฒิ ปภำกโร เสียงธรรม...จากวัดไทย...........................หลวงตาชี 23 พระจรินทร์ อำภสฺสโร ประมวลภาพกิจกรรมต่างๆ เดือนกรกฎาคม............. 30 พระมหำเรืองฤทธิ์ สมิทฺธิญำโณ เสียงธรรม... จากหลวงตาชี........................................ 32 พระสุริยำ เตชวโร ท่องแดนพระพุทธศำสนำ ๒,๓๐๐ ปี ดร.พระมหำถนัด 39 พระมหำสรำวุธ สรำวุโธ Thai Temple’s News....................โดย Handy 43 พระมหำประดู่ชัย ภทฺทธมฺโม อนุโมทนำพิเศษ / Special Thanks........................... 47 พระมหำศรีสุพรณ์ อตฺตทีโป รำยนำมผู้บริจำคเดือนกรกฎำคม........Ven. Sarawut 48 พระอนันต์ภิวัฒน์ พุทฺธรกฺขิโต รำยนำมผู้บริจำคออมบุญประจ�ำปีและเจ้ำภำพภัตตำหำรเช้ำ... 53 รำยนำมเจ้ำภำพถวำยเพล / Lunch............................ 54 และอุบำสก-อุบำสิกำวัดไทยกรุงวอชิงตัน, ดี.ซี. ก�ำหนดกำรท�ำบุญวันแม่ ............................................. 62 SAENG DHAMMA Magazine is published monthly by Wat Thai Washington, D.C. Temple At 13440 Layhill Rd., Photos taken by Silver Spring, MD 20906 Mr. Sam & Bank, Ms. Golf, Tel. (301) 871-8660, 871-8661 Ven. Pradoochai, Fax : 301-871-5007 Mr. Yuttachat, E-mail : watthaidc@hotmail.com Ven. Ananphiwat, Mr. Kevin, Homepage : www.watthaidc.org Radio Network : www.watthai.iirt.net 2,500 Copies
  4. 4. ถ้อยแถลง ผ่ำนพ้นงำนวันอำสำฬหบูชำ วันเข้ำพรรษำ เดือนสิงหำคมก็เป็นช่วงของวันแม่ แต่ละวัดก็ต่ำงมีงำนเพือให้ลกหลำนได้ไหว้ ่ ู แม่ บูชำแม่กัน คิดถึงพระคุณแม่ผู้เป็นเสมือนมำรดำแห่งโลกก็ว่ำได้ รักแม่ คิดถึงพระคุณแม่ก็ขอจงด�ำรงตนเป็นคนดี มีควำม กตัญญูกตเวทีซึ่งไม่น่ำจะยำกอะไรมำกมำย ส�ำหรับวัดไทย,ดี.ซี. ก็เช่นเดียวกันได้ก�ำหนดจัดกิจกรรมวันแม่ขึ้นในวันอำทิตย์ที่ ๘ สิงหำคม นี้ ก็ขอเชิญชวนทุกท่ำนร่วมงำนวันแม่โดยทั่วหน้ำกัน ส�ำหรับของฝำกจำกอินเตอร์เน็ต “แสงธรรม” ฉบับนีขอน�ำธรรมะดีๆ จำกท่ำนพระอำจำรย์ มิตซูโอะ คเวสโก ซึงเป็นพระ ้ ่ ลูกศิษย์ของหลวงพ่อชำ แห่งวัดหนองป่ำพง เรื่อง “พระอาจารย์สอนคนชอบยุ่งกับเรื่องของคนอื่น” ใจควำมเป็นอย่ำงไร ขอ ให้ทุกท่ำนได้ศึกษำเพื่อน้อมน�ำมำปฏิบัติในช่วงสำมเดือนเข้ำพรรษำก็แล้วกัน “อย่ำยุ่งกับเรื่องของคนอื่น ภำวนำมำกๆ ดูตัวเองมำกๆ หลวงพ่อชำ (พระโพธิญำณเถระ) บอกว่ำ “ธรรมดำเรำดูแต่คน อื่น ๙๐ % ดู ตัวเองแค่ ๑๐ %” คือคอยดูแต่ควำมผิดของคนอื่น เพ่งโทษคนอื่น คิดแต่จะแก้ไขคนอื่น กลับเสียใหม่นะ ดูคน อื่นเหลือไว้ ๑๐ % ดูเพื่อศึกษำว่ำ เมื่อเขำท�ำอย่ำงนั้น คนอื่นจะรู้สึกอย่ำงไร เพื่อเอำมำสอนตัวเองนั่นแหละ ดูตัวเองพิจำรณำ ตัวเอง ๙๐ % จึงเรียกว่ำปฏิบัติธรรมอยู่ ธรรมชำติของจิต ใจมันเข้ำข้ำงตัวเอง โบรำณพูดว่ำ เรำมักจะเห็นควำมผิดของคนอื่นเท่ำภูเขำ ควำมผิดของตนเองเท่ำรู เข็ม มันเป็นควำมจริงอย่ำงนันด้วย เรำจึงต้องระวังควำมรูสกนึกคิดของตัวเองให้มำกๆ เห็นควำมผิดของคนอืนให้หำรด้วย ๑๐ ้ ้ึ ่ เห็นควำมผิดตัวเองให้คูณด้วย ๑๐ จึงจะใกล้เคียงกับควำมจริงและยุติธรรม เพรำะเหตุนี้เรำจะต้องพยำยำมมองแง่ดีของคน อืนมำกๆ และต�ำหนิตเิ ตียนตัวเองมำกๆ แต่ถงอย่ำงไรเรำก็ยงเข้ำข้ำงตัวเองนันแหละ พยำยำมอย่ำสนใจกำรกระท�ำ กำรปฏิบติ ่ ึ ั ่ ั ของคนอื่น ดูตัวเองสนใจแก้ไขตัวเองนั่นแหละมำกๆ เช่น เข้ำครัวเห็นเด็กท�ำอะไรไม่ถูกใจ แล้วก็เกิดอำรมณ์ร้อนใจ ยังไม่ต้อง บอกให้เขำแก้ไขอะไรหรอก รีบแก้ไข ระงับอำรมณ์ร้อนใจของตัวเองเสียก่อน เห็นอะไร คิดอะไร รู้สึกอย่ำงไร ก็สักแต่ว่ำ ใจ เย็นๆ ไว้ก่อน ควำมเห็น ควำมคิด ควำมรู้สึกก็ไม่แน่...ไม่แน่ อำจจะถูกก็ได้ อำจจะผิดก็ได้ เรำอำจจะเปลี่ยนควำมเห็นก็ได้ สักแต่ว่ำ... สักแต่ว่ำ...ใจเย็นๆ ไว้ก่อน ยังไม่ต้องพูด ดูใจเรำก่อน สอนใจเรำก่อน หัดปล่อยวำงก่อน เมื่อจิตสงบแล้ว เมื่อจิตปกติแล้ว จึง ค่อยพูด จึงค่อยออกควำมเห็น พูดด้วยเหตุ ด้วยผล ประกอบด้วยจิตเมตตำกรุณำ ขณะมีอำรมณ์ อย่ำเพิ่งพูด ท�ำให้เสียควำม รู้สึกของผู้อื่น ท�ำให้เสียควำมรู้สึกของตัวเอง ไม่เกิดประโยชน์เท่ำที่ควร มักจะเสียประโยชน์ซ�้ำไป เพรำะฉะนั้น อยู่ที่ไหน อยู่ ที่วัด อยู่ที่บ้ำน ก็สงบๆๆ ไม่ต้องดูคนอื่นว่ำเขำท�ำผิดๆๆ ดูแต่ตัวเรำ ระวังควำมรู้สึก ระวังอำรมณ์ของเรำเองให้มำกๆ พยำยำม แก้ไข พัฒนำตัวเรำ...นั่นแหละ เห็นอะไรชอบ ไม่ชอบ ปล่อยไว้ก่อน เรื่องของคนอื่น พยำยำมอย่ำให้เข้ำมำที่จิตใจเรำ ถ้ำไม่ ระวัง ก็จะยุ่งกับเรื่องของคนอื่นไปเรื่อยๆ หำเรื่องอยู่อย่ำงนั้น เอำเรื่องโน้นเรื่องนี้มำเป็นเรื่องของเรำหมด มีแต่ยินดี ยินร้ำย พอใจ ไม่พอใจ ทั้งวัน อำรมณ์มำก จิตไม่ปกติ ไม่สบำยทั้งวันๆ ก็หมดแรง ระวังนะ พยำยำม ตำมดูจิตของเรำ ! รักษำจิตของเรำให้เป็นปกติให้มำก ใครจะเป็นอะไร ใครจะท�ำอะไร ดีหรือไม่ดี เรื่อง ของเขำ แม้เขำจะท�ำกับเรำ ว่ำเรำ...ก็เรื่องของเขำ อย่ำเอำมำเป็นอำรมณ์ อย่ำเอำมำเป็นเรื่องของเรำ ดูใจเรำนั่นแหละ พัฒนำ ตัวเองนั่นแหละ ท�ำใจเรำให้ปกติ สบำยๆ หัด - ฝึก ปล่อยวำง นั่นเอง ไม่มีอะไรหรอก ไม่มีอะไรส�ำคัญกว่ำกำรตำมรักษำจิต ของเรำ คิดดี พูดดี ท�ำดี มีควำมสุข” ขอช่วยอ่ำนกันหลำยๆ รอบ รอบแล้วรอบเล่ำ ถ้ำเห็นดีแล้ว ขอจงตั้งจิตปฏิญำณตนปฏิบัติตำมหลักกำรนี้ ชีวิตของท่ำนมี ควำมก้ำวหน้ำเป็นแน่ คณะผู้จัดท�า
  5. 5. แสงธรรม 1 Saeng Dhamma The Buddha’s Words พุทธสุภาษิต อจริตฺวา พฺรหฺมจริยํ อลทฺธา โยพฺพเน ธนํ ชิณฺณโกญฺจา ว ฌายนฺติ ขีณมจฺเฉว ปลฺลเล ฯ (๑๕๕) เมือยังอยูในวัยหนุมสาว ไม่ทาตัวให้ดและไม่หาทรัพย์ไว้ พอถึงวัยแก่เฒ่า ่ ่ ่ ํ ี พวกเขาย่อมนังซบเซา เหมือนนกกระเรียนแก่ จับเจ่าอยูรมสระทีไร้ปลาฉะนัน ่ ่ิ ่ ้ Having led neither a good life, nor acquired riches while young, they pine away as aged herons around a fishless pond.
  6. 6. แสงธรรม 2 Saeng Dhamma กตัญญูบูชาพระคุณแม่ ��������������� รัก ของแม่ ยิ่งใหญ่ หาใดเท่า แม่ นั้นเฝ้า คอยวัน อันมีค่า ทุก โมงยาม เฝ้ารอ ลูกลืมตา วัน ลูกคลอด ออกมา แม่ปลื้มใจ ลูกอ้อแอ้ แม่ก็ยิ้ม อย่างอิ่มสุข ลืมความทุกข์ เหนื่อยล้า โลกสดใส แม่โอบอุ้ม คุ้มครอง ปกป้องภัย แม่ห่วงใย ห่วงหา เอื้ออาทร ลูกเติบโต แม่ต่อเติม เพิ่มความรัก แม่ทอถัก สายใย ใส่คำาสอน ยึดหลักธรรม ทำาให้เห็น เป็นขั้นตอน กลิ่นขจร หอมความดี ที่ผูกพัน แม่คือพระ ผู้ให้ ใจสว่าง แม่นำาทาง นำาชีวิต จิตสร้างสรรค์ แม่คือพรหม ของลูก ทุกคืนวัน นิจนิรันดร์ กตัญญู บูชาคุณ ครูยุพา มาตยะขันธ์ : ประพันธ์ ครูอาสาภาคฤดูร้อน วัดไทยกรุงวอชิงตัน, ดี.ซี. ปี ๒๕๕๓
  7. 7. แสงธรรม 3 Saeng Dhamma THE THINGS WE CLING TO by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu http://www.viet.net/~anson/ebud/budasa-handbook/budasa03.htm THE THINGS WE CLING TO the world we shall concentrate on the world of living W hat are we clinging to? What is our handhold? What we are clinging to is the world itself. In Buddhism the word “world” has a broader connotation creatures, in particular man, because it is man that hap- pens to be the problem. In man these five components are all present together: his physical body is the mate- than it has in ordinary usage. It refers to all things, to rial aggregate; his mental aspect is divisible into four the totality. It does not refer just to human beings, or aggregates, which we shall now describe. celestial beings, or gods, or beasts, or the denizens of The first of the mental aggregates is feeling (vedana), hell, or demons, or hungry ghosts, or titans, or any par- which is of three kinds, namely pleasure or gratification, ticular realm of existence at all. What the word “world” displeasure or suffering, and a neutral kind, which is nei- refers to here is the whole lot taken together. To know ther pleasure nor displeasure, but which is a kind of feeling the world is difficult because certain levels of the world nevertheless. Under normal conditions feelings are always are concealed. Most of us are familiar with only the present in us. Every day we are filled with feelings. The outermost layer or level, the level of relative truth, the Buddha, then, pointed out feeling as one of the compo- level corresponding to the intellect of the average man. nents which together go to make up the man. For this reason Buddhism teaches us about the world The second component of mind is perception (san- at various levels. na). This is the process of becoming aware, similar to The Buddha had a method of instruction based on a waking up as opposed to being sound asleep or uncon- division of the world into a material or physical aspect scious, or dead. It refers to memory as well as aware- and non-material or mental aspect. He further divided ness of sense impressions, covering both the primary up the mental world or mind into four parts. Counting sensation resulting from contact with an object by way the physical and the mental together makes a total of of eye, ear, nose, tongue, or body, and the recall of pre- five components, called by the Buddha the Five Ag- vious impressions. Thus one may be directly aware of gregates, which together go to make up the world, in an object as black or white, long or short, man or beast, particular living creatures and man himself. In looking at and so on, or one may be similarly aware in retrospect
