DEFINITION Women Entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a group of women who initiate, organize and operate a business enterprise.Government of India has defined women entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned and controlled by a women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of employment generated in the enterprise to women.
QUALITIES OF A WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR• Ability to learn quickly from her abilities, her persuasiveness- quick learner.• Open style of problem solving.• Willingness to take risks and chances.• Ability to motivate people.• Knowing how to win and lose gracefully.
FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN ENTRERENEUR• Economic Independence• Establishing Identity• Motivation• Family Support• Availability Of Funds• Greater Freedom And Mobility• Developing Risk Taking Ability• Building Confidence
WHY DO WOMEN TAKE-UP EMPLOYMENT?• Push Factors – Death of bread winner – Sudden fall in family income – Permanent inadequacy in income of the family• Pull Factors – Women’s desire to evaluate their talent – To utilize their free time or education – Need and perception of Women’s Liberation, Equity etc. – To gain recognition, importance and social status. – To get economic independence
CATEGORIES OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS • Women in organized & unorganized sector • Women in traditional & modern industries • Women in urban & rural areas • Women in large scale and small scale industries. • Single women and joint venture.
CATEGORIES OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN PRACTICE IN INDIA• First Category – Established in big cities – Having higher level technical & professional qualifications – Non traditional Items – Sound financial positions• Second Category – Established in cities and towns – Having sufficient education – Both traditional and non traditional items – Undertaking women services-kindergarten, creches, beauty parlors, health clinic etc.
CATEGORIES OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN PRACTICE IN INDIA (CONTD.)• Third Category – Illiterate women – Financially week – Involved in family business such as Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Dairy, Fisheries, Agro Forestry, Handloom, Pottery etc.
SUPPORTIVE MEASURES FOR WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP • Direct & indirect financial support • Yojana schemes and programme • Technological training and awards • Federations and associations
DIRECT & INDIRECT FINANCIAL SUPPORT • Nationalized banks • State finance corporation • State industrial development corporation • District industries centers • Differential rate schemes • Mahila Udyug Needhi scheme • Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) • State Small Industrial Development Corporations (SSIDCs)
TECHNOLOGICAL TRAINING AND AWARDS• Stree Shakti Package by SBI• Various training programmes by Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India• Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD)• National Institute of Small Business Extension Training (NSIBET)• Women’s University of Mumbai
FEDERATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS• National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs (NAYE)• India Council of Women Entrepreneurs, New Delhi• Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)• Association of Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWEK)• World Association of Women Entrepreneurs (WAWE)• Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW)
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA States No of Units No. of Women Percentage Registered EntrepreneursTamil Nadu 9618 2930 30.36Uttar Pradesh 7980 3180 39.84Kerala 5487 2135 38.91Punjab 4791 1618 33.77Maharastra 4339 1394 32.12Gujrat 3872 1538 39.72Karnatka 3822 1026 26.84Madhya Pradesh 2967 842 28.38Other States & UTS 14576 4185 28.71Total 57,452 18,848 32.82
WOMEN WORK PARTICIPATION Country PercentageIndia (1970-1971) 14.2India (1980-1981) 19.7India (1990-1991) 22.3India (2000-2011) 31.6USA 45UK 43Indonesia 40Sri Lanka 35Brazil 35
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA• Earlier there were 3 Ks – Kitchen – Kids – Knitting• Then came 3 Ps – Powder – Pappad – Pickles• At present there are 3 Es – Electronics – Energy – Engineering – Economy
SOME EXAMPLES• Mahila Grih Udyog • 7 ladies started in 1959: Lizzat Pappad• Lakme • Simon Tata• Herbal Heritage • Ms. Shahnaz Hussain• Balaji films • Ekta Kapoor
Naina Lal Kidwai, Investment Banker Fortune magazine listed her as one of the world’s most powerful business women in 2003. India Inc recognises her as one of its most powerful investment bankers. But Naina Lal Kidwai, HSBC’s deputy CEO, can’t be reduced to simple woman-banker equations; her professional vision transcends gender
• Shahnaz Husain, Herbal Beauty Queen• She’s the "Estee Lauder of India", with even famous department stores like Galleries Lafayette in Paris, Harrods and Selfridges in London and Bloomingdales in New York stocking her cosmetics, creams and lotions.
Lalita Gupte, Banker She has created a formidable global presence of what was once a native development finance institution. Account-holders can now bank at ICICI branches in UK, the Far East, West Asia and Canada. With ICICI since 1971, Gupte was the first woman to be inducted on the board in 1984.
• Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi, chairman and executive officer of PepsiCo, was according to Forbes magazines 2006 poll, the fourth most powerful woman in the world. She was also named the #1 Most Powerful Woman in Business in 2006 by Fortune magazine. She got her bachelors degree from Madras Christian College in 1974, entered the Business Diploma programme at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, and later moved to the US to attend the Yale School of Management. Nooyi serves on the board of directors of several organizations, including Motorola, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the International Rescue Committee, and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.
PROBLEMS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS• Dual role to play at workplace & at home place• Subordinate to men: Male dominated society• Just that her being women : De motivated• Non-awareness of facilities provided by government• Competition with large scale units• Problems related to marketing
PROBLEMS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS• Financial Problems• Credit Facilities• Problem of Middlemen• Lack of Access to technology• Lack of self-confidence• Lack of training• Credit Facilities
SUGGESTIONS FOR GROWTH OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR• Change in Attitude• Training• Increase in mobility• Initiate them to Professionalism• Provision of various amenities• Inculcating marketing skills• Self recognition and growth