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Overview of Thermal Power Plant


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Overview of Thermal Power Plant

  1. 1. Punj Lloyd<br />Thermal Power Plant<br />By,<br />Sadhana...<br />Engineer<br />
  2. 2. Punj Lloyd<br />Power Generation in 2008-09 & Requirement in 2010<br />At present, India’s total installed power capacity stands at 1,47,402.81MW. Of this, the contribution of each sources are <br /> Thermal - 93,392MW<br /> Hydro - 36,647.76MW <br /> Nuclear sources - 4,120 MW<br /> Renewable energy - 13,242.41 MW.<br />India’s power generation capacity 68% below target in 2009.<br />There is a huge demand for power in FY10.It is expected to grow by 4.6% with a capacity of 7,730 MW are likely in FY10.<br />
  3. 3. Punj Lloyd<br />Types of Power Plants<br />Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy<br />Thermal Station: The turbine is rotated by steam which is produced by the heat generated by burning fuel in a Boiler.<br />Hydel Power Plant: The mechanical energy is produced by inducing high pressure water through a nozzle onto the turbine.<br />Nuclear Power Plant: Nuclear power is power (generally electrical) produced from controlled (i.e., non- explosive) nuclear Reactions i.e. fission or Fusion.<br />
  4. 4. The coal is brought and crushed to powder. This is feed to Boiler for producing heat<br />In Boiler the water is converted to steam.<br />In Super heater the moisture content is removed from the steam and that steam is called super heated steam<br />The superheated steam rotates the shaft of the High pressure turbine<br />The Exhausted steam is sent to preheater and the steam then rotates the Intermediate pressure(IP) Turbine<br />The steam from the IP turbine is then feed to low pressure turbine.<br />The turbine shaft is connected to the Generator, which produces Electric Power.<br />The power generated is then Transmitted.<br />Operation Mechanism<br />Punj Lloyd<br />
  5. 5. Thermal Power Plant<br />Power plant order is placed on EPC contract, which is divided into 2 parts<br /> EPC<br />Punj Lloyd<br />BOP<br />Balance of plant 40% of total contract value<br />BTG<br />60% of total contract value<br />CBOP<br />Civil contributes <br />25%<br />Boiler, Turbine & Generator<br />EBOP<br />Electrical contrbutes<br />15%<br /> MBOP<br /> Mechanical <br /> Contributes <br />60%<br /><ul><li>BOP includes supply , erection and commissioning of complete plant excluding Boiler, Turbine & Generator.</li></li></ul><li>Boiler, Turbine & Generator includes supply, erection & commissioning of<br />Boiler<br />Turbine<br />Generator<br />BTG constitutes Approximately 60%of total contract value<br />Balance of Plant is given as a separate contract which include supply, erection & commissioning of<br />Coal Handling Plant<br />Water Handling Plant( water treatment)<br />Ash Handling Plant<br />Switch Yard<br />Switch Gear<br />This constitutes Approximately 40% of total contract value<br />BTG & BOP<br />Punj Lloyd<br />
  6. 6. Boiler<br />Boiler<br />Punj Lloyd<br />The boiler is fed with HFO and LDO initially to ignite the coal in the Boiler. <br />Types of boilers:<br />Water tube Boiler: A boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire.<br />Fire tube Boiler: Water is present in the drum inside the boiler and Hot air is circulated around to maintain the temperature.<br /> Fuel <br />HFO,LDO & Coal<br />Air<br /> Fuel <br />HFO,LDO & Coal<br />Air<br />Dryer<br />Air compressor<br /><ul><li>The fuel and air are feed from 2 directions to increase the efficiency </li></ul>FD Fan<br />Atmospheric Air<br />
  7. 7. Turbine<br />Punj Lloyd<br />In a Thermal Power Plant generally 3 turbines are used to increase the efficiency.<br />High Pressure Turbine(HPT): The superheated steam is directly fed to this turbine to rotate it. <br />Intermediate Pressure Turbine(IPT): The out put from the HPT is reheated in a reheater(RH) and used to rotate IPT .<br />Low Pressure Turbine(LPT): The Exhausted steam from the IPT is directly fed to rotate the shaft of LPT.<br />*All the turbines are connected to a single shaft which is connected to the Generator.<br />Super Heater<br />Steam<br />Shaft<br />Generator<br />HPT<br />IPT<br />LPT<br />RH<br />Steam<br />Condenser<br />