  8. 8. แสงธรรม 4 Saeng Dhamma by way of memory. feeling as being a self, because there is no one who does The third mental aggregate is the actively thinking not like delightful sensations, especially tactile sensations component (sankhara) in an individual-thinking of doing by way of the skin. Ignorance or delusion blinds a person some thing, thinking of saying something, good thought to all else. He sees only the delightful object and grasps at and bad thought, willed thinking, active thinking-this is it as being a self; he regards that object as “mine.” Feel- the third mental aggregate. ing, whether of pleasure or displeasure, is truly a site of The fourth component of mind is consciousness suffering. Spiritually speaking, these feelings of pleasure (vinnana). It is the function of knowing the objects per- and displeasure may be considered as synonymous with ceived by way of eye, ear, nose, tongue and the general suffering, because they give rise to nothing but mental body sense, and also by way of the mind itself. torment. Pleasure renders the mind buoyant; displeasure These five aggregates constitute the site of the four deflates it. Gain and loss, happiness and sorrow, amount kinds of clinging explained in the fourth chapter. Turn in effect to mental restlessness or instability; they set the back and read it again, and think it over so that you un- mind spinning. This is what is meant by grasping at feeling derstand it properly. You will then realize that it is these as being a self. We should all do well to have a closer five aggregates that are the object and handhold for our look at this process of grasping at feeling as being a self, grasping and clinging. A person may grasp at any one of as being “ours,” and try to gain a proper understanding these groups as being a self according to the extent of of it. Understanding feeling as an object of clinging, the his ignorance. For instance, a boy who carelessly bumps mind will be rendered independently of it. Feeling nor- into a door and hurts himself feels he has to give the mally has control over the mind, luring us into situations door a kick in order to relieve his anger and pain. In that we regret later on. In his practical path to perfection other words, he is grasping at a purely material object, or arahantship, the Buddha teaches us repeatedly to give namely the door, which is nothing but wood, as being a particular attention to the examination of feeling. Many self. This is attachment at the lowest level of all. A man have become arahants and broken free from suffering by who be comes angry with his body to the point of strik- means of restricting feeling to simply an object of study. ing it or hitting himself on the head is grasping and cling- Feeling is more likely than any of the other aggre- ing in the same way. He is taking those body parts to gates to serve as a handhold for us to cling to because be selves. If he is rather more intelligent than that, he feeling is the primary objective of all our striving and may seize on feeling, or perception or active thinking, activity. We study industriously and work at our jobs in or consciousness, at any one of these groups as being a order to get money. Then we go and buy things: uten- self. If he is unable to distinguish them individually, he sils, food, amusements, things covering the whole range may grasp at the whole lot collectively as being a self, from gastronomy to sex. And then we partake of these that is, take all five groups together to be “his self.” things with one single objective, namely pleasurable After the physical body, the group next most likely to feeling, in other words delightful stimulation of eye, be clung to as being a self is feeling pleasurable, painful, ear, nose, tongue and body. We invest all our resourc- or neutral. Let us consider the situation in which we find es, monetary, physical, mental, simply in the expecta- ourselves, entranced with sensual pleasures, in particular tion of pleasurable feeling. And everyone knows well delectable sensations, caught up heart and soul in the enough in his own mind that if it weren’t for the lure of various colors and shapes, sound, scents, tastes and tactile pleasurable feeling, he would never invest study, work objects that we perceive. Here feeling is the pleasure and and physical energy in the search for money. We can delight experienced, and it is to that very feeling of pleas- see, then, that feeling is no small matter. A knowledge ure and delight that we cling. Almost everyone clings to and understanding of it puts us in a position to keep it
  9. 9. แสงธรรม 5 Saeng Dhamma under control, makes us sufficiently high-minded to re- of pleasurable feeling in much cruder ways than we do. main above feelings, and enables us to carry out all our To know the nature of feeling, in particular to know that activities far better than we otherwise could. In similar feeling is not a self at all and not something to be clung fashion even the problems that arise in a social group to, is, then, of very great use in life. have their origins in pleasurable feeling. And when we Perception, too, can easily be seized on as being a self analyze closely the clashes between nations, or be- or “one’s self.” The average villager likes to say that tween opposing blocs, we discover that there too, both when we fall asleep, something, which he calls the sides are just slaves to pleasurable feeling. A war is not “soul,” departs from the body. The body is then like a fought because of adherence to a doctrine or an ideal log of wood, receiving no sensation by way of eye, ear, or anything of the sort. In point of fact, the motiva- nose, tongue or body. As soon as that something has re- tion is the anticipation of pleasurable feeling. Each side turned to the body, awareness and wakefulness are re- sees itself making all sorts of gains, scooping up benefits stored. A great many people have this naive belief that for itself. The doctrine is just camouflage, or at best a perception is “the self.” But, as the Buddha taught, per- purely secondary motive. The most deep- seated cause ception is not a self. Perception is simply sensation and of all strife is really subservience to pleasurable feel- memory, that is, knowing, and is bound to be present ing. To know feeling is, then, as long as the body contin- to know an important root ues to function normally. As cause responsible for our soon as the bodily functions falling slaves to the mental become disrupted, that thing defilements, to evil, to suf- we call perception changes fering. If this is how things or ceases to function. For are in the case of human be- this reason true Buddhists ings, the celestial beings are refuse to accept perception no better off. They are sub- as a self, though the aver- servient to pleasurable feel- age person does choose to ing just as are humans, and accept it as such, clinging to more so, though they may suppose it to be something it as “myself.” Close examination along Buddhist lines better and finer, more subject to free will than is the reveals that quite the opposite is the