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Effects of an early intervention programme on early literacy in Pakistan

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Shallwani, S., & Jatoi, H. (April, 2012). Effects of an early intervention programme on early literacy in Pakistan. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, San Juan.

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Effects of an early intervention programme on early literacy in Pakistan

  1. 1. The effects of an earlyintervention programme on earlyliteracy skills in PakistanSadaf Shallwani & Haroona Jatoi – April 27, 2012Shallwani, S., & Jatoi, H. (April, 2012). The effects of an earlyintervention programme on early literacy skills in Pakistan. Paperpresented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative andInternational Education Society, San Juan.Contact: Sadaf Shallwani http://sadafshallwani.net
  2. 2. Early literacy in Pakistan National data (ASER Pakistan, 2011) Sindhi/Urdu: 59% of C3 students unable to read C1-level sentences (62% in govt) English: 55% of C3 students unable to read words (61% in govt) Sindh data (ASER Pakistan, 2011) Sindhi/Urdu literacy: 32% of C1 students cannot read anything, 44% can only read letters English: 66% of C1 students cannot read anything, 29% can only read letters Even when they start being able to read words, few understand the word’s meaning
  3. 3. RCC Programme in Pakistan Releasing Confidence and Creativity Early intervention programme 2003-2011 project of the Aga Khan Foundation – Pakistan, with multiple local partners Funded by USAID and Dutch government Aimed to improve access to quality early child development (ECD) programming in Pakistan Access to and quality of teaching/learning in pre-primary, Class 1, and Class 2 Support families and communities Build capacity and commitment of key stakeholders Influence policy and practice, strengthen learning networks
  4. 4. RCC Programme in Pakistan Expand access to and improve the quality of teaching/learning in pre-primary, Class 1, and Class 2 Raise awareness and commitment – communities and stakeholders Allocate a classroom for pre-primary if necessary Hire teachers for pre-primary Train pre-primary and early primary teachers Provide materials for the classroom Provide ongoing support and monitoring to teachers
  5. 5. Research on RCC Effects in Sindh Research objectives: Examine the impact of the RCC programme on early literacy outcomes in Sindh Explore potential mediating factors Sample: Sample of programme schools (RCC) was randomly selected Comparison schools (non-RCC) were randomly selected from the same districts as the programme schools Part of a larger 3-year study across the 4 provinces in which RCC operated
  6. 6. Data collected School information Classroom environment and processes – assessed using a locally developed Classroom Observation Tool Children’s early literacy at the end of Class 1 and Class 2 – assessed using a locally developed Learning Achievement Tool Sindhi/Urdu English Correlation between bothClass 1 Cronbach’s alpha .752 .907 .640**Class 2 Cronbach’s alpha .899 .879 .712**School-level correlations .823** .784**between Class 1 and Class 2
  7. 7. Class 1: Child-level findings 3.50 3.13 3.00 2.78 2.50 2.20 2.00 1.88 Non-RCC 1.50 RCC 1.00 0.50 0.00 Sindhi/Urdu Average English Average66 Non-RCC children, 192 RCC childrent-tests, all p < .001
  8. 8. Class 1: School-level findings3.50 3.103.00 2.692.50 2.41 2.242.00 Non-RCC1.50 RCC1.000.500.00 Sindhi/Urdu Average English Average 6 Non-RCC schools, 15 RCC schools t-tests, not significant
  9. 9. Class 1: School-level findings 4.00 3.49 3.50 3.15 3.15 3.00 2.68 2.41 Non-RCC 2.50 2.24 RCC Classroom 2.00 RCC Classroom + 1.50 Teacher 1.00 0.50 0.00 Sindhi/Urdu Average English Average6 Non-RCC schools, 6 with RCC in Classroom, 7 with RCC in classroom + teacher trainingANOVAs: Sindhi/Urdu n.s., English p < .05
  10. 10. Class 1: School-level findings Class 1 Classroom Observation Score0.70 0.70 0.68 0.590.60 0.60 0.500.50 0.500.40 0.400.30 0.30 0.22 0.220.20 0.200.10 0.100.00 0.00 Non-RCC RCC RCC Non-RCC RCC Classroom Classroom + Teacher t-test, p < .001 ANOVA, p < .001
  11. 11. School-level findings Classroom quality and average Sindhi/Urdu literacy score Spearman’s rho = .484, p < .05
  12. 12. School-level findings Classroom quality and average English literacy score: Spearman’s rho = .626, p < .01
  13. 13. School-level findingsSpearman’s rho analyses rho > .3 and < .6 moderate correlation rho > .6 large correlation* significant at .05** significant at .01
  14. 14. School-level findingsM: Spearman’s rho > .3 and < .6L: Spearman’s rho > .6* significant at .05** significant at .01
  15. 15. Discussion Classroom quality factors that seem to be associated with literacy outcomes: Occurrence of learning activities (numeracy, fine motor) Availability and accessibility of learning materials Availability of specific kinds of materials (especially fine motor) Teacher’s instructional style Opportunities for peer learning Effective classroom management
  16. 16. Discussion Limitations: Sample size Correlational analysis – cannot conclude causation, but it seems reasonable to infer that that children’s learning outcomes are affected by their experiences in the classroom Potentially confounding factors RCC seems to have improved children’s literacy outcomes Mediating factors likely include classroom environments and processes Difficult to tease out effects of pre-primary classroom, Class 1 classroom, school factors, and other variables Data indicate that differences between RCC and non-RCC children’s literacy levels are sustained through Class 2
  17. 17. Class 2: Child-level findings 2.00 1.80 1.75 1.60 1.38 1.40 1.20 1.14 1.00 Non-RCC 0.80 RCC 0.68 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 Sindhi/Urdu Average English Average 74 Non-RCC children, 141 RCC children t-tests, all p < .001
  18. 18. Class 2: School-level findings 1.80 1.67 1.60 1.38 1.37 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 Non-RCC 0.80 RCC 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 Sindhi/Urdu Average English Average 8 Non-RCC schools, 13 RCC schools t-tests, not significant
  19. 19. AcknowledgementsEducation officials, teachers, students, and parents inPakistanAga Khan FoundationReleasing Confidence and Creativity Programme – fundedby the Royal Netherlands Embassy

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