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CORPORATE
RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE)
PROCUREMENT:
WHY & HOW?
Perspectives and experiences from WRI and corporate leaders about renewable energy procurement in India
ASHOK THANIKONDA, DEEPAK KRISHNAN Bangalore
Contents
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
1. Drivers: Why buy Renewable Energy?
2. Targets: How much to buy?
3. Business model: Which business model to choose? What are the costs involved in each model?
4. Tendering: How to prepare tenders and receive bids?
5. Due diligence: How to mitigate the transaction risks?
6. Negotiations: How to get the maximum value for your money?
7. Contract signing: How to close the deal?
8. Communications: How to communicate with your stakeholders about your leadership in sustainability?
Part B: Experience of corporate leaders
1. Cognizant’s experience with wind energy procurement
2. Coca Cola’s rooftop solar power procurement
Part C: Annexure – List of permits/ clearances needed for RE projects
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments
Diesel
power
₹ 14
₹ 30
Grid
power
₹ 5.85
₹ 8.5
Solar
power
₹ 6.5
₹ 7.5
Wind
power
₹ 5.5
₹ 6.5
Cost per kWh of electricity from
various sources in India, 2015
4.3 %
2.5 %
3.5 %
4.5 %
6.09 %
4.46 %
6.56 %
4.76 %
HT
Commercial
HT
Industrial
LT
Commercial
LT
Industrial
% average annual increase in
electricity tariffs (FY11-15)
TANGEDCO BESCOM
• Fossil fuel-based electricity prices are rising
sharply and continuously
• Power deficit is a critical business risk
• RE is already cheaper or competitive with
grid power and supplements/ augments it
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs) mandate businesses that
procure power from third parties to procure a share of such energy
from renewable energy sources
• 21 Indian states have notified RPOs
• Obligated buyers can procure Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
in the absence of RE to fulfil their RPO compliance.
• Enforcement of penalties for RPO non-compliance is slowly becoming
the norm
5%
0.25%
Karnataka
(> 5MVa)
Tamil Nadu
(> 1 MVa)
Renewable Purchase Obligations
(2015-16)
Non-solar RPO Solar RPO
Specifics
under
deliberation
Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Consumers increasingly prefer products/ services of companies that adhere to the principles of sustainability
and operate accordingly
• Reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by shifting to renewable energy is proven to be an effective
way of reducing impacts on the environment. Forums like the India GHG Program help businesses plan such
strategies.
• Corporates are increasingly aware of this and consider it as one of the elements of their CSR strategy. They
also include this as part of their brand positioning by communicating to their consumers about their leadership
in sustainability
Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• RPOs usually help buyers by serving as the first benchmark for RE purchase ambition
• In the absence of RPOs, internal sustainability targets based on realistic assessments can define the
quantum of purchase
• Depending on the location and the tariff design, buyers usually stand to benefit to minimise their grid
power consumption during a certain time block. This, in addition to the need to optimise diesel and grid
power, can also impact the quantum of renewable energy procurement
• Typically the base load on non-working days acts as reference to decide on the quantum of renewable
energy purchase
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
Commercial
buyers
Industrial
buyers
Surplus
capital
No surplus
capital
Capital
investment
Power
Purchase
Agreement
(Savings right
away)
Capital
investment
Power
Purchase
Agreement
(Initial hedging
& savings
later)
1) Capital investment (Captive plant/ Capex business model)
• Buyer invests the equity and/ or raises the debt. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and
Design) seller installs the plant as per buyer’s requirements.
• Buyer is eligible for the Accelerated Depreciation (AD) Tax benefit (100% of the plant
value written off as cost in first 2 years)
• Buyer needs to pay the Grid usage charges* (Wheeling, banking, scheduling etc.) to the
utility in case of a grid connected plant. Cross Subsidy Surcharges (CSS) are not
applicable.
2) Power Purchase Agreement (PPA/ Opex business model)
• An IPP (Independent Power Producer) developer installs and owns the plant as per
buyer’s requirements.
• IPP is eligible for the AD Tax benefit.
• Buyer only pays a mutually agreed tariff for the electricity during a fixed tenure to the IPP.
