Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Introduction To Ecology


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

Introduction To Ecology

  1. 1. Introduction to Ecology
  2. 2. What is Ecology <ul><li>The study of how organisms interact with their environment </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms must interact with both living and nonliving things that surround them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Levels of Organization <ul><li>To add to our list of the levels of organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organisms  Population  Community  Ecosystem  Biosphere </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The environment <ul><li>Made up of all the living and nonliving things that surround an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Environment vs Habitat <ul><li>Many species can survive in more than one environment. </li></ul><ul><li>But each species has its “home” or habitat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish may be able to live in fish tanks, but would rather live in the wild </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Concept of Ecology <ul><li>The fundamental idea behind the study of ecology is that all organisms are interdependent. </li></ul><ul><li>They interact with one another and the physical environment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What do organisms need to survive? <ul><li>Basic requirements for survival include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Competition <ul><li>An important aspect of the struggle for survival involves competition for limited resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Limiting factors are factors that affect the population size of a species in a specific environment. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be abiotic or biotic. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predator – Prey relationship <ul><li>Predators are a biotic limiting factor. </li></ul><ul><li>They control population size by feeding on prey. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a delicate balance that needs to be maintained. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>When all the limiting factors are considered together we can determine the maximum number of organisms that can survive in an area. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do we determine the Carrying Capacity of a Species? <ul><li>All limiting factors must be taken into consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very difficult to determine the actual carrying capacity. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Lesson of the Kaibab Deer <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to graph data on the Kaibab deer population of Arizona from 1905~1939 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to analyze the methods responsible for the changes in the deer population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to propose a management plan for the Kaibab deer population </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Kaibab Forest: North Rim of the Grand Canyon
  15. 15. Key Idea <ul><li>All organisms have the ability to produce populations of unlimited size </li></ul><ul><li>But their environment keeps their numbers in check. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Review of Types of Nutrition <ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul>Which is heterotrophic and which Autotrophic?
  17. 17. Categories of Populations <ul><li>Populations are labeled by the function they serve in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. So what is a Food Chain? <ul><li>A food chain shows a one way flow of energy in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>It may not be the only way energy flows in the ecosystem </li></ul>
  19. 19. Food Webs <ul><li>When all of the food chains of an ecosystem are considered we can draw up a food web </li></ul><ul><li>It shows all of the possible paths that energy can take in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>It also shows how organisms are dependant on each other in the ecosystem </li></ul>
  20. 22. Recycling <ul><li>Who is ultimately responsible for the recycling of nutrients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What gets recycled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Recycling <ul><li>What else gets recycled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The energy from the Sun keeps the cycle going </li></ul>
  22. 24. Carbon Cycle
  23. 25. Water Cycle
  24. 26. Nitrogen Cycle
  25. 27. Energy Pyramid
  26. 28. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>There is more energy available at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>There are more organisms at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>There is less energy at the top </li></ul><ul><li>There are less organisms at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is lost as you go up the pyramid, mostly as heat </li></ul>
  27. 29. Energy Pyramid!!!