  8. 8. Generator<br />Punj Lloyd<br />The Synchronous Generator is used to Generate power by connecting the shaft of the Turbine to the shaft of the generator which cuts the magnetic flux producing Emf.<br />The Generated Voltage will generally 11KV to 20 KV max.<br />The Generated Voltage is stepped up by connecting Step up transformer and is transmitted and is also used for Auxiliary purposes.<br /> UAT<br />20Kv to 6.KV<br />Bus Duct<br />SYNCHRONOUS<br />GENERATOR<br /> Generator Transformer<br />20KV to 400KV <br />Unit Auxiliary Transformer: This transformer is used to step down the produced voltage and use for Auxiliary purpose.<br />
  9. 9. Coal Handling Plant<br />Raw Coal Wagon- Coal is brought to the site through a Wagon as per requirement.<br />Punj Lloyd<br />Wagontippler-The coal is unloaded from the Wagon and is transported to crushers and for storage place through conveyor.<br />Rejected- The stones and unwanted coal is rejected<br />Junction tower- JT’s are used where the conveyor has any angular deviation. <br />Primary Crusher-The Raw coal is crushed into fine pieces to 45mm grit). Primary crusher is also calledRotary Breaker since the coal is crushed by a rotating plate.<br />Secondary Crusher-The fine pieces of coal is crushed to powder (to 25mm grit)<br />
  10. 10. Junction Tower <br />Stacker & Reclaimer- It is used to store the powdered coal for emergency purpose <br />Atmospheric air (Through FD fan)<br />Punj Lloyd<br />Mill Bunker-The 25mm grit coal is crushed into very fine powder for feeding the boiler. We will have a spare Bunker for each Boiler. <br />Two way conveyor<br />BOILER<br />
  11. 11. Water Handling Plant(WHP)<br />Raw Water<br />Punj Lloyd<br />Purified DM water<br />Condenser<br />Water in a Power Plant is used for<br />Production of Steam- for rotating turbine.<br />Cooling Purpose- For cooling of various equipment .<br />Water is recycled and used for various purpose:<br />For cooling purpose<br />Steam<br />3% of water is wasted during this process. Appx 4 cubic mt water is lost /day/MW<br />
  12. 12. Reservoir<br />Steam to Water<br />Cool water from CWP <br />25D 35D<br />25D 20D<br />Punj Lloyd<br />Water Cycle<br />Water Clarification<br />Chlorification <br />&<br />Filtration<br />DM Plant<br />(Demineralized Plant) <br />Auxiliary cooling<br /> Water (ACW)<br />DMCW Demineralized cooling Water<br />Hot Well<br /> Various Equipment <br />Cooling Water<br />Boiler<br />Various Equipment<br />Dearator<br />Cooling Tower<br />CT<br />Steam<br />Condenser<br />PHE<br />DMCWP<br />water<br />Hot water<br />CT<br />CWP<br />CWP<br />CWP<br />Cool water<br />D-Degrees<br />CWP-cooling water Pump<br />PHE-Pre heat Exchange<br />
  13. 13. The Ash from the boiler is collected in two forms:<br />Bottom Ash(Slurry):It’s a waste which is dumped into a Ash Pond<br />Fly ash: Fly ash is separated from Flue Gases in ESP(Electro static Precipitator).<br />Ash Handling Plant<br />Punj Lloyd<br />Flue Gases<br />Economizer : Reduces the temperature <br />Chimney<br />Fly Ash & Flue Gases<br />Economizer<br />ESP<br /> Boiler<br />Flue Gases<br />Bottom ash(wet ash)<br />Fly ash<br />Ash Pond<br />Cylo<br />Cement Factory<br />
  14. 14. DCS-Distributed Control System<br />DCS- It merges all communication capabilities of IED’s across a network to perform protection,control,metering and Automation scheme.<br />Substation Automation-The systems used to monitor & control power systems It typically include Station <br />SW, HMI, Bay Control / Automation .<br />Protection units, Protection devices,<br />Telecommunication systems and interfaces,<br />Data gateways, plus comprehensive<br />engineering, Project management,<br />maintenance and training.<br />