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Advanced and         Alternative       Energy Systems            LVA302.064     Wind Energy        Saeid Samiei Yeganeh   ...
Content :*The wind energy utilization in the world.*The development of offshore wind power.*Mechanism of wind creation*Inf...
Historical backgroundThe power of the wind has beenutilized for at least 3000 years.Sails were used to drive a mill stoneF...
Why wind Energy ?With increasing significance of environmentalproblems, clean energy generation becomes essentialin every ...
Pros of Wind Energy It  is clean source of energy it is an efficient renewable energy Wind is a never-ending resource ...
Cons of Wind Energy  turbines can get damaged it does not eliminate electricity problems  completely Noise the product...
Global wind energy production capacityThe number of installed wind power plants is increasingevery year and many nations h...
Development of offshore wind power in Europeby the end of 2010, 2,946 MW of offshorewind capacity in 45 wind farms spreada...
How Wind is Created ?In the day, the air over land heats quickerthan the air over water. The warm air overthe land expands...
WindCreated by differencesin air pressures.Flows from areas ofhigh pressure to areasof low pressure.Near equator and pole ...
Parts of a wind turbine Anemometer Blades Brake Controller Gear  box Generator Shaft Nacelle Pitch Rotor Tower...
How Big is a 2.0 MW Wind Turbine?Throughout the past 20 years, average windturbine ratings have grown almost linearly.with...
Different Substructures for offshore wind farmsA major difference betweenonshore and offshore wind farmsis the relative co...
 Monopiles Substructure designA monopile foundation consists of asingle steel pile which is embedded intothe sea bed.Typi...
 Space frame structuresFor deeper locations, space framestructures are likely to be considered Tripods:   The tripod is ...
planetary boundary layer (PBL)It is the lowest part of the atmosphere and itsbehavior is directly influenced by its contac...
 Abovethe PBL, the wind speed is much more uniform and stronger due to a marked decrease in friction Abovethe PBL the wi...
An ideal location for a wind turbine wouldhave a near constant flow of non-turbulentwind throughout the year and would not...
 wind energy
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wind energy

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wind energy

  1. 1. Advanced and Alternative Energy Systems LVA302.064 Wind Energy Saeid Samiei Yeganeh 1029575 Student of Vienna University of Technology Study of literature for the Department of Mechanical Engineering,Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics
  2. 2. Content :*The wind energy utilization in the world.*The development of offshore wind power.*Mechanism of wind creation*Influence of planetary boundary layer.*Overview about global wind energy markets*The various turbines technology*Substructures for offshore wind frams
  3. 3. Historical backgroundThe power of the wind has beenutilized for at least 3000 years.Sails were used to drive a mill stoneFor the grinding of grain.It is known that the Persians usedvertical axis wind turbines during700BC.The earliest windmills had verticalaxis.In Europe, windmill performance iscontinuously improved between the12th and 19th centuries.
  4. 4. Why wind Energy ?With increasing significance of environmentalproblems, clean energy generation becomes essentialin every aspect of energy consumption.It is well known that wind energy is one of the cleanestand most environmentally friendly energy sources, andunlike fossil fuels, the wind will never be depleted.All forms of energy production have an environmentalimpact, but the impacts of wind energy are low, local,and manageable.
  5. 5. Pros of Wind Energy It is clean source of energy it is an efficient renewable energy Wind is a never-ending resource cheapest forms of energy Economic Benefits
  6. 6. Cons of Wind Energy turbines can get damaged it does not eliminate electricity problems completely Noise the production of electricity depending upon the speed of the wind Bird and Mortality Location
  7. 7. Global wind energy production capacityThe number of installed wind power plants is increasingevery year and many nations have made plans to makelarge investments wind power in the near future . Overthe last decade, interest in wind power has increaseddramatically in many countries such asDenmark, Spain, Germany, United States, and India
  8. 8. Development of offshore wind power in Europeby the end of 2010, 2,946 MW of offshorewind capacity in 45 wind farms spreadacross nine countries were feeding an estimated10.6 TWh of electricity into the European grid.In 2001 the 50.5 MW of installed offshorecapacity represented 1% of total new European annual wind capacity, the 883 MW installedin 2010 represented 9.5% of the annual Europeanwind energy market
  9. 9. How Wind is Created ?In the day, the air over land heats quickerthan the air over water. The warm air overthe land expands and rises, and the coolerair, which is heavier, takes its place, creatingwind. In the night, the wind’s direction isreversed because the air cools quicker overland than over water.
  10. 10. WindCreated by differencesin air pressures.Flows from areas ofhigh pressure to areasof low pressure.Near equator and pole surfaces winds are weak.Near surface winds occur by pressure gradientsand these gradients cause to temperaturegradients, which lead to strong winds
  11. 11. Parts of a wind turbine Anemometer Blades Brake Controller Gear box Generator Shaft Nacelle Pitch Rotor Tower Yaw drive
  12. 12. How Big is a 2.0 MW Wind Turbine?Throughout the past 20 years, average windturbine ratings have grown almost linearly.with each new generation of wind turbines,the size has grown along the linear curveand has achieved reductions in life-cyclecost of energy
  13. 13. Different Substructures for offshore wind farmsA major difference betweenonshore and offshore wind farmsis the relative complexity and costof civil works, especially thesubstructures required foroffshore turbines.The size and water-depthconstraints ofmanufacturing, transporting andinstalling wind turbines are vitalfactors in determining the currenttechno-economic limitations ofoffshore wind farms.
  14. 14.  Monopiles Substructure designA monopile foundation consists of asingle steel pile which is embedded intothe sea bed.Typically, the turbine tower is mountedonto the foundation via a transitionpiece which itself is fixed on to the pileusing a specialized grouted joint. Gravity-based structuresThey are designed to avoid tensile oruplift forces between the bottom of thesupport structure and the seabed.Gravity structures are usuallycompetitive when the environmentalloads are relatively modest.
  15. 15.  Space frame structuresFor deeper locations, space framestructures are likely to be considered Tripods: The tripod is a standard three-legged structure made of cylindrical steel tubes. Tri-piles: Tri-piles consist of three foundation piles connected via a transition piece to the turbine tower with the transition piece located above the water level. Jackets: they consist of a larger plan area through the majority of the structure
  16. 16. planetary boundary layer (PBL)It is the lowest part of the atmosphere and itsbehavior is directly influenced by its contact with aplanetary surface. In this layer physical quantities isstrong.The PBL is covered by a layer of warmer air, creatingwhat is known as a temperature inversion .
  17. 17.  Abovethe PBL, the wind speed is much more uniform and stronger due to a marked decrease in friction Abovethe PBL the wind is approximately geostrophic (parallel to the isobars)
  18. 18. An ideal location for a wind turbine wouldhave a near constant flow of non-turbulentwind throughout the year and would notsuffer too many sudden powerful bursts ofwind. An important turbine siting factor isaccess to local demand or transmissioncapacity.

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