case. Perception human variety. But even they are not free from crav- is nobody’s self at all; it is simply a result of natural ing and attachment, from the fascination of delectable processes and nothing more. sensations received by way of eye, ear, nose, tongue, The next possible point of attachment is active think- body and mind. Still higher up at the level of the gods, ing, intending to do this or that, intending to get this or sensual delights necessarily have been discarded com- that, mental action good or bad. This is once again a pletely; but even this does not bring liberation from manifestation of the arising of strong ideas of selfhood. another kind of delight, the pleasure associated with Everyone feels that if any thing at all is to be identified deep concentration practice. When the mind is deeply as his self, then it is more likely to be this thinking ele- concentrated, it experiences pleasure, a delightful sen- ment than any other. For instance, one philosopher in sation to which it then becomes attached. Although recent centuries had a naive philosophy on the basis this has nothing to do with sensuality, it is pleasurable of which he proclaimed: “I think, therefore I am.” Even feeling nevertheless. Animals lower down the scale philosophers in this scientific age have the same ideas than human beings are bound to fall under the power about “the self” as people have had for thousands of
  10. 10. แสงธรรม 6 Saeng Dhamma years, maintaining that the thinking element is the self. way is a mechanical process which happens of its own They regard as the self that which they understand to accord, automatically. There are some who maintain be “the thinker.” We have said that the Buddha denied that this is the “soul,” the “spirit,” which moves into that either feeling or perception might be a self. He also and out of the mind and receives stimuli by way of rejected thinking, the thinking aspect of the mind as a the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, and consider it self, because the activity which manifests as thought is to be “the self.” Buddhists recognize it as just nature. a purely natural event. Thought arises as a result of the If a visual object and an eye complete with optic nerve interaction of a variety of prior events. It is just one of make contact, seeing will take place and there will arise the aggregation of assorted components that makes up visual consciousness. And there is once again no need “the individual,” and no “I” or “self” entity is involved. for any self whatsoever. When we have analyzed the Hence we maintain that this thinking component is de- “being” into its components, namely body, feeling, void of selfhood, just as are the other aggregates we perception, thinking and consciousness, we find no part have mentioned. which might be a self or belong to a self. Thus we can The difficulty in understanding this lies in our inad- completely reject the false self idea and conclude that equate knowledge of the mental element or mind. We nobody is or has a self at all. When one ceases to cling are familiar only with the body, the material element, to things, no longer liking or disliking them, this indicates and know almost nothing about the other, the mental, that one has perceived that those things are not selves. nonmaterial element. As a result, we have difficulty un- Rational thinking is sufficient to convince one that they derstanding it. Here it can only be said that the Buddha cannot be selves; but the result is only belief, not clear taught that “the individual” is a combination of the five insight of the sort that can completely cut out cling- aggregates, physical and mental. Now, when the event ing to them as selves. For this very reason we have to we call thinking takes place, we jump to the conclusion study and examine the five aggregates on the basis of that there is “someone” there who is “the thinker.” the threefold training and develop sufficient insight to We believe there is a thinker, a soul, which is master be able to give up clinging to this self idea. This practice of the body or something of the sort. But the Buddha with respect to the five aggregates serves to develop rejected such entities completely. When we analyze clear insight and eliminate ignorance. When we have “the individual” into these five components, there is completely eliminated ignorance, we shall be able to nothing left over, proving that he consists of just these see for ourselves that none of the aggregates is a self, components and that there is nothing that might be none is worth clinging to. All clinging, even the kind that “his self.” Not even thinking is a self as the average man has existed since birth, will then cease completely. It is commonly supposes. essential, then, that we study thoroughly the five ag- Now the last group, consciousness (vinnana) is sim- gregates, which are the objects of the self conceit. The ply the function of becoming fully aware of objects Buddha stressed this aspect of his teaching more than perceived by way of eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. any other. It may be summed up very briefly by saying: It is no self either. The organs simply take in the color “None of the five aggregates is a self.” This should be and shapes, sounds, odors, tastes and tactile objects considered a key point in Buddhism, whether one looks that impinge on them, and as a result consciousness of at it as philosophy, as science, or as religion. When we those objects arises in three stages. In the case of the know this truth, ignorance-based grasping and clinging eye there arises clear consciousness of the shape of the vanish, desire of any sort has no means of arising, and visual object, whether it is man or beast, long or short, suffering ceases. black or white. The arising of clear consciousness in this Why is it, then, that we normally don’t see these five
  11. 11. แสงธรรม 7 Saeng Dhamma aggregates as they really are? When we were born, we had tion, thinking and consciousness. On examining these no understanding of things. We acquired knowledge on the closely we find they all have one property in common, basis of what people taught us. The way they taught us namely emptiness. Each is empty of what we refer to led us to understand that all things are selves. The power as “its self.” Earth, water, wind and fire, looked at prop- of the primal instinctive belief in selfhood, which is present erly, are seen to be empty of selfhood. It is possible for right from birth, becomes very strong in the course of time. each one of us to see anything and everything as empty In speaking we use the words “I, you, he, she,” which only in this sense. This done, grasping and clinging will have serve to consolidate the self idea. We say: “This is Mr. X; no means of arising and any already arisen will have that is Mr. Y. He is Mr. A’s son and Mr. B’s grandson. This is no means of remaining. They will dissolve, pass away, So - and - so’s husband; that is So - and - so’s wife.” This vanish entirely, not a trace remaining. So there are no way of speaking serves simply to identify people as selves. animals, no people, no elements, no aggregates. There The result is that we are, none of us, conscious of our are no things at all; there is only emptiness, emptiness clinging to selfhood, which increases daily. When we cling of selfhood. When we don’t grasp and cling, there is to something as being a self, the result is selfishness, and no way suffering can arise. One who sees all things as our actions are biased accordingly. If we were to develop empty is quite unmoved when people