The Level Measurement


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The Level Measurement

  2. 2. Most commonly used level measurement methods 1. FLOAT type 2. RF Capacitance 3. RF Impedance 4. Conductance (Conductivity) 5. Hydrostatic head 6. Radar 7. Ultrasonic
  3. 3. Float type Level Measurement
  4. 4. Float type Level Measurement Switching occurs when a permanent magnet sealed inside a float rises or falls to the actuation level. With a mechanically actuated float, switching occurs as a result of the movement of a float against a miniature (micro) switch. For both magnetic and mechanical float level sensors, chemical compatibility, temperature, specific gravity (density), buoyancy, and viscosity affect the selection of the stem and the float.
  5. 5. RF Capacitance type Level Measurement 1. RF (radio frequency) technology uses the electrical characteristics of a capacitor, in several different configurations, for level measurement. Commonly referred to as RF capacitance or simply RF, the method is suited for detecting the level of liquids, slurries, or interfaces contained in a vessel. 2. Designs are available for measuring process level at a specific point, at multiple points, or continuously over the entire vessel height. Radio frequencies for all types range from 30 kHz to 1 MHz.
  6. 6. RF Capacitance Theory 1. An electrical capacitance exists between two conductors separated by a distance, d. The first conductor can be the vessel wall (plate 1), and the second can be a measurement probe or electrode (plate 2). The two conductors have an effective area, A, normal to each other. 2. Between the conductors is an insulating medium—the nonconducting material involved in the level measurement.
  7. 7. RF Capacitance type Level Measurement 3. The capacitance for the basic capacitor arrangement can be computed from the equation: C = E (K A/d) where: C = capacitance in picofarads (pF) E = a constant known as the absolute permittivity of free space K = relative dielectric constant of the insulating material A = effective area of the conductors d = distance between the conductors 4. The amount of capacitance here is determined not only by the spacing and area of the conductors, but also by the electrical characteristic (relative dielectric constant, K) of the insulating material.
  8. 8. RF Capacitance type Level Measurement
  9. 9. RF Capacitance type Level Measurement Dielectric Constants of Sample Substances Substance Isopropyl alcohol Kerosene Kynar Mineral oil Pure water Sand Sugar Teflon Value 18.3 1.8 8.0 2.1 80 4.0 3.0 2.0
  10. 10. RF Impedance or RF Admittance Level Measurement When another electrical characteristic, impedance, enters the picture, the result is further refinements in RF level measurement. Offering improved reliability and a wider range of uses, these variations of the basic RF system are called RF admittance or RF impedance. In RF or AC circuits, impedance, Z, is defined as the total opposition to current flow. Z = R + 1/ j 2 π f C R = resistance in ohms f = measurement frequency (radio frequency for RF measurement) C = capacitance in microfarads.
  11. 11. RF Impedance or RF Admittance Level Measurement An RF impedance level-sensing instrument measures this total impedance rather than just the capacitance. Some level-measuring systems are referred to as RF admittance types. Admittance, A, is defined as a measure of how readily RF or AC current will flow in a circuit and is therefore the reciprocal of impedance (A = 1/Z). Thus, there is no basic difference between the RF impedance and RF admittance as a level-measurement technology.=
  12. 12. RF Impedance or RF Admittance Level Measurement In some cases, the process material tends to build up a coating on the level-sensing probe. In such cases, which are not uncommon in level applications, a significant measurement error can occur because the instrument measures extra capacitance and resistance from the coating buildup. As a result, the sensor reports a higher, and incorrect, level instead of the actual tank level.
  13. 13. RF Impedance or RF Admittance Level Measurement
  14. 14. Conductance Level Measurement The conductance method of liquid level measurement is based on the electrical conductance of the measured material, which is usually a liquid that can conduct a current with a low-voltage source (normally <20 V). Hence the method is also referred to as a conductivity system. Conductance is a relatively low-cost, simple method to detect and control level in a vessel. One common way to set up an electrical circuit is to use a dual-tip probe that eliminates the need for grounding a metal tank. Such probes are generally used for point level detection, and the detected point can be the interface between a conductive and nonconductive liquid.
