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  1. 1. Proteins
  2. 2. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Building blocks of proteins are called Amino Acids. </li></ul><ul><li>All proteins contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structure <ul><li>Amino Acids contain the -NH2 group which is called the amino group </li></ul><ul><li>And the COOH group or the Carboxyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids are defined by the side group or R- group. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Amino Acids <ul><li>There are about 20-22 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>8 of which are called Essential Amino Acids </li></ul>
  5. 5. Proteins <ul><li>The bond that holds amino acids together is called a peptide bond. </li></ul><ul><li>When two more amino acids are put together they become a polypeptide. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Proteins <ul><li>The order in which amino acids are placed in the chain determines the structure of the protein. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the protein determines the function of the protein. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that catalyze ( i.e. speed up) chemical reactions. Enzymes are catalysts. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes work on things called Substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Each enzyme is specific for its substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all processes in a cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lock and Key Model <ul><li>The method in which enzymes work is called the lock and key model </li></ul>
  9. 9. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are not used up by the reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>After they have done their work they release the products and are not changed </li></ul><ul><li>Each enzyme can work on many molecules of the substrate </li></ul>