call him good sufficient insight to see this idea as a deception, we would or bad, happy or miserable, or anything. This is the fruit stop clinging to the ideas of “Mr. A and Mr. B, high class of knowledge, understanding, and clear insight into the and low class, beast and human being,” and would see true nature of the five aggregates which makes it pos- that these are nothing more than terms which man has sible to give up completely those four kinds of unskill- devised for use in social intercourse. When we have come ful clinging. In summary, everything in the whole world to understand this, we can be said to have dispensed with is included within the five aggregates, namely matter, one sort of social deception. When we examine the whole feeling, perception, thinking and consciousness. Each of of what goes to make up Mr. A, we find that Mr. A is sim- these groups is a deception, each is quite devoid of ply an aggregation of body, feeling, perception, thinking selfhood, but has the seductive power to induce grasp- and consciousness. This is a rather more intelligent way of ing and clinging. As a result, the ordinary person desires looking at things. Doing this, one is not deluded by worldly to possess, desires to be, desires not to possess, desires relative truth. not to be, all of which only serves to produce suffer- It is possible to carry the process of analysis further ing, suffering which is not obvious, but concealed. It than this. For instance the physical body can be divided behooves every one to utilize the threefold training in up rather crudely into the elements of earth, water, morality, concentration and insight, and eliminate delu- wind and fire; or it can be analyzed scientifically into sion with respect to the five aggregates completely and carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and so on. The deeper we utterly. A person who has done this will not fall under look, the less we are deceived. Penetrating below the the power of the five aggregates and will be free of suf- surface, we find that in fact there is no person; there fering. For him life will be unblemished bliss. His mind are only elements, physical and mental. Looked at in will be above all things for as long as he lives. This is the this light, the “person” disappears. The idea of “Mr. fruit of clear and perfect insight into the five aggregates. A and Mr. B, high - class and low - class” dissolves. The idea of “my child, my husband, my wife” vanishes away. When we look at things in the light of absolute The End truth, we find only elements: earth, water, wind and fire; oxygen, hydrogen and so on; body, feeling, percep-
  12. 12. แสงธรรม 8 Saeng Dhamma Samadhi in Buddhism by Ven. Prayudh Payutto Lecture delivered at Wat Dhammaram, Chicago, U.S.A. on May 6, 1996 A s I have learned from different sources, people in the West have shown an in- creasing interest in Buddhism and particularly in likely be the one of the Quakers. When the Quak- ers come to a meeting, they sit quietly, calmly, and if someone experiences some thoughts, he samadhi. For this reason I feel it necessary for us will stand up and tell the people at the meet- to have a clear comprehension of the subject and ing what his thoughts were. Still, this cannot be would like to talk about samadhi in a general way compared to our practice in Buddhism because today. Let us start by taking a look at the vocabu- the two are far different. When the scholars who lary related to the subject. The Pali terms have studied Buddhist scriptures through English trans- been loosely translated as follows: lations and those of other English speaking Bud- bhavana: meditation or, more faithfully, de- dhist communities decided to use a word more velopment precise than meditation, they came up with the samadhi: concentration word concentration. When we use the English kammatthana: subjects of meditation; medi- word concentration, we have a clearer concep- tation exercises tion. In whatever we do, like when we study, our We frequently hear the word meditation be- mind has to concentrate. When we say concen- ing used for samadhi. But it does not really con- trate, we mean the mind has to focus on one vey the actual meaning. People use it out of lack point. 1f we do not concentrate, it will be difficult of understanding and habit. I have talked with to understand the subject. The meaning of the an American professor who taught Buddhism in word concentration is closer to that of the Pali America. He said that there was no practice of term samadhi. Bhavana means development in samadhi in the West in the same sense as in Bud- reference to the mind. When translated literally, dhism. The closest kind of such a practice would it has the meaning of growth, cultivation. When
  13. 13. แสงธรรม 9 Saeng Dhamma our mind does not have a wholesome quality, we when it is tranquil, smooth, and strong, when it is develop it; this is called bhavana. The develop- focused on one point. When the mind is centered ment of anything of a wholesome nature is called on one object, it stays with the object-stable, bhavana, like developing faith, loving-kindness, at ease, not distracted, not agitated; it is firmly samadhi, wisdom, understanding, and so forth. grounded. When it contemplates, it stays with the The word meditation is loosely used to stand for object and no other thoughts can arise. If we put bhavana. But it has to be understood that these it in a general term, it is when the mind is at the are simply words that we use to explain. When place where we want it to be. When put in a we talk about bhavana or development of the technical term, it is when the mind is one-point- aspects of the mind and wisdom, it is sometimes ed. That is to say when the mind is anchored also called kammatthana. There are two main on one point, it stays with the object and is not kinds of meditation: distracted or lost. When the mind can stay with 1. Tranquillity meditation (Samatha-bha- the object of its choice, it is called samadhi. If we vana) and want to really understand samadhi well, I sug- 2. Insight meditation ( Vipassana-bhavana). gest that we do not spend too much time on the Tranquillity meditation is aimed at developing in- meaning, but rather, we will place emphasis on ner peace which calms the mind in order to attain the benefits. When we look at the benefits, we samadhi. Insight .meditation cultivates wisdom will see the meaning more clearly as well. There which will enable us to see the true nature of life are three important, beneficial characteristics of a and the world, to see that all compounded things concentrated mind. We shall look at these major are impermanent-they appear, proceed, and dis- benefits as outlined in Buddhism: solve. They cannot remain static in their original 1. A concentrated mind is a mind that has form; they have to follow the metamorphic proc- power; it has a lot of energy. ess and evolve according to cause and condition. 2. A concentrated mind is lucid-like clear wa- The knowing of this truth is called insight. ter. As it is calm, it enables us to see things with clarity. This second point is conducive to wisdom. The Correct Way of Practicing Meditation 3. The third benefit follows as a result of Now, let us take a closer look at samadhi the first and second benefits. When the mind which means-when interpreted in a simple way is calm with nothing to disturb it, to confuse the state of a steadfast mind. We remember it, the mind is at ease, stable, not agitated. It well Samma Samadhi in the Noble Eightfold is in a peaceful state. Such a mind is happy. Path (Ariya-atthangika-magga). A Samma Samadhi Therefore, people with a concentrated mind means Right Concentration. The mind is steadfast are calm and so they are happy. This is also a
