Stratified Random Sampling with proportional allocation
Women are more open to change and community in general has learnt the lesson
Lack of good governance and poor socio-economic indicators such as unemployment, Inflation, lack of education, justice and poverty
Religion: affiliation with the Islam was exploited by TalibansPolitical:Justice: Taliban's promised the provision of justice in the region according to the teachings of Islam.Social and Economic: eradication of poverty through employment and provision of education was promised by the militants.
Children and Youth: Their schools were bombed by the militants, psychological distress, fear of losing life
Perception Survey on Reconciliation in Malakand Division
Perception Survey on Reconciliationin Malakand Division
Objectives To serve as the baseline of the To establish a credible data current status against whichthat will help stakeholders to different benchmarks will be formulate informed drawn programmes To draw information that will assist the stakeholders, including UN and government, in developing possible peace & conflict scenarios for appropriate and timely response.
LocaleThe survey was conducted in 6 districts ofMalakand Division
Methodology • Review of existing literature1 • Consultation with Stakeholders2 •Combination of quantitative and qualitative tools/methods was used to explore the perceptions3 about reconciliation in the region)
Reasons of conflictWomen MenLack of awareness about Islam Socio-economic adversities Failure of state organsInclination towards Shariah Lack of women’s rights and Religion taboos economic opportunities Social exclusion ofLack of female representation poor, women etc in Jirgah system Foreign involvement Taliban exploitation War of profit among the Misuse of media stakeholders
Impacts of ConflictWomen MenDisrupted social fabric Psycho-social disorder Mistrust Destruction of state infrastructure Damage to the Rebellion infrastructure Loss of human lives Loss of livestock
Reconciliation Women MenAwareness (about Islam and human rights), In this conflict the perpetrator cannot not beeducation (for all), Justice (for all), Better and identified hence we cannot punish theimproved laws, child protection centres, perpetrator therefore the victim has to bemore education institutions and vocational compensated with fairness. The resourcescenters for women.” should be evenly distributed.Even distribution of resources Reconciliation is to identify and punish those who have been backing Talibans but since they were rich they have not been punished.Poverty alleviation and Provision of Women It is a process of bringing economic equalityrights in the society and building trust based on forgiveness and understanding. (participatory approach, compensation, health, education, housing)Establishment of home industry and Resolve a dispute, issue, conflict through aneconomic opportunities for women agreed upon and judicious give and take processBridging gaps between madrassas andschools
Perception about Conflict• Conflict did not exist among the local population rather external factors were the major cause of conflict.• Weak socio-Economic factor of the Malakand Division was exploited by External forces.
Reasons of the Conflict Extremisms US and Afghan & War FundamentalismExternal factors Resources Interest of the stakeholders Destabilization of Pakistan
Discrepancies exploitedThe sectors which were exploited by Militants(Taliban). Religion Justice Socio-economic factors
Religion“Our people have strong religious sentiments which were manipulated and exploited” The main reason for the conflict was lack of awareness and knowledge about religion. The militants have very less knowledge of the religion (Islam) and they imposed and introduced their views as religious teachings)
JusticeProvision of Justice; Affordable, quick andaccording to Islamic laws were promised “They would announce that those women who are not married and wants to get married to the man of their choice should consult Militants for arranging their marriage (in case the family of the woman was not willing). Moreover those who couldn’t find a suitor were married to one of the Militants from the group”
Socio- EconomicYouth had no opportunities for employment etc. despite being educated. Youth faced unemployment hence the militants provided them with jobs (join force of Militants) and money Militants would give money to poor and young for killing and kidnapping people for ransom. list of people to be killed was announced by the Militants on FM radio. They were found dead on the roads the following day.
Impact of ConflictThe most impacted segment of the societyincludes 1. Children and Youth 2. Women 3. Poor
Impacts1. Damage to the infrastructure • Education • Health • Water and Power Supply Line2. Security3. Sources of Income4. Migration5. Psychological issues
Security After the Conflict Feel secure in presence of Army Feel secure in presence of police 98% 99% 98%100% 93% 92%90% 78%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Buneer Lower Dir Malakand Shangla Swat Upper Dir
Source of Income Agricultural/ LIvestock Govt. Servant Pvt.Servent Business Labour Skill Labour Remittances Dont know70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0%-10% Buneer Lower Dir Malakand Shangla Swat Upper Dir
Trend of Migration During the Conflict100%90% 80%80% 69% 70%70%60%50%40%30% 20% 20%20% 11%10% 0% Buneer Lower Dir Malakand Shangla Swat Upper Dir
Impact on Psychological Condition Psychological effect on Women Psychological effect on Children100% 90% 90% 90% 80% 70% 70% 60% 60% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% % Buneer Lower Dir Shangla Swat Upper Dir
Perception about reconciliationReconciliation is not possible in the region because it happens between the twoparties. While in this case one party is missing, as conflictwas due to the external factor Reconciliation seems to be very difficult because we are unaware that who the reconciliation party is? and on what grounds reconciliation should be done. Who should be trusted?”
Interesting Finding Key informants mentioned that people who tried to reconcile inthe beginning were either killed or threatened. People are scared of the Militants return and they seldom want to talk about reconciliation with them rather they prefer that the governmentprovides them security at all levels such as physical, legal, social and economic
Indicators Improvement in Social life Social Behavior Provision of Justice Peace SustainabilityAwareness about Economic Religion opportunities Awareness about Education HR
80.0 District wise preference of peace indicators70.060.050.040.030.020.010.0 0.0 Buner Lower Dir Malakand Shangla Swat Upper Dir Improvement in Social Life Provision of Justice Provision of economic opportunities Education Awareness about religion Social Behavior (tolerance and cooperation)