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Introduction To Ecology

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Introduction To Ecology

  1. 1. Introduction to Ecology
  2. 2. What is Ecology <ul><li>The study of how organisms interact with their environment </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms must interact with both living and nonliving things that surround them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Levels of Organization <ul><li>To add to our list of the levels of organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organisms  Population  Community  Ecosystem  Biosphere </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The environment <ul><li>Made up of all the living and nonliving things that surround an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Environment vs Habitat <ul><li>Many species can survive in more than one environment. </li></ul><ul><li>But each species has its “home” or habitat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish may be able to live in fish tanks, but would rather live in the wild </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Concept of Ecology <ul><li>The fundamental idea behind the study of ecology is that all organisms are interdependent. </li></ul><ul><li>They interact with one another and the physical environment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What do organisms need to survive? <ul><li>Basic requirements for survival include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Competition <ul><li>An important aspect of the struggle for survival involves competition for limited resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Limiting factors are factors that affect the population size of a species in a specific environment. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be abiotic or biotic. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predator – Prey relationship <ul><li>Predators are a biotic limiting factor. </li></ul><ul><li>They control population size by feeding on prey. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a delicate balance that needs to be maintained. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>When all the limiting factors are considered together we can determine the maximum number of organisms that can survive in an area. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do we determine the Carrying Capacity of a Species? <ul><li>All limiting factors must be taken into consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very difficult to determine the actual carrying capacity. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Lesson of the Kaibab Deer <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to graph data on the Kaibab deer population of Arizona from 1905~1939 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to analyze the methods responsible for the changes in the deer population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to propose a management plan for the Kaibab deer population </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Kaibab Forest: North Rim of the Grand Canyon
  15. 15. Key Idea <ul><li>All organisms have the ability to produce populations of unlimited size </li></ul><ul><li>But their environment keeps their numbers in check. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Review of Types of Nutrition <ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul>Which is heterotrophic and which Autotrophic?
  17. 17. Categories of Populations <ul><li>Populations are labeled by the function they serve in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. So what is a Food Chain? <ul><li>A food chain shows a one way flow of energy in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>It may not be the only way energy flows in the ecosystem </li></ul>
  19. 19. Food Webs <ul><li>When all of the food chains of an ecosystem are considered we can draw up a food web </li></ul><ul><li>It shows all of the possible paths that energy can take in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>It also shows how organisms are dependant on each other in the ecosystem </li></ul>
  20. 22. Recycling <ul><li>Who is ultimately responsible for the recycling of nutrients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What gets recycled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Recycling <ul><li>What else gets recycled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The energy from the Sun keeps the cycle going </li></ul>
  22. 24. Carbon Cycle
  23. 25. Water Cycle
  24. 26. Nitrogen Cycle
  25. 27. Energy Pyramid
  26. 28. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>There is more energy available at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>There are more organisms at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>There is less energy at the top </li></ul><ul><li>There are less organisms at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is lost as you go up the pyramid, mostly as heat </li></ul>
  27. 29. Energy Pyramid!!!

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