  14. 14. แสงธรรม 10 Saeng Dhamma desirable quality. “0 Bhikkhus, the development of Sama- These are the three main characteristics of a dhi, when well-cultivated and regularly prac- concentrated mind. We can see here the purpos- ticed, will conduce to a happy life here and es of practicing samadhi. Let us examine more now. What does this mean? 0 Bhikkhus, when closely each beneficial characteristic to deter- free from desires, free from all unwholesome mine which one has the benefits that the Buddha states, one enters the First Absorption.. ., the wants us to pursue. Second Absorption.. ., the Third Absorption.. ., 1. Mental Energy The following is an analogy and the Fourth Absorption..” by the Buddha: “Like a river springing from the mountain in a long stream, its swift current drifts away anything that it can carry along. If we close up the openings on both sides of the river, the current in the middle will not spread out, wobble, or go off its course. It will flow speed- ily and will carry along with it whatever it can sweep away . . .” This saying of the Buddha is aimed at show- ing the benefits of using mental energy to fortify the strength of wisdom. But generally people like This benefit is also sought after by many peo- to use mental energy to perform miracles only. ple especially in the present day societies where When meant for this use, mental energy can be emotional problems prevail. In a society which developed to be very strong. Some people in the has its structure based on competition, strug- West find interest in parapsychology. They per- gles for benefits cause stress to people. People’s form experiments in psychokinesis to show that minds become tense and in time suffering arises. a concentrated mind can influence the motion It is true that the more a society is materially de- of a remote object. It can also make the person veloped, the more people in that society suffer. look at one point far away and have clairvoyance, When people suffer, they want to find release or hear remote sounds and have clairaudience. and they find the way of Samadhi from Buddhism, Some people are interested in this kind of benefit Hinduism, and yoga in the East. They turn to Sa- that is derived from Samadhi. madhi as a means to happiness and tranquility, a 2. Happiness and Tranquility The Buddha solution to the troubled mind. exhorted the monks (bhikkhus): 3. Clear mind and Development of wisdom
  15. 15. แสงธรรม 11 Saeng Dhamma Here is another analogy by the Buddha: obtain in Buddhism. Now that we have reached “0 Bhikkhus, like a water reservoir that is some understanding, let us investigate the sub- clear, not muddy, a person with good eye sight ject further to see the underlying purposes of the standing on the shore will see snails, mollusks, practice. stones, and pebbles, even fish that are swim- 1. Samadhi for Mental Energy ming or lying still in the reservoir. Why is this Many people are interested in the mental so? It is because the water is not muddy. Like- energy aspect of Samadhi, in psychic power and wise for the Bhikkhus, with a mind that is not marvels. If Samadhi were good for these only, muddy, they will know what is beneficial for Buddhism would not have been born. In India, themselves, beneficial for other people, and they had a long history of experience in this; the beneficial for both parties. They will be able to practice of yoga existed before Buddhism. The realize a superior intuitive attainment beyond Buddha went to different yoga masters before a normal person’s capability. This is nanadas- his Enlightenment; he practiced Samadhi and at- sana (vision through wisdom) which can lead a tained the highest realm of jhana (absorption). person to become a noble being...” The foremost benefit of Samadhi is a clear To be Continued mind. When the mind is lucid, it sees what it wants to see with clarity. This is related to wis- dom-a mental phenomenon. Samadhi is a quality of the mind. We practice Samadhi to bring seren- ity to the mind. When the mind is serene, it is clear. When it is clear, it is conducive to wisdom. Wisdom can be put to full use and this will ena- ble us to see things with clarity. Many people can remember well what the Buddha said: “Samadhi to yathabhutam pajanati.” This means that he who has a steadfast mind will see things clearly as they are. When Samadhi is developed, insight- the ability to see the truth-will follow. Samadhi โรงเรียนวัดไทยฯ ดีซี ภาคฤดูรอน โดยคณะครู ้ is a foundation, an aid, a supporting factor, a tool อาสาฯ จากจุฬาฯ และน้องๆ นักเรียน ร่วมอนุรกษ์ ั to develop and increase wisdom. This benefit is ประเพณีไทย จัดงานแห่เทียนเข้าพรรษา ประจำาปี sometimes overlooked and precisely, this is the ๒๕๕๓ เมือวันที่ 25 กรกฎาคม 2553 ทีผานมา ่ ่่ most important goal, the benefit that we aim to
  16. 16. แสงธรรม 12 Saeng Dhamma Why Are We Here? By Ajahn Chah http://what-buddha-taught.net/Books/Ajahn_Chah_Why_are_we_here.htm T his Rains Retreat I don’t have much strength, I’m not well, so I’ve come up to this moun- tain here to get some fresh air. People come to visit it. At birth we bring old age, sickness and death along with us. So this is why the Buddha said khaya vayam, the but I can’t really receive them like I used to because decline and dissolution of all compounded things. All my voice is just about had it, my breath is just about of us sitting here in this hall now, monks, novices, lay- gone. You can count it a blessing that there is still this men and laywomen, are without exception “lumps of body sitting here for you all to see now. This is a bless- deterioration.” Right now the lump is hard, just like the ing in itself. Soon you won’t see it. The breath will be lump of ice. It starts out as water, becomes ice for a finished, the voice will be gone. They will fare in ac- while and then melts again. Can you see this decline in cordance with supporting factors, like all compounded yourself? Look at this body. It’s aging every day ... hair things. The Lord Buddha called it khaya vayam, the de- is aging, nails are aging...everything is aging! cline and dissolution of all conditioned phenomena. You weren’t like this before, were you? You were How do they decline? Consider a lump of ice. probably much smaller than this. Now you’ve grown Originally it was simply water...they freeze it and it be- up and matured. From now on you will decline, fol- comes ice. But it doesn’t take long before it’s melted. lowing the way of nature. The body declines just like Take a big lump of ice, say as big as this tape recorder the lump of ice. Soon, just like the lump of ice, it’s all here, and leave it out in the sun. You can see how it gone. All bodies are composed of the four elements of declines, much the same as the body. It will gradually earth, water, wind and fire. A body is the confluence of disintegrate. In not many hours or minutes all that’s earth, water, wind, and fire, which we proceed to call a left is a puddle of water. This is called khaya vayam, person. Originally it’s hard to say what you could call the decline and dissolution of all compounded things. it, but now we call it a “person.” We get infatuated It’s been this way for a long time now, ever since the with it, saying it’s a male, a female, giving it names, beginning of time. When we are born we bring this Mr., Mrs., and so on, so that we can identify each other inherent nature into the world with us, we can’t avoid more easily. But actually there isn’t anybody there.
