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Chapter 9 from "Understanding Art, 9e"

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  1. 1. Chapter 9 Sculpture 0
  2. 2. <ul><li>A sculptor is a person obsessed with the form and shape of things, and it’s not just the shape of one thing, but the shape of anything and everything: the hard, tense strength, although delicate form of a bone; the strong, solid fleshiness of a beech tree trunk. –Henry Moore </li></ul>0
  3. 3. Henry Moore [British, 1898–1986], Reclining Figure: Angles , 1979.
  4. 4. Sculpture <ul><li>Sculpture - The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms </li></ul><ul><li>Relief sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Bas-Relief or low relief </li></ul><ul><li>High Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Freestanding sculpture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture <ul><li>Subtractive Process - Carving, unwanted materials are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Additive Process - Modeling, Casting, Construction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mass : a solid, three-dimensional form that has weight and takes up real space Voids : the empty spaces between the masses of sculpture
  7. 7. Carving <ul><li>Carving - removing portions of a block of materials to create a form. </li></ul><ul><li>Can use stone, wood, ivory, chocolate… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 9.1, p.181: MICHELANGELO. The Cross-Legged Captive (c. 1530–1534). Marble. H: 7 ’ 6 1⁄2 ” .
  9. 9. Modeling <ul><li>Modeling - using a pliable materials such as clay or wax the artist shapes the material into a 3D form. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done by hand or tools. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Casting <ul><li>Casting - liquid metal material is poured into a mold to create a form. </li></ul><ul><li>Mold - the form into which the material is poured and with imparts the shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Any material that hardens can be used for casting. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest and most common is Bronze. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 9.2, p.181 : LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Portrait of Robert (1969). Cast bronze with white patina. 13 ” x 12 1⁄2 ” x 10 ” .
  12. 12. The Lost-Wax Technique <ul><li>Lost-Wax Technique </li></ul><ul><li>The artist creates a form and them from this form a mold is created by covering the shape usually in plaster or resin. </li></ul><ul><li>The inside of the mold is is then filled or covered with wax. </li></ul><ul><li>The wax is removed and covered in a sandy mixture of silica, clay and plaster to create a investiture . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investiture - is a fire resistant mold into which the liquid metal will be poured. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wax is heated and pour out of the now sold investiture and replaced with the liquid metal. </li></ul><ul><li>The finished metal sculpture is removed from the investiture, and burnished. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnished - treated chemically to take on a texture and color. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Figure 9.4, p.182 : EDGAR DEGAS. The Little Dancer, 14 Years Old (1880–1881). Bronze. H: 39 ” .
  14. 15. Figure 9.5, p.183 : SHERRIE LEVINE. Fountains after Duchamp (1991). Bronze. Installation view at Sherrie Levine Exhibition in the Zürich Kunsthalle (2.11.1991–3.1.1992), Zürich, Switzerland.
  15. 16. Figure 9.6, p.183 : GEORGE SEGAL. Three Figures and Four Benches (1979). Painted bronze. 52 ” x 144 ” x 58 ” . Casting of Human Models
  16. 17. Robert Gober, American, born 1964 Untitled (Long Leg), 1990–93 Wood, leather, cotton, wax, and hair 67 (L) x 33 x 18 cm
  17. 18. Types of Materials <ul><li>Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul>
  18. 19. Stone <ul><li>Stone is extremely hard </li></ul><ul><li>It is also very durable </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monuments and statues </li></ul><ul><li>Stone tools include the chisel, mallet, and rasp . </li></ul><ul><li>Artists also use contemporary power tools </li></ul>
  19. 20. Figure 9.7, p.184 : LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Eyes (1982). Marble. 74 3⁄4 ” x 54 ” x 45 3⁄4 ” .
  20. 21. Wood <ul><li>Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished molded and bent. </li></ul><ul><li>Different woods have a different hardnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood appeals to sculptures because of its grain, color, and workability. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is easier to carved than stone. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength - The inherent strength of a material. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Figure 9.8, p.185 : Poro Secret Society mask ( Kagle ). Liberian, Dan people. Wood. H: 9 ’ .