This will also include CSS and Grid usage charges* (Wheeling, banking etc.) in case of a
grid connected plant.
*Grid usage charges are not applicable in case of
rooftop-solar projects and on-site renewable
energy projects; that are connected behind the
utility meter of the buyer.
Basics In-depth
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
Corporate
buyer
DISCOMs
Captive (Self)
consumption
Third Party
Sellers
Within
State
Outside
State
Preferential green tariff
Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per CERC
Concessional grid usage/ Open Access charges
Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per SERC
Yes
Yes
Yes
Procurement of
Renewable Energy
through the grid
Buy from the
utilities
(if such option is
available*)
Set up (own) the
plant
themselves
Power Purchase
Agreement
(PPA) with third
party sellers
Source Charges applicable*
Within
State
Project
Location
Ownership of
Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECs)
Within
State
Outside
State
Mutually agreed tariff + Normal grid usage/ Open Access
charges as per CERC + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS)
Mutually agreed tariff + Concessional grid usage/ Open
Access charges + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS)
Mutually agreed tariff + Normal grid usage/ Open Access
charges as per SERC + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS)
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
* Grid usage charges
(wheeling, banking,
scheduling) are not
applicable in case of
rooftop-solar projects and
on-site renewable energy
projects, that are connected
behind the utility meter.
Basics In-depth
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
DISCOMs
Captive (Self)
consumption
Third Party
Sellers
Within
State
Outside
State
Can be availed by the HT Industrial and HT Commercial buyers after paying ` 0.5 / kWh over and above their
current utility tariff
“0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other
charges as per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS
“0” wheeling, banking and CSS for 1st 10 years of
projects commissioned before 31st March 2018
3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges.
2% banking charges. Zero CSS
Yes
Yes
Source Grid usage charges applicable: Solar
Within
State
Project
Location
Ownership of
Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECs)
Within
State
Outside
State
“0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other
charges as per CERC guidelines
“0” wheeling & banking for 1st 10 yrs of projects
commissioned before 31/03/18. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98
(Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial)
3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges.
2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98
(Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial)
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
Yes
As per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS
5 % wheeling charges , 2% banking charges for 1st
10 years of projects commissioned before 31st March
2018. Zero CSS
3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges.
2% banking charges. Zero CSS
As per CERC guidelines
5 % wheeling & 2% banking charges for 1st 10 yrs of
projects online before 31/03/18. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98
(Industrial), 0.94-1.94 (Commercial)
3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges.
2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98
(Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial)
Grid usage charges applicable: Wind
Basics In-depth: Karnataka
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
DISCOMs
Captive (Self)
consumption
Third Party
Sellers
Within
State
Outside
State
-
“0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other
charges as per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS
30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges].
Zero CSS
40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2%
banking charges]. Zero CSS
Yes
Yes
Source Grid usage charges applicable: Solar
Within
State
Project
Location
Ownership of
Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECs)
Within
State
Outside
State
“0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other
charges as per CERC guidelines
30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2%
banking charges]. 100% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51
(Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)]
100 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2%
banking charges]. 100% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51
(Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)]
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
Yes
(With buyer/ seller based
on contract structure)
Yes
As per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS
30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges].
Zero CSS
40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2%
banking charges]. Zero CSS
As per CERC guidelines
40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2%
banking charges]. 50% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51
(Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)]
3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges.
2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98
(Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial)
Grid usage charges applicable: Wind
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
Basics In-depth: Tamil Nadu
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Refer to other renewable energy procurement tenders for preliminary understanding
• Employ internal technical, procurement and legal teams to prepare tender documents based upon your requirements
• Hire external consultants if needed
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Ensure that the eligibility criteria for sellers to participate in your procurement are reflective of the minimum capabilities
needed to serve your demand
• Check the standing of the sellers against verified ranking systems: CRISIL ratings, MNRE empanelment etc.