  15. 15. Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement One of the oldest and most common methods of measuring liquid level is to measure the pressure exerted by a column (or head) of liquid in the vessel. The basic relationships are: H = mP/d where, in consistent units: P = pressure m = constant H = head d = density
  16. 16. Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement
  17. 17. Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement The density of a liquid varies with temperature. For the highest precision in level measurement, the density must therefore be compensated for or expressed with relation to the actual temperature of the measured liquid. For decades, DP-type instruments—long before the DP cell—were used to measure liquid. With open vessels a pipe at or near the bottom of the vessel connects only to the high-pressure side of the meter body and the low-pressure side is open to the atmosphere. If the vessel is pressurized or under vacuum, the low side of the meter has a pipe connection near the top of the vessel, so that the instrument responds only to changes in the head of liquid.
  18. 18. Radar or Microwave Level Measurement Basically, all types operate on the principle of beaming microwaves downward from a sensor located on top of the vessel. The sensor receives back a portion of the energy that is reflected off the surface of the measured medium. Travel time for the signal (called the time of flight) is used to determine level. For continuous level measurement, there are two main types of noninvasive systems, as well as one invasive type that uses a cable or rod as a wave guide and extends down into the tank’s contents to near its bottom.
  19. 19. Radar Level Measurement Through Air Radar Guided Wave Radar Ultrasonic
  20. 20. Radar Level Measurement 100%100% 0%0% The instrument is spanned according to the distance the 100% and 0% points within the vessel are from its reference point. The measured distance can then be converted and viewed on the head of the instrument or remote display
  21. 21. Radar Level Measurement - Through Air Radar Radar is a time of flight measurement. Microwave energy is transmitted by the radar. The microwave energy is reflected off the product surface The radar sensor receives the microwave energy. The time from transmitting to receiving the microwave energy is measured. The time is converted to a distance measurement and then eventually a level.
  22. 22. Radar Level Measurement - Through Air Radar Radar wavelength = Speed of light / frequency λ = c / f 47.5mm47.5mm Frequency 6.3 GHz wavelength λ = 47.5 mm Frequency 26 GHz wavelength λ = 11.5 mm 11.5mm11.5mm High frequency: shorter wavelength narrower beam angle more focused signal ability to measure smaller vessels with more flexible mounting Low frequency: longer wavelength wider beam angle less focused signal ability to measure in vessels with difficult application variables
  23. 23. Radar Level Measurement - Through Air Radar Choosing a frequency depends on:  Mounting options  Vessel dimensions – proximity of connection to sidewall  The presence of foam  Agitated product surfaces  composition  Vessel internal structures  Dielectric constant (dK)
  24. 24. Radar Level Measurement - Through Air Radar Low Frequency – 6.3 GHz – C-band Better Performance with:  Heavy Agitation  Severe Build-up  Foam  Steam  Dust  Mist  Dish bottom vessels High Frequency – 26 GHz – K-band  Small Process Connections  Very little “near zone”  Recessed in nozzles  Less susceptible to false echoes  Reduced antenna size  Perfect for small vessels • Able to measure lower dK products without using a stilling well.
  25. 25. Ultrasonic level measurement Time of Flight  Top mounted  Solids and liquids applications  Non-contact ULTRASONIC is unaffected by following process conditions:  Change in product density (spg)  Change in dielectric constant (dk)
  26. 26. Ultrasonic level measurement  Time of Flight Technology  Short ultrasonic impulses emitted from transducer  Bursts are created from electrical energy applied to piezeo electric crystal inside the transducer  The transducercreates sound waves (mechanical energy)  With longermeasuring ranges a lowerfrequency and higher amplitude are needed to produce sound waves that can travel farther
  27. 27. Ultrasonic level measurement  Can be mounted in plastic stilling wells  Narrow beam angles minimize effect of obstructions Swivel flange available for applications with angles of repose  Familiar technology throughout the industry, therefore, often a trusted technology throughout the industry  Cost-effective
  28. 28. Guided Wave Radar level measurement • Time of Flight • Top mounted • Solids and liquids applications • Contact Measurement GUIDED WAVE RADAR is unaffected by:  Temperature  Pressure and Vacuum  Conductivity  Specific Gravity  Vapor, Steam, or Dust Air Movement  Foam
  29. 29. Guided Wave Radar level measurement Principle of Operation A microwave pulse (2 GHz) is guided along a cable or rod in a 20” diameter or inside a coaxial system. The pulse is then reflected from the solid or liquid, back to the head of the unit. The travel time of the pulse is measured and then converted to distance.
  30. 30. Guided Wave Radar level measurement Installation into the vessel Installation in bridles without worry of build- up or interference from side leg connections Ideal for replacement of displacers
  31. 31. Guided Wave Radar level measurement Interface Measurement • Oil/Water • Solvent/Water
  32. 32. THANKS A LOT