  17. 17. แสงธรรม 13 Saeng Dhamma There’s earth, water, wind and fire. When they come everything with it... and yet they’re scared of it. together in this known form we call the result a “per- This shows how out of touch people are with them- son.” Now don’t get excited over it. If you really look selves. How pitiful! They’re always looking outwards, into it there isn’t anyone there. at trees, at other people, at external objects, saying That which is solid in the body, the flesh, skin, “this one is big,” “that’s small,” “that’s short,” “that’s bones and so on, are called the earth element. Those long.” They’re so busy looking at other things they aspects of the body which are liquid are the water never see themselves. To be honest, people are really element. The faculty of warmth in the body is the fire pitiful. They have no refuge. element, while the winds coursing through the body In the ordination ceremonies the ordinees must are the wind element. learn the five basic meditation themes: kesa, head At Wat Ba Pong we have a body which is neither male hair; loma, body hair; nakha, nails; danta, teeth; taco, or female. It’s the skeleton hanging in the main hall. Look- skin. Some of the students and educated people snig- ing at it you don’t get the feeling that it’s a man or a ger to themselves when they hear this part of the or- woman. People ask each other whether it’s a man or a dination ceremony...”What’s the Ajahn trying to teach woman and all they can do is look blankly at each other. us here? Teaching us about hair when we’ve had it It’s only a skeleton, all the skin and flesh are gone. for ages. He doesn’t have to teach us about this, we People are ignorant of these things. Some go to know it already. Why bother teaching us something we Wat Ba Pong, into the main hall, see the skeletons... already know?” Dim people are like this, they think and then come running right out again! They can’t bear they can see the hair already. I tell them that when to look. They’re afraid, afraid of the skeletons. I fig- I say to “see the hair” I mean to see it as it really is. ure these people have never seen themselves before. See body hair as it really is, see nails, teeth and skin as Afraid of the skeletons... they don’t reflect on the great they really are. That’s what I call “seeing” -- not seeing value of a skeleton. To get to the monastery they had in a superficial way, but seeing in accordance with the to ride in a car or walk... if they didn’t have bones how truth. We wouldn’t be so sunk up to the ears in things would they be? Would they be able to walk about like if we could see things as they really are. Hair, nails, that? But they ride their cars to Wat Ba Pong, go into teeth, skin ... what are they really like? Are they pretty? the main hall, see the skeletons and run straight back Are they clean? Do they have any real substance? Are out again! They’ve never seen such a thing before. they stable? No... there’s nothing to them. They’re not They’re born with it and yet they’ve never seen it. It’s pretty but we imagine them to be so. They’re not sub- very fortunate that they have a chance to see it now. stantial but we imagine them to be so. Even older people see the skeletons and get scared... Hair, nails, teeth, skin... people are really hooked What’s all the fuss about? This shows that they’re not on these things. The Buddha established these things at all in touch with themselves, they don’t really know as the basic themes for meditation, he taught us to themselves. Maybe they go home and still can’t sleep know these things. They are Transient, Imperfect and for three or four days... and yet they’re sleeping with a Ownerless; they are not “me” or “them.” We are born skeleton! They get dressed with it, eat food with it, do with and deluded by these things, but really they are
  18. 18. แสงธรรม 14 Saeng Dhamma foul. Suppose we didn’t bathe for a week, could we They don’t examine suffering. The heart is the impor- bear to be close to each other? We’d really smell bad. tant thing. The Buddha taught to find a refuge within When people sweat a lot, such as when a lot of peo- your own heart: Attahi attano natho -- “Make yourself ple are working hard together, the smell is awful. We a refuge unto yourself.” Who else can be your refuge? go back home and rub ourselves down with soap and The true refuge is the heart, nothing else. You may try to water and the smell abates somewhat, the fragrance depend on other things but they aren’t a sure thing. You of the soap replaces it. Rubbing soap on the body may can only really depend on other things if you already make it seem fragrant, but actually the bad smell of have a refuge within yourself. You must have your own the body is still there, temporarily suppressed. When refuge first before you can depend on anything else, be the smell of the soap is gone the smell of the body it a teacher, family, friends or relatives. comes back again. So all of you, both laypeople and homeless ones Now we tend to think these bodies are pretty, de- who have come to visit today, please consider this lightful, long lasting and strong. We tend to think that teaching. Ask yourselves, “Who am I? Why am I here?” we will never age, get sick or die. We are charmed and Ask yourselves, “Why was I born?” Some people don’t fooled by the body, and so we are ignorant of the true know. They want to be happy but the suffering never refuge within ourselves. The true place of refuge is the stops. Rich or poor, young or old, they suffer just the mind. The mind is our true refuge. This hall here may same. It’s all suffering. And why? Because they have be pretty big but it can’t be a true refuge. Pigeons no wisdom. The poor are unhappy because they don’t take shelter here, geckos take shelter here, lizards take have enough, and the rich are unhappy because they shelter here...We may think the hall belongs to us but have too much to look after. it doesn’t. We live here together with everything else. In the past, as a young novice, I gave a Dhamma This is only a temporary shelter, soon we must leave discourse. I talked about the happiness of wealth and it. People take these shelters for refuge. possessions, having servants and so on... A hundred So the Buddha said to find your refuge. That male servants, a hundred female servants, a hundred means to find your real heart. This heart is very im- elephants, a hundred cows, a hundred buffaloes...a portant. People don’t usually look at important things, hundred of everything! The laypeople really lapped it they spend most of their time looking at unimportant up. But can you imagine looking after a hundred buf- things. For example, when they do the house cleaning faloes? Or a hundred cows, a hundred male and fe- they may be bent on cleaning up the house, washing male servants...can you imagine having to look after the dishes and so on, but they fail to notice their own all of that? Would that be fun? People don’t consider hearts. Their heart may be rotten, they may be feeling this side of things. They have the desire to possess...to angry, washing the dishes with a sour expression on have the cows, the buffaloes, the servants... hundreds their face. That their own hearts are not very clean of them. But I say fifty buffaloes would be too much. they fail to see. This is what I call “taking a temporary Just twining the rope for all those brutes would be too shelter for a refuge.” They beautify house and home much already! But people don’t consider this, they but they don’t think of beautifying their own hearts. only think of the pleasure of acquiring. They don’t