• Compare the product technical sheets against the prescribed standards
• Ensure that the seller signs performance guarantee clauses that are backed by suitable bank deposits
• Dedicate qualified personnel and other resources to ensure highly scrutinised contractual terms
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Undertake market research to assess the price points
• Negotiate with as many credible sellers as possible to discover a competitive price point
• Engage technical, financial, legal and procurement teams during negotiations
• Levellised Cost Of Energy (LCOE) is calculated by dividing the Net Present Value (NPV) of all the future payments
incurred by the buyer, by the total lifetime units (kWh) generated by the RE plant. LCOE is a useful metric to compare
bids with various combinations of upfront/ buyout payments and annual tariffs (escalating/ flat)
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Crosscheck with all the teams internally before signing the contract
• Ensure tight deadlines about the project completion and force majeure clauses are embedded in the contract
• Sign the contract with the developer that meets your technical, financial and other parameters
Part A: The theory of RE procurement
Drivers Targets Business
model Tendering Due
diligence Negotiations Contract
signing Communications
• Design a communications and outreach strategy about your renewable energy procurement
• Engage your stakeholders through annual reports, press releases and social media etc.
• Engage with platforms like the India GHG Program to measure your sustainability performance and communicate it
with your peers and all other stakeholders
Part B: Corporate experience
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Energy security
Hedging against the rising coal (grid)
and diesel prices
Sustainability targets
Renewable Energy procurement
offered the company an effective
strategy to meet its internal
sustainability targets.
Reliance on diesel generators because of the
power deficit in the state of Tamil Nadu was a big
operational and business risk. Wind energy offered
energy security.
Grid prices were on the rise constantly.
Diesel prices increased by 36% between
2012 and 2013 alone.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Part B: Corporate experience
Policy framework
Changes in corporate
charter
Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECs)
The investment was made with
an exit clause after 5 years.
Renewable Energy Certificates
(RECs) were purchased
separately by the buyer.
The state’s policies favored group captive business model in which
companies can co-invest in a single wind farm and consume at least
51% of power generated. Cognizant invested equity in 4 MW wind
plant, with an exit planned in 5 years to procure power for all its
facilities across Tamil Nadu.
Cognizant’s corporate
charter already had
clauses that permitted its
investment in power
generation.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
Demand quantification Optimising Diesel consumption Capital gains tax
At the end of 5 years, Cognizant planned to exit
with its investment from the project. Internal
financial teams were concerned about paying
capital gains tax on the potential rise of book value
of the wind plant.
To maximise the savings from
wind procurement Cognizant
had to optimise the consumption
from the grid at various blocks of
time.
Similarly diesel based power consumption had
to be optimised to maximise the benefits of
wind power. This has proven to be difficult
given the unpredictable nature of wind power
generation.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
For most of these risks Cognizant’s counter strategy was to learn by doing. In addition to recruiting an external consultant, the team attended
conferences and workshops to understand the relevant policies. The team arranged in-house training programs, whenever required, for the
facilities and electrical teams.
Learning by doing: A business strategy
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
After signing the contract, there were immediate
savings
During peak wind season, the wind mills were
disconnected from the grid because of the grid
instability. Biomass power was sourced during this time
to balance the shortfall.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
Sustainability targets
Renewable Energy procurement
helped the company meet its internal
sustainability targets.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Hedging against the rising coal (grid) and
diesel prices
Grid prices were on the rise constantly. They
increased by 22% between 2009 and 2013
for industrial consumers in Karnataka.
Energy security
Availability of a large roof that can support 1
MW posed an opportunity to offset expensive
diesel and provide reliable supply.
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
Stakeholder sign-offs for
investments in non-core
businesses
Tenure and pricing of third party power purchase
contracts
Policy changes and
reevaluation of strategy
The potential increase in cost
due to an import tax on solar
panels led to a strategic
preference in capital
investment mode.
Capital investment decisions,
especially beyond a certain
quantum, have to be cleared by
the headquarters.
Typical tenure of third party solar power purchase contracts
is 7-10 years. Buyer wanted to sign a contract only for 5
years and exit easily. Rooftop solar at ` 7.5/ kWh in a third-
party purchase contract was attractive to the seller.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
Perforation of roof
Buyer’s biggest concern was perforation of the metal sheet
roofs during solar plant installation, which could lead to
leakage onto their process line. So they have only chosen
sellers who offer non-perforated solutions alone.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Part B: Corporate experience
Negotiations underway
Buyer is currently making capital investments in rooftop solar
for its facility in western India as a pilot before scaling up
across the country. In addition, buyer has devised a
comprehensive country level solar power procurement
strategy. All the green field facilities of buyer will now source at
least 25% of their power requirements from on-site solar
plants.
Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
Solar - Karnataka
1. Registration with KREDL for setting up solar power plant under IPP/
Captive/ REC mechanism:
a) Download the application from KREDL website
b) The generator has to submit the application to KREDL with all the
documents such as:
i. Cover letter for the application
ii. Application form along with 2 sets of PFR
iii. Net worth certificate – Certified by CA (as per the Govt. order)
iv. Land documents (Sale deed or lease document to show the
availability of land with the generator)
v. After the scrutiny will ask the generator to deposit the prescribed
fees from time to time
vi. Timeline for approval will depend on the next committee meeting
Part C: Annexure – List of permits/ clearances
2. Land clearances under Section 109 of the Karnataka Land Reform Act
a) If the company has identified a suitable Agricultural land, the company
needs to apply to the Govt. through the respective District Collector for
purchasing the Agricultural land.
b) The company needs to deposit the prescribed fees for conversion (from
Agricultural to Non-agricultural) and then start construction of the project.
This is called deemed conversion.
3. Obtaining Power Evacuation Permission
a) Application to KPTCL / ESCOM (Depending on voltage levels)
b) Power evacuation plan
c) Single Line Diagram
d) Details about Conductor, Line, GSS etc.
e) KPTCL/ ESCOM will approve the Evacuation plan
f) KPTCL/ ESCOM will ask to deposit the prescribed fees
g) Bay allotment will be done by KPTCL/ ESCOM if available
h) Equipment approval, foundation etc. – KPTCL/ ESCOM
i) Survey, Estimation – KPTCL/ ESCOM
j) CEIG Drawing Approval – CEIG
k) SCDA Approval – SCDA, KPTCL
l) TAQC Inspection and Dispatch Approval – KPTCL/ ESCOM
m) CEIG Commissioning Approval – CEIG
n) RT and MRT Pre Commissioning approval – RT Department
o) PTCC Approval – BSNL (PTCC Cell – 11 kV, 33 kV –
Bangalore, Double circuit – Chennai)
p) Interconnection Approval KPTCL
q) Project Commissioning KPTCL and ESCOM
ABOUT WRI INDIA
WRI India is a research organization that turns big ideas into action at the nexus of environment, economic opportunity and
human well-being. www.WRI.org
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in
India, partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes.
CII - Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (CII Godrej GBC) is one of the 10 Centres of Excellence of CII which offers
advisory services to the industry in the areas of Green buildings, Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Water Management,
Environmental Management, Green Business Incubation and Climate Change activities. www.CII.in
ABOUT CII
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Ashok Kumar Thanikonda is a Senior Project Associate in the Climate and Energy Program at WRI India. He has expertise
in renewable energy policies and business models. His work in the Green Power Market Development Group, India initiative
involves helping corporate businesses increase the share of renewable energy in their energy mix. Ashok holds a Master’s in
Natural Resources Management from TERI University in New Delhi.
Contact: Ashok.Thanikonda@wri.org
Deepak Sriram Krishnan is the Manager of the Green Power Market Development Group, India initiative. His work involves
interacting with businesses, regulators, renewable energy developers and financers to scale up private investment in
renewable energy. He is a certified Energy Risk Professional and has worked across the value chain on projects in mining,
generation, transmission, distribution and renewable energy. Deepak is an electrical engineering graduate and hold a
master’s degree in electric power systems from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
Contact: Deepak.Krishnan@wri.org
ASHOK THANIKONDA, DEEPAK KRISHNAN Bangalore
Produced with support from
• The views and analyses represented in this document do not necessarily reflect that of Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation. The Foundation accepts no liability
for the content of this document, or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided.
• This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006096. This report was prepared as an account of work
sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any
warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by
trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States
Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government
or any agency thereof.
