Content Introduction about ODC Start Point of OD Importance in Hospitality Industry Resistance to change Sources Of resistance to change Tactics for overcoming resistance to change Theory (Model) Lawins 3 step change model Kotter 8 step change model Outcome
Change Change is a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. It is an organizational process aimed at helping employees to accept and embrace changes in their current business environment. In project management, change management refers to a project management process where changes to a project are formally introduced and approved.
CONTD… Kotter defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Change managements goal is to minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions. First order change Change (making moderate adjustments) Second order change (reinvent, reengineer, rewrite)
Organizational Development Organization development is a system- wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organizations effectiveness. OD Values ◦ Respect for people ◦ Trust and support ◦ Power equalization ◦ Confrontation ◦ Participation
Start Point Poor alignment to organization’s strategy Low productivity Organization Intergroup conflict Interpersonal conflicts
Importance Higher employee turnover. Keep up to date. Product innovation. Growth. Work process. Address problem. New income stream. Quality service. Higher efficiency.
Resistance to Change Resistance to change appears to be a natural and positive reaction to change. Forms of Resistance to Change: -Overt and Immediate • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions -Implicit and Deferred • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism • Deferred resistance clouds the link between source and reaction 17-9
Tactics for Overcoming Resistance toChange Education and Communication ◦ Show those effected the logic behind the change Participation ◦ Participation in the decision process lessens resistance Building Support and Commitment ◦ Counseling, therapy, or new-skills training Implementing Change Fairly ◦ Be consistent and procedurally fair Manipulation and Cooptation ◦ “Spinning” the message to gain cooperation Selecting people who accept change ◦ Hire people who enjoy change in the first place Coercion ◦ Direct threats and force 17-11
Models and TheoryLewin’s Three-Step Change Model Unfreeze Move Refreeze Unfreezing Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity by increasing the driving force and decreasing the restraining force Moving Moving from the status quo to the desired end state Refreezing Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces 17-12
Kotters Eight Step Change Model 1. Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant. 2. Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels. 3. Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency. 4. Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs. De-clutter communications – make technology work for you rather than against.
Contd..5. Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements.6. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.7. Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.8. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, and new change leaders. Weave change into culture.
Effective management of ODC inpractice result in InstitutionalTransformation. Leveraged innovation and technological development. Enhanced organization and technological development. Felt pride among all stakeholder. Motivated worker. Efficiency of worker is enhanced.