  19. 19. แสงธรรม 15 Saeng Dhamma consider the trouble involved. you know it, night falls.” Just because of this “Beats If we don’t have wisdom everything round us will me!” They’re neither here nor there, content with just be a source of suffering. If we are wise these things a “beats me”... sitting among the branches of the ber- will lead us out of suffering. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, ry tree, gorging themselves with berries... “Beats me, body and mind...Eyes aren’t necessarily good things, beats me...” you know. If you are in a bad mood just seeing other When you’re still young you think that being single people can make you angry and make you lose sleep. is not so good, you feel a bit lonely. So you find a part- Or you can fall in love with others. Love is suffering, ner to live with. Put two together and there’s friction! too, if you don’t get what you want. Love and hate Living alone is too quiet, but living with others there’s are both suffering, because of desire. Wanting is suf- friction. fering, wanting not to When children are small have is suffering. Wanting the parents think, “When to acquire things... even they get bigger we’ll be if you get them it’s still better off.” They raise suffering because you’re their children, three, four, afraid you’ll lose them. or five of them, thinking There’s only suffering. that when the children How are you going to live are grown up their bur- with that? You may have den will be lighter. But a large, luxurious house, when the children grow but if your heart isn’t up they get even heavier. good it never really works out as you expected. Like two pieces of wood, one big and one small. You Therefore, you should all take a look at yourselves. throw away the small one and take the bigger one, Why were we born? Do we ever really attain anything thinking it will be lighter, but of course it’s not. When in this life? In the countryside here people start plant- children are small they don’t bother you very much, ing rice right from childhood. When they reach seven- just a ball of rice and a banana now and then. When teen or eighteen they rush off and get married, afraid they grow up they want a motorcycle or a car! Well, they won’t have enough time to make their fortunes. you love your children, you can’t refuse. So you try to They start working from an early age thinking they’ll give them what they want. Problems...Sometimes the get rich that way. They plant rice until they’re sev- parents get into arguments over it...”Don’t go and buy enty or eighty or even ninety years old. I ask them. him a car, we haven’t got enough money!” But when “From the day you were born you’ve been working. you love your children you’ve got to borrow the mon- Now it’s almost time to go, what are you going to take ey from somewhere. Maybe the parents even have to with you?” They don’t know what to say. All they can go without to get the things their children want. Then say is, “Beats me!” We have a saying in these parts, there’s education. “When they’ve finished their studies, “Don’t tarry picking berries along the way ... before we’ll be right.” There’s no end to the studying! What
  20. 20. แสงธรรม 16 Saeng Dhamma are they going to finish? Only in the science of Buddhism with you later on. is there a point of completion, all the other sciences Now I’m just letting you know about these things... just go round in circles. In the end it’s real headache. If the suffering that arises from within, that arises with- there’s a house with four or five children in it the par- in our own bodies. There’s nothing within the body ents argue every day. you can depend on. It’s not too bad when you’re still The suffering that is waiting in the future we fail to young, but as you get older things begin to break down. see, we think it will never happen. When it happens, Everything begins to fall apart. Conditions go their nat- then we know. that kind of suffering, the suffering inher- ural way. Whether we laugh or cry over them they just ent in our bodies, is hard to foresee. When I was a child go on their way. It makes no difference how we live minding the buffaloes I’d take charcoal and rub it on my or die, makes no difference to them. And there’s no teeth to make them white. I’d go back home and look in knowledge or science which can prevent this natural the mirror and see them so nice and white...I was getting course of things. You may get a dentist to look at your fooled by my own bones, that’s all. When I reached fifty teeth, but even if he can fix them they still eventually or sixty my teeth started to get loose. When the teeth go their natural way. Eventually even the dentist has start falling out it hurts so much, when you eat it feels as the same trouble. Everything falls apart in the end. if you’ve been kicked in the mouth. It really hurts. I’ve These are things which we should contemplate while been through this one already. So I just got the dentist we still have some vigor, we should practice while to take them all out. Now I’ve got false teeth. My real we’re young. If you want to make merit then hurry teeth were giving me so much trouble I just had them all up and do so, don’t just leave it up to the oldies. taken out, sixteen in one go. The dentist was reluctant Most people just wait until they get old before they to take out sixteen teeth at once, but I said to him, “Just will go to a monastery and try to practice Dhamma. take them out, I’ll take the consequences.” So he took Women and men say the same thing...”Wait till I get them all out at once. Some were still good, too, at least old first.” I don’t know why they say that, does an old five of them. Took them all out. But it was really touch person have much vigor? Let them try racing with a and go. After having them out I couldn’t eat any food for young person and see what the difference is. Why do two or three days. they leave it till they get old? Just like they’re never Before, as a young child minding the buffaloes, I going to die. When they get to fifty or sixty years old used to think that polishing the teeth was a great thing or more...”Hey, Grandma! Let’s go to the monastery!” to do. I loved my teeth, I thought they were good “You go ahead, my ears aren’t so good any more.” things. But in the end they had to go. The pain almost You see what I mean? When her ears were good what killed me. I suffered from toothache for months, years. was she listening to? “Beats me!” ... just dallying with Sometimes both my gums were swollen at once. the berries. Finally when her ears are gone she goes Some of you may get a chance to experience this to the temple. It’s hopeless. She listens to the sermon for yourselves someday. If your teeth are still good but she hasn’t got a clue what they’re saying. Peo- and you’re brushing them everyday to keep them nice ple wait till they’re all used up before they’ll think of and white...watch out! They may start playing tricks practicing the Dhamma.