• This handout is meant for reference only. WRI or CII are not responsible for the outcomes of decisions based on this guide. Prospective RE buyers are advised to
do their due-diligence to arrive at the final decisions. Please send your feedback to Ashok.Thanikonda@wri.org or Deepak.Krishnan@wri.org

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Corporate Renewable Energy Procurement - Why and How

  • 1. CORPORATE RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) PROCUREMENT: WHY & HOW? Perspectives and experiences from WRI and corporate leaders about renewable energy procurement in India ASHOK THANIKONDA, DEEPAK KRISHNAN Bangalore
  • 2.
  • 3. Contents Part A: The theory of RE procurement 1. Drivers: Why buy Renewable Energy? 2. Targets: How much to buy? 3. Business model: Which business model to choose? What are the costs involved in each model? 4. Tendering: How to prepare tenders and receive bids? 5. Due diligence: How to mitigate the transaction risks? 6. Negotiations: How to get the maximum value for your money? 7. Contract signing: How to close the deal? 8. Communications: How to communicate with your stakeholders about your leadership in sustainability? Part B: Experience of corporate leaders 1. Cognizant’s experience with wind energy procurement 2. Coca Cola’s rooftop solar power procurement Part C: Annexure – List of permits/ clearances needed for RE projects
  • 4. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments Diesel power ₹ 14 ₹ 30 Grid power ₹ 5.85 ₹ 8.5 Solar power ₹ 6.5 ₹ 7.5 Wind power ₹ 5.5 ₹ 6.5 Cost per kWh of electricity from various sources in India, 2015 4.3 % 2.5 % 3.5 % 4.5 % 6.09 % 4.46 % 6.56 % 4.76 % HT Commercial HT Industrial LT Commercial LT Industrial % average annual increase in electricity tariffs (FY11-15) TANGEDCO BESCOM • Fossil fuel-based electricity prices are rising sharply and continuously • Power deficit is a critical business risk • RE is already cheaper or competitive with grid power and supplements/ augments it
  • 5. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs) mandate businesses that procure power from third parties to procure a share of such energy from renewable energy sources • 21 Indian states have notified RPOs • Obligated buyers can procure Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) in the absence of RE to fulfil their RPO compliance. • Enforcement of penalties for RPO non-compliance is slowly becoming the norm 5% 0.25% Karnataka (> 5MVa) Tamil Nadu (> 1 MVa) Renewable Purchase Obligations (2015-16) Non-solar RPO Solar RPO Specifics under deliberation Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments
  • 6. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Consumers increasingly prefer products/ services of companies that adhere to the principles of sustainability and operate accordingly • Reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by shifting to renewable energy is proven to be an effective way of reducing impacts on the environment. Forums like the India GHG Program help businesses plan such strategies. • Corporates are increasingly aware of this and consider it as one of the elements of their CSR strategy. They also include this as part of their brand positioning by communicating to their consumers about their leadership in sustainability Business case Regulatory compliance Sustainability commitments
  • 7. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • RPOs usually help buyers by serving as the first benchmark for RE purchase ambition • In the absence of RPOs, internal sustainability targets based on realistic assessments can define the quantum of purchase • Depending on the location and the tariff design, buyers usually stand to benefit to minimise their grid power consumption during a certain time block. This, in addition to the need to optimise diesel and grid power, can also impact the quantum of renewable energy procurement • Typically the base load on non-working days acts as reference to decide on the quantum of renewable energy purchase
  • 8. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications Commercial buyers Industrial buyers Surplus capital No surplus capital Capital investment Power Purchase Agreement (Savings right away) Capital investment Power Purchase Agreement (Initial hedging & savings later) 1) Capital investment (Captive plant/ Capex business model) • Buyer invests the equity and/ or raises the debt. An EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Design) seller installs the plant as per buyer’s requirements. • Buyer is eligible for the Accelerated Depreciation (AD) Tax benefit (100% of the plant value written off as cost in first 2 years) • Buyer needs to pay the Grid usage charges* (Wheeling, banking, scheduling etc.) to the utility in case of a grid connected plant. Cross Subsidy Surcharges (CSS) are not applicable. 2) Power Purchase Agreement (PPA/ Opex business model) • An IPP (Independent Power Producer) developer installs and owns the plant as per buyer’s requirements. • IPP is eligible for the AD Tax benefit. • Buyer only pays a mutually agreed tariff for the electricity during a fixed tenure to the IPP. This will also include CSS and Grid usage charges* (Wheeling, banking etc.) in case of a grid connected plant. *Grid usage charges are not applicable in case of rooftop-solar projects and on-site renewable energy projects; that are connected behind the utility meter of the buyer. Basics In-depth
