Introduction to Tourette Syndrome


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Presentation on Tourette Syndrome to my class

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Introduction to Tourette Syndrome

  1. 1. Ronan O’Brien
  2. 2. Overview History Types of Tourettes Syndrome Characteristics Genetics Management & treatment The Future
  3. 3.  Complex syndrome  Movement disorder  Neurological condition  Neuro-psychatric condition  Characterised by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal  Males affected 3 times more than females  Broad spectrum of mild to severe involuntary and chronic tics  Tics usually start in childhood  No cure
  4. 4. Previously considered by some to be demonic possession Identified as medical condition in 1885 Named after Dr. Gilles de La Tourette
  5. 5. Coprolalia  Socially inappropriate words and phrases Copropraxia  Obscene gestures Echolalia  Repeating words of others Palilalia  Repeating own words
  6. 6. Video Interview with someone with Tourette syndrome..
  7. 7. Repeated movements/sounds Premonitory urge/compulsion Involve entire body or single muscle Typically get better and worse over time Often arise from heighted sensitivity to cues from within the body or outside world Unwanted sensory urges that besiege the individuals conscious awareness
  8. 8. Simple Isolated Involve one muscle group Single or repetitive Eye blinking Sniffing Shoulder shrugging
  9. 9. Complex Coordinated Several muscle groups Sequential Twirling Phrases Hitting or biting
  10. 10.  “A feeling of pressure – a need that’s very hard to describe, like something itches deep inside you – but no one place you can describe; and the only way you can relieve this need is by tics. It’s like your brain itches, or your insides are being tickled..”  “The first one seems irresistible, calling for an almost inevitable response.. the end of the tic is the “feel” that is frequently accompanied by a fleeting and incomplete sense of relief.”
  11. 11. Abnormal metabolising of brain neurotransmitters Imaging techniques indicate failure in circuits connecting the brain's cortex and subcortex
  12. 12. Prevalence not well established but research suggests about 1/100 in population Several genes thought responsible Abnormalities in SLITRK1 implicated 50% chance of passing on genes to children Not everyone who has TS has the genetic form
  13. 13. Early treatment  Tics can provoke ridicule and rejection Psychotherapy  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation surgery Tranquilisers  Counteract dopamine over-activity by blocking dopamine receptors  Botulinum toxin (BTX) - injected into the muscles Antidepressants  Enhance serotonin's neurotransmission activities
  14. 14. Allergies / sensitivies  Food, chemical and environmental allergens  Allergens may trigger a release of serotonin which causes decreased blood flow in the basal ganglia Nicotine and cannabis to inhibit the release of dopamine. Magnesium deficiency Feldenkrais method / osteopathy / massage Meditation / relaxation techniques
  15. 15. The Future Tourettes has come out of the dark ages Increase in multi-displinary research  Neuroimmunology  Neurophysiology  Epidemiology Neuropathology  Post-mortem brains from TS patients New technologies / medication  Neuro-imaging techniques
  16. 16. The End Thank you 