M03 history


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M03 history

  1. 1. Computer History
  2. 2. 2history.ppt 21-Jan-03Charles BabbageEnglish inventor1791-1871taught math atCambridge Universityinvented a viablemechanical computerequivalent to moderndigital computers
  3. 3. 3history.ppt 21-Jan-03Babbage’s first computerdifference enginebuilt in early 1800’sspecial purpose calculatornaval navigation charts
  4. 4. 4history.ppt 21-Jan-03Babbage’s second computerAnalytical enginegeneral-purposeused binary systempunched cards as inputbranch on result ofprevious instructionAda Lovelace (firstprogrammer)machined parts notaccurate enoughnever quite completedanalytical engine, 1834
  5. 5. 5history.ppt 21-Jan-03invention of the light bulb, 1878Sir Joseph Wilson SwanEnglish physicist and electricianfirst public exhibit of a light bulb in 1878Thomas EdisonAmerican inventor, working independently of Swanpublic exhibit of a light bulb in 1879had a conducting filament mounted in a glass bulb fromwhich the air was evacuated leaving a vacuumpassing electricity through the filament caused it to heat up,become incandescent and radiate lightthe vacuum prevented the filament from oxidizing andburning up
  6. 6. 6history.ppt 21-Jan-03Edison’s legacyEdison continued to experiment with light bulbsin 1883, he detected electrons flowing throughthe vacuum of a light bulbfrom the lighted filamentto a metal plate mounted inside the bulbthis became known as the Edison Effecthe did not develop this any further
  7. 7. 7history.ppt 21-Jan-03invention of the diode (late 1800’s)John Ambrose Flemingan English physiciststudied Edison effectto detect radio waves and to convert them to electricitydeveloped a two-element vacuum tubeknown as a diodeelectrons flow within the tubefrom the negatively charged cathodeto the positively charged anodetoday, a diode is used in circuits as a rectifier
  8. 8. 8history.ppt 21-Jan-03the switching vacuum tube, 1906Lee de Forest introduced a thirdelectrode into the vacuum tubeAmerican inventorthe new vacuum tube was called atriodenew electrode was called a gridthis tube could be used as both anamplifier and a switchmany of the early radio transmitters were built by de Forestusing triodestriodes revolutionized the field of broadcastingtheir ability to act as switches would later be important indigital computing
  9. 9. 9history.ppt 21-Jan-03on/off switches in digital computersearliest:electromechanical relayssolenoid with mechanical contact pointsphysical switch closes when electricity animates magnet1940’s:vacuum tubesno physical contacts to break or get dirtybecame available in early 1900’smainly used in radios at first1950’s to presenttransistorsinvented at Bell Labs in 1948John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William ShockleyNobel prize, 1956
  10. 10. 10history.ppt 21-Jan-03electromechanical relay
  11. 11. 11history.ppt 21-Jan-03photo of an electromechanical relay
  12. 12. 12history.ppt 21-Jan-03transistor evolutionlater packaged in small IC’seventually came VLSIVery Large Scale Integrationmillions of transistors per chipfirst transistor made from materialsincluding a paper clip and a razorblade
  13. 13. 13history.ppt 21-Jan-03the integrated circuit (IC)invented separately by 2 people ~1958Jack Kilby at Texas InstrumentsRobert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor (1958-59)1974Intel introduces the 8080 processorone of the first “single-chip” microprocessors
  14. 14. 14history.ppt 21-Jan-03IC’s are fabricated many at a time
  15. 15. 15history.ppt 21-Jan-03functional view of transistor contents
  16. 16. 16history.ppt 21-Jan-03a TTL chip
  17. 17. 17history.ppt 21-Jan-03Moore’s lawdeals with steady rate of miniaturizion of technologynamed for Intel co-founder Gordon Moorenot really a lawmore a “rule of thumb”a practical way to think about somethingobservation that chip density about doubles every 18monthsalso, prices declinefirst described in 1965experts predict this trend might continue until ~2020limited when size reaches molecular level
  18. 18. 18history.ppt 21-Jan-03transistors - building blocks of computersmicroprocessors contain many transistors(ENIAC): 19,500 vacuum tubes and relaysIntel 8088 processor (1st PC): 29,000 transistorsIntel Pentium II processor: 7 million transistorsIntel Pentium III processor: 28 million transistorsIntel Pentium 4 processor: 42 million transistorslogically, each transistor acts as an on-off switchtransistors combined to implement logic gatesAND, OR, NOTgates combined to build higher-level structuresadder, multiplexor, decoder, register, …
  19. 19. 19history.ppt 21-Jan-03Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), 1940’san early computerdeveloped at UPennSize: 30’ x 50’ room18,000 vacuum tubes1500 relaysweighed 30 tonsdesignersJohn MauchlyJ. Presper Eckert
  20. 20. 20history.ppt 21-Jan-03Intel 8088 microprocessor (single chip)used in first IBM personal computerIBM PC released in 19814.77 MHz clock16 bit integers, with an 8-bit data bustransfers took two steps (a byte at a time)1 Mb of physical memory address limitation8-bit device-controlling chips29,000 transistors3-micron technologyspeed was 0.33 MIPSlater version had 8 MHz clockspeed was 0.75 MIPS.electrical paths nowas small as .13 micronPentium 4 chip has42 million transistors
  21. 21. 21history.ppt 21-Jan-03Moore’s Law exampleDECPDP-11,mid 1970’sDECLSI-11,Early 1980’sThese 2 computers were functionally equivalent.
  22. 22. 22history.ppt 21-Jan-03the end