  • 9. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications Corporate buyer DISCOMs Captive (Self) consumption Third Party Sellers Within State Outside State Preferential green tariff Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per CERC Concessional grid usage/ Open Access charges Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per SERC Yes Yes Yes Procurement of Renewable Energy through the grid Buy from the utilities (if such option is available*) Set up (own) the plant themselves Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with third party sellers Source Charges applicable* Within State Project Location Ownership of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) Within State Outside State Mutually agreed tariff + Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per CERC + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS) Mutually agreed tariff + Concessional grid usage/ Open Access charges + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS) Mutually agreed tariff + Normal grid usage/ Open Access charges as per SERC + Cross Subsidy Surcharge (CSS) Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) * Grid usage charges (wheeling, banking, scheduling) are not applicable in case of rooftop-solar projects and on-site renewable energy projects, that are connected behind the utility meter. Basics In-depth
  • 10. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications DISCOMs Captive (Self) consumption Third Party Sellers Within State Outside State Can be availed by the HT Industrial and HT Commercial buyers after paying ` 0.5 / kWh over and above their current utility tariff “0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other charges as per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS “0” wheeling, banking and CSS for 1st 10 years of projects commissioned before 31st March 2018 3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges. 2% banking charges. Zero CSS Yes Yes Source Grid usage charges applicable: Solar Within State Project Location Ownership of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) Within State Outside State “0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other charges as per CERC guidelines “0” wheeling & banking for 1st 10 yrs of projects commissioned before 31/03/18. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98 (Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial) 3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges. 2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98 (Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial) Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) Yes As per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS 5 % wheeling charges , 2% banking charges for 1st 10 years of projects commissioned before 31st March 2018. Zero CSS 3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges. 2% banking charges. Zero CSS As per CERC guidelines 5 % wheeling & 2% banking charges for 1st 10 yrs of projects online before 31/03/18. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98 (Industrial), 0.94-1.94 (Commercial) 3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges. 2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98 (Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial) Grid usage charges applicable: Wind Basics In-depth: Karnataka
  • 11. Part A: The theory of RE procurement DISCOMs Captive (Self) consumption Third Party Sellers Within State Outside State - “0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other charges as per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS 30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges]. Zero CSS 40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2% banking charges]. Zero CSS Yes Yes Source Grid usage charges applicable: Solar Within State Project Location Ownership of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) Within State Outside State “0” inter-state transmission charges & losses. Other charges as per CERC guidelines 30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2% banking charges]. 100% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51 (Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)] 100 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2% banking charges]. 100% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51 (Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)] Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) Yes (With buyer/ seller based on contract structure) Yes As per CERC guidelines. Zero CSS 30 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges]. Zero CSS 40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2% banking charges]. Zero CSS As per CERC guidelines 40 % of [18.87 paise/ kWh wheeling charges , 2% banking charges]. 50% of [CSS `/ kWh 3.25-3.51 (Industrial) 4.98-5.23 (Commercial)] 3.79% HT wheeling & 8.49% LT wheeling charges. 2% banking charges. CSS `/ kWh 0.63-0.98 (Industrial) 0.94-1.94 (Commercial) Grid usage charges applicable: Wind Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications Basics In-depth: Tamil Nadu
  • 12. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Refer to other renewable energy procurement tenders for preliminary understanding • Employ internal technical, procurement and legal teams to prepare tender documents based upon your requirements • Hire external consultants if needed
  • 13. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Ensure that the eligibility criteria for sellers to participate in your procurement are reflective of the minimum capabilities needed to serve your demand • Check the standing of the sellers against verified ranking systems: CRISIL ratings, MNRE empanelment etc. • Compare the product technical sheets against the prescribed standards • Ensure that the seller signs performance guarantee clauses that are backed by suitable bank deposits • Dedicate qualified personnel and other resources to ensure highly scrutinised contractual terms