  21. 21. แสงธรรม 17 Saeng Dhamma Today’s talk may be useful for those of you who young and healthy? Now with the breaths coming fit- can understand it. These are things which you should fully you go up and say, “Mother...Buddho, Buddho!” begin to observe, they are our inheritance. They will Why waste your time? You’ll only confuse her, let her gradually get heavier and heavier, a burden for each go peacefully. of us to bear. In the past my legs were strong, I could People don’t know how to solve problems within run. Now just walking around they feel heavy. Before, their own hearts, they don’t have a refuge. They get my legs carried me. Now, I have to carry them. When angry easily and have a lot of desires. Why is this? Be- I was a child I’d see old people getting up from their cause they have no refuge. seat...”Oh!” Getting up they groan, “Oh!” There’s al- When people are newly married they can get on to- ways this “Oh!” But they don’t know what it is that gether all right, but after age fifty or so they can’t under- makes them groan like that. stand each other. Whatever the wife says the husband Even when it gets to this extent people don’t see finds intolerable. Whatever the husband says the wife the bane of the body. You never know when you’re won’t listen. They turn their backs on each other. going to be parted from it. what’s causing all the pain Now I’m just talking because I’ve never had a fam- is simply conditions going about their natural way. ily before. Why haven’t I had a family? Just looking at People call it arthritis, rheumatism, gout and so on, the this word “household” [4] I knew what it was all about. doctor prescribes medicines, but it never completely What is a “household”? This is a “hold”: If somebody heals. In the end it falls apart, even the doctor! This is were to get some rope and tie us up while we were conditions faring along their natural course. This is their sitting here, what would that be like? That’s called way, their nature. “being held.” Whatever that’s like, “being held” is like Now take a look at this. If you see it in advance that. There is a circle of confinement. The man lives you’ll be better off, like seeing a poisonous snake on the within his circle of confinement, and the woman lives path ahead of you. If you see it there you can get out of within her circle of confinement. its way and not get bitten. If you don’t see it you may When I read this word “household” ... this is a keep on walking and step on it. And then it bites. heavy one. This word is no trifling matter, it’s a real If suffering arises people don’t know what to do. killer. The word “hold” is a symbol of suffering. You Where to go to treat it? They want to avoid suffering, can’t go anywhere, you’ve got to stay within your cir- they want to be free of it but they don’t know how to cle of confinement. treat it when it arises. And they live on like this until Now we come to the word “house.” This means they get old...and sick...and die... “that which hassles.” Have you ever toasted chilies? In olden times it was said that if someone was The whole house chokes and sneezes. This word mortally ill one of the next of kin should whisper “household” spells confusion, it’s not worth the trou- “Bud-dho, Bud-dho” in their ear. What are they go- ble. Because of this word I was able to ordain and not ing to do with Buddho? what good is Buddho going disrobe. “Household” is frightening. You’re stuck and to be for them when they’re almost on the funeral can’t go anywhere. Problems with the children, with pyre? Why didn’t they learn Buddho when they were money and all the rest. But where can you go? You’re
  22. 22. แสงธรรม 18 Saeng Dhamma tied down. There are sons and daughters, arguments ing in the city, take these words and consider them... in profusion until your dying day, and there’s nowhere “Why was I born? What can I take with me?” Ask your- else to go to no matter how much suffering it is. The selves over and over. If you ask yourself these ques- tears pour out and they keep pouring. The tears will tions often you’ll become wise. If you don’t reflect never be finished with his “household,” you know. If on these things you will remain ignorant. Listening to there’s no household you might be able to finish with today’s talk, you may get some understanding, if not the tears but not otherwise. now, then maybe when you get home. Perhaps this Consider this matter. If you haven’t come across it evening. When you’re listening to the talk everything yet you may later on. Some people have experienced is subdued, but maybe things are waiting for you in the it already to a certain extent. Some are already at the car. When you get in the car it may get in with you. end of their tether...”Will I stay or will I go?” At Wat When you get home it may all become clear...”Oh, Ba Pong there are about seventy or eighty huts (kuti). that’s what Luang Por meant. I couldn’t see it before.” when they’re almost full I tell the monk in charge to I think that’s enough for today. If I talk too long this old keep a few empty, just in case somebody has an ar- body gets tired. gument with their spouse...Sure enough, in no long ________________________________________ time a lady will arrive with her bags...”I’m fed up with Notes: the world, Luang Por.” “Whoa! Don’t say that. Those 4. There is a play on words in the Thai language words are really heavy.” Then the husband comes and here based on the word for family -- Krorp krua -- says he’s fed up too. After two or three days in the which literally means “kitchen-frame” or “roasting monastery their world-weariness disappears. circle.” In the English translation we have opted for They say they’re fed up but they’re just fooling them- a corresponding English word rather than attempt a selves. When they go off to a kuti and sit in the quiet by literal translation of the Thai. themselves, after a while the thoughts come...”When’s the wife going to come and ask me to go home?” They The End don’t really know what’s going on. What is this “world- weariness” of theirs? They get upset over something and come running to the monastery. At home every- thing looked wrong...the husband was wrong, the wife was wrong...after three days’ quiet thinking...”Hmmm, the wife was right after all, it was I who was wrong.” “Hubby was right, I shouldn’t have got so upset.” They change sides. This is how it is, that’s why I don’t take the world too seriously. I know its ins and outs already, that’s why I’ve chosen to live as a monk. I would like to present today’s talk to all of you for homework. Whether you’re in the fields or work- อนุโมทนาบุญกับคณะจัดดอกไม้ คุณพวงทอง-คุณตุ๊ก-คุณอู๊ด
  23. 23. แสงธรรม 19 Saeng Dhamma Saeng Dhamma ความสําคัญของ พระไตรปิฎก โดย..พระพรหมคุณาภรณ์ (ป.อ. ปยุตฺโต) พระไตรปิ ฎ ก คื อ คั ม ภี ร ์ ท ี ่ บ รรจุ ค � ำ สั ่ ง สอนของ มำตรฐำนหรือเกณฑ์ตัดสินว่ำค�ำสอนหรือวิธีปฏิบัติอย่ำงหนึ่ง พระพุ ท ธเจ้ ำ หรือพระธรรมวินัย สถิตอยู่ ค�ำว่ำ ติปิฏก ใน อย่ำงใดเป็นของพระพุทธศำสนำจริงหรือไม่ ดังนั้นจึงเป็น ภำษำบำลีแปลว่ำ “ตะกร้า ๓ ใบ [ที่บรรจุค�าสอน]” หมำย หน้ำที่และควำมรับผิดชอบของชำวพุทธทุกคนที่จะรักษำ ถึงหลักค�ำสอนหมวดใหญ่ ๓ หมวด เนื่องจำกพระพุทธเจ้ำ ปกป้องพระไตรปิฎก ซึ่งมีควำมส�ำคัญอย่ำงยิ่งยวดต่อกำรอยู่ ตรัสไว้อย่ำงชัดเจนว่ำ พระธรรมวินัยจะเป็นศำสดำแทน รอดของพระพุทธศำสนำ และดังนั้นจึงหมำยถึงต่อประโยชน์ พระองค์ภำยหลังที่พระองค์ล่วงลับไปแล้ว พระไตรปิฎก สุขของชำวโลกด้วย จึ ง เป็ น ที่ ที่ ช ำวพุ ท ธยั ง สำมำรถเข้ ำ เฝ้ ำ พระศำสดำของตน และศึกษำพระปริยัติศำสน์ แม้พระองค์จะเสด็จปรินิพพำน ไปกว่ำ ๒,๕๐๐ ปีแล้วก็ตำม กำรสังคำยนำครั้งแรก ซึ่งมี วัตถุประสงค์ในกำรรวบรวมและจัดหมวดหมู่พุทธพจน์ ได้จัด ขึ้นภำยหลังจำกพุทธปรินิพพำน ๓ เดือน เนื่องจำกเป็นกำร ด�ำเนินกำรโดยที่ประชุมพระอรหันตเถระ ๕๐๐ องค์ กำร สังคำยนำครั้งนี้จึงเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นของพระพุทธศำสนำฝ่ำย เถรวำทดังที่เรำรู้จักกันในปัจจุบัน ในระหว่ำงกำรสังคำยนำ เมื่อมีกำรลงมติยอมรับค�ำสอนส่วนใดแล้ว ที่ประชุมก็จะสวด พร้อมๆ กัน เนื้อหำที่สวดนี้จึงถือเป็นกำรรับรองว่ำให้ใช้เป็น แบบแผนที่จะต้องทรงจ�ำชนิดค�ำต่อค�ำเพื่อถ่ำยทอดแก่ผู้อื่น และสืบทอดแก่อนุชน ค�ำสอนดังที่สืบทอดกันมำด้วยปำก เปล่ำเช่นนี้ได้จำรึกเป็นลำยลักษณ์อักษรเป็นครั้งแรกในครำว �พระพุทธพจน์: แก่นแท้ของพระพุทธศาสนา สังคำยนำครั้งที่ ๔ ที่จัดขึ้นในประเทศศรีลังกำ เมื่อรำวปี พ.ศ. ๔๖๐ หลังจำกเวลำผ่ำนไป ๒,๕๐๐ ปีและภำยหลังกำร ค�ำว่ำ พระพุทธศาสนา ว่ำโดยทั่วไป มีควำมหมำยกว้ำง สังคำยนำครั้งส�ำคัญ ๖ ครั้ง พระไตรปิฎกบำลีของพระพุทธ มำกรวมตั้งแต่หลักธรรม พระสงฆ์ องค์กร สถำบัน กิจกำร ศำสนำฝ่ำยเถรวำทเป็นที่ยอมรับกันโดยทั่วไปว่ำเป็นบันทึก ไปจนถึงศำสนสถำน และศำสนวัตถุ ทุกอย่ำง แต่ถ้ำจะเจำะ ค�ำสอนของพระพุทธเจ้ำที่เก่ำแก่ที่สุด ดั้งเดิมที่สุด สมบูรณ์ ลงไปให้ถงควำมหมำยแท้ทเ่ี ป็นตัวจริง พระพุทธศำสนำก็มี ึ ที่สุด และถูกต้องแม่นย�ำที่สุด ที่ยังคงมีอยู่ในปัจจุบันใน ควำมหมำยตรงไปตรงมำตำมค�ำแปลโดยพยัญชนะของค�ำว่ำ ฐำนะที่เป็นแหล่งอ้ำงอิงขั้นสุดท้ำยสูงสุด พระไตรปิฎกใช้เป็น พระพุทธศำสนำนันเองว่ำ “ค�าสังสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า” นี้ ้ ่

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