  22. 23. Figure 9.9, p.186 : PO SHUN LEONG. Figure (1993). Mahogany with hidden drawers. H: 50 ” .
  23. 24. Clay <ul><li>Clay is more pliable than stone or wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay is not very strong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nor is permanent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Armature - an inner skeleton normally made of metal used to help give clay additional strength. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Robert Arneson. Brick Bang. 1976. Clay, glaze. 38 x 48 x 15 cm.
  25. 26. Metal <ul><li>Metals can be cast, extruded , forged , stamped , drilled, filed, and burnished. </li></ul><ul><li>Cast bronze sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-metal sculptures - Assembling sculpture by welding, riveting, and soldering. </li></ul><ul><li>Patinas - the colors created on bronze due to oxidation. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Figure 9.10, p.187 : RICHARD SERRA. Installation view, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.
  27. 28. Richard Serra 1-1-1-1. 1968 Lead antimony
  28. 29. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods <ul><li>Throughout history sculptures have searched for new forms expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblage </li></ul><ul><li>Readymades </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Light sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Land art </li></ul>
  29. 30. Constructed sculpture <ul><li>The artist “builds” the sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Materials could include, sheet metal, cardboard, celluloid, or wire </li></ul><ul><li>Some artworks are lighter than those from stone or wood </li></ul><ul><li>Unorthodox materials can also be used </li></ul>
  30. 31. Constructed sculpture Fig. 9-11, p. 188 PABLO PICASSO. Mandolin and Clarinet (1913). Wood construction and paint.
  31. 32. Figure 9.12, p.188 : CLAES OLDENBURG. Soft Toilet (1966). Vinyl filled with kapok painted with Liquitex, and wood. 57 1⁄16 ” x 27 5⁄8 ” x 28 1⁄16 ” .
  32. 33. Assemblage <ul><li>A form of constructed sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artworks </li></ul><ul><li>Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head </li></ul>
  33. 34. Figure 9.15, p.190 : PABLO PICASSO. Bull’s Head (1943). Bronze cast of parts of a bicycle. H: 16 1⁄8 ” .
  34. 35. Readymades Marcel Duchamp In Advance of a Broken Arm
  35. 36. Mixed Media <ul><li>Mixed Media - Use materials and ready-made or found objects that are not normally elements of a work of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists, such as Rauschenberg (see Ch. 20), may attach other materials to their canvasses. </li></ul><ul><li>What might be some the materials you could use in a Mixed Media sculpture? </li></ul>
  36. 37. Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram (1955-1959) Freestanding Combine
  37. 38. Figure 9.16, p.191 : SIMON RODIA. Simon Rodia Towers in Watts (1921–1954). Cement with various objects. H: 98 ’ .
  38. 39. Kinetic Sculpture <ul><li>Kinetic sculpture - Sculptures that move, art + action. Example: the mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of movement might include: </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields </li></ul><ul><li>Jets of water </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motors </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of light </li></ul><ul><li>Human manipulations </li></ul>
  39. 40. Fig. 9-17, p.191 GEORGE RICKEY. Cluster of Four Cubes (1992). Stainless steel.
  40. 41. Light Sculpture <ul><li>Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture (and art!) </li></ul><ul><li>However, “light sculpture” is a 20th-century artform </li></ul><ul><li>What are the physical psychological and physical effects of color and the creation of illusion? </li></ul>
  41. 42. Dan Flavin installation in Marfa, TX
  42. 43. Other Materials <ul><li>Sculpture today uses not only traditional materials, but also materials that have never been used before. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: beeswax and microcrystalline wax, chocolate, Styrofoam, etc… </li></ul>
  43. 44. Marc Quinn Self 1991 blood stainless steel perspex refrigeration
  44. 45. Figure 9.20, p.193 : JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992). Chocolate (600 lb before biting), gnawed by the artist. 24 ” x 24 ” x 24 ” (61 cm x 61 cm x 61 cm).
  45. 46. Chapman Brothers Tragic Anatomies
  46. 47. Figure 9.21, p.193 : SYLVIE FLEURY. Dog Toy 3 (Crazy Bird) (2000). Styrofoam, paint. 260 cm x 210 cm x 180 cm.