  • 14. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Undertake market research to assess the price points • Negotiate with as many credible sellers as possible to discover a competitive price point • Engage technical, financial, legal and procurement teams during negotiations • Levellised Cost Of Energy (LCOE) is calculated by dividing the Net Present Value (NPV) of all the future payments incurred by the buyer, by the total lifetime units (kWh) generated by the RE plant. LCOE is a useful metric to compare bids with various combinations of upfront/ buyout payments and annual tariffs (escalating/ flat)
  • 15. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Crosscheck with all the teams internally before signing the contract • Ensure tight deadlines about the project completion and force majeure clauses are embedded in the contract • Sign the contract with the developer that meets your technical, financial and other parameters
  • 16. Part A: The theory of RE procurement Drivers Targets Business model Tendering Due diligence Negotiations Contract signing Communications • Design a communications and outreach strategy about your renewable energy procurement • Engage your stakeholders through annual reports, press releases and social media etc. • Engage with platforms like the India GHG Program to measure your sustainability performance and communicate it with your peers and all other stakeholders
  • 17. Part B: Corporate experience Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola Energy security Hedging against the rising coal (grid) and diesel prices Sustainability targets Renewable Energy procurement offered the company an effective strategy to meet its internal sustainability targets. Reliance on diesel generators because of the power deficit in the state of Tamil Nadu was a big operational and business risk. Wind energy offered energy security. Grid prices were on the rise constantly. Diesel prices increased by 36% between 2012 and 2013 alone. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement
  • 18. Part B: Corporate experience Policy framework Changes in corporate charter Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) The investment was made with an exit clause after 5 years. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) were purchased separately by the buyer. The state’s policies favored group captive business model in which companies can co-invest in a single wind farm and consume at least 51% of power generated. Cognizant invested equity in 4 MW wind plant, with an exit planned in 5 years to procure power for all its facilities across Tamil Nadu. Cognizant’s corporate charter already had clauses that permitted its investment in power generation. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 19. Part B: Corporate experience Demand quantification Optimising Diesel consumption Capital gains tax At the end of 5 years, Cognizant planned to exit with its investment from the project. Internal financial teams were concerned about paying capital gains tax on the potential rise of book value of the wind plant. To maximise the savings from wind procurement Cognizant had to optimise the consumption from the grid at various blocks of time. Similarly diesel based power consumption had to be optimised to maximise the benefits of wind power. This has proven to be difficult given the unpredictable nature of wind power generation. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement For most of these risks Cognizant’s counter strategy was to learn by doing. In addition to recruiting an external consultant, the team attended conferences and workshops to understand the relevant policies. The team arranged in-house training programs, whenever required, for the facilities and electrical teams. Learning by doing: A business strategy Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 20. Part B: Corporate experience After signing the contract, there were immediate savings During peak wind season, the wind mills were disconnected from the grid because of the grid instability. Biomass power was sourced during this time to balance the shortfall. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 21. Part B: Corporate experience Sustainability targets Renewable Energy procurement helped the company meet its internal sustainability targets. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Hedging against the rising coal (grid) and diesel prices Grid prices were on the rise constantly. They increased by 22% between 2009 and 2013 for industrial consumers in Karnataka. Energy security Availability of a large roof that can support 1 MW posed an opportunity to offset expensive diesel and provide reliable supply. Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 22. Part B: Corporate experience Stakeholder sign-offs for investments in non-core businesses Tenure and pricing of third party power purchase contracts Policy changes and reevaluation of strategy The potential increase in cost due to an import tax on solar panels led to a strategic preference in capital investment mode. Capital investment decisions, especially beyond a certain quantum, have to be cleared by the headquarters. Typical tenure of third party solar power purchase contracts is 7-10 years. Buyer wanted to sign a contract only for 5 years and exit easily. Rooftop solar at ` 7.5/ kWh in a third- party purchase contract was attractive to the seller. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 23. Part B: Corporate experience Perforation of roof Buyer’s biggest concern was perforation of the metal sheet roofs during solar plant installation, which could lead to leakage onto their process line. So they have only chosen sellers who offer non-perforated solutions alone. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 24. Part B: Corporate experience Negotiations underway Buyer is currently making capital investments in rooftop solar for its facility in western India as a pilot before scaling up across the country. In addition, buyer has devised a comprehensive country level solar power procurement strategy. All the green field facilities of buyer will now source at least 25% of their power requirements from on-site solar plants. Drivers Business model Risks perceived Procurement Wind Energy - Cognizant (Rooftop) Solar power - Coca Cola
  • 25. Solar - Karnataka 1. Registration with KREDL for setting up solar power plant under IPP/ Captive/ REC mechanism: a) Download the application from KREDL website b) The generator has to submit the application to KREDL with all the documents such as: i. Cover letter for the application ii. Application form along with 2 sets of PFR iii. Net worth certificate – Certified by CA (as per the Govt. order) iv. Land documents (Sale deed or lease document to show the availability of land with the generator) v. After the scrutiny will ask the generator to deposit the prescribed fees from time to time vi. Timeline for approval will depend on the next committee meeting Part C: Annexure – List of permits/ clearances 2. Land clearances under Section 109 of the Karnataka Land Reform Act a) If the company has identified a suitable Agricultural land, the company needs to apply to the Govt. through the respective District Collector for purchasing the Agricultural land. b) The company needs to deposit the prescribed fees for conversion (from Agricultural to Non-agricultural) and then start construction of the project. This is called deemed conversion. 3. Obtaining Power Evacuation Permission a) Application to KPTCL / ESCOM (Depending on voltage levels) b) Power evacuation plan c) Single Line Diagram d) Details about Conductor, Line, GSS etc. e) KPTCL/ ESCOM will approve the Evacuation plan f) KPTCL/ ESCOM will ask to deposit the prescribed fees g) Bay allotment will be done by KPTCL/ ESCOM if available h) Equipment approval, foundation etc. – KPTCL/ ESCOM i) Survey, Estimation – KPTCL/ ESCOM j) CEIG Drawing Approval – CEIG k) SCDA Approval – SCDA, KPTCL l) TAQC Inspection and Dispatch Approval – KPTCL/ ESCOM m) CEIG Commissioning Approval – CEIG n) RT and MRT Pre Commissioning approval – RT Department o) PTCC Approval – BSNL (PTCC Cell – 11 kV, 33 kV – Bangalore, Double circuit – Chennai) p) Interconnection Approval KPTCL q) Project Commissioning KPTCL and ESCOM
  • 26. ABOUT WRI INDIA WRI India is a research organization that turns big ideas into action at the nexus of environment, economic opportunity and human well-being. www.WRI.org The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in India, partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes. CII - Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (CII Godrej GBC) is one of the 10 Centres of Excellence of CII which offers advisory services to the industry in the areas of Green buildings, Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Water Management, Environmental Management, Green Business Incubation and Climate Change activities. www.CII.in ABOUT CII
  • 27. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ashok Kumar Thanikonda is a Senior Project Associate in the Climate and Energy Program at WRI India. He has expertise in renewable energy policies and business models. His work in the Green Power Market Development Group, India initiative involves helping corporate businesses increase the share of renewable energy in their energy mix. Ashok holds a Master’s in Natural Resources Management from TERI University in New Delhi. Contact: Ashok.Thanikonda@wri.org Deepak Sriram Krishnan is the Manager of the Green Power Market Development Group, India initiative. His work involves interacting with businesses, regulators, renewable energy developers and financers to scale up private investment in renewable energy. He is a certified Energy Risk Professional and has worked across the value chain on projects in mining, generation, transmission, distribution and renewable energy. Deepak is an electrical engineering graduate and hold a master’s degree in electric power systems from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. Contact: Deepak.Krishnan@wri.org
  • 28. ASHOK THANIKONDA, DEEPAK KRISHNAN Bangalore Produced with support from • The views and analyses represented in this document do not necessarily reflect that of Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation. The Foundation accepts no liability for the content of this document, or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided. • This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006096. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. • This handout is meant for reference only. WRI or CII are not responsible for the outcomes of decisions based on this guide. Prospective RE buyers are advised to do their due-diligence to arrive at the final decisions. Please send your feedback to Ashok.Thanikonda@wri.org or Deepak.Krishnan@wri.org