Bhuwan Shrivastava9                                                                  PersonalityChapter Objective: After r...
Bhuwan Shrivastavavery important role to play in the future in the further development of many other conceptsand philosoph...
Bhuwan Shrivastava                                            Exhibit             External Environment responsible for for...
Bhuwan Shrivastavathe formation of perception, which in turn will have the effect on the formation of attitudeand then beh...
Bhuwan Shrivastavadisplay a particular characteristics as compared to the person from a different social class.The person ...
Bhuwan Shrivastava   •   Situational factors   •   Social factorsBiological Factors: Biological factors include the gender...
Bhuwan Shrivastava(external as well internal both), will help us in formation of the perception and attitude. Nowonce a pe...
Bhuwan Shrivastava                                          Application                      Role of Social factors in dev...
Bhuwan ShrivastavaSocial factor consists of the friends, family, peers, colleagues, nearby movie theatre, or naysuch place...
Bhuwan Shrivastavanamed these in born traits as temperaments. His thought was carried further by motherdaughter duo Myers ...
Bhuwan Shrivastavawhich decides the decision and not the step by step. As Carl Jung has pointed out that it is thecollege ...
Bhuwan Shrivastavapersonality is moving. They are passionate about the job which is given to them. They wantto do more wor...
Bhuwan ShrivastavaThe social learning behavior model has got its maximum of application in early childhooddays. The intens...
Bhuwan ShrivastavaShyam is Introvert. He did his MBA from a reputed institute while doing it he was havinghigh hope that h...
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9 personality

  1. 1. Bhuwan Shrivastava9 PersonalityChapter Objective: After reading this chapter a reader should be able to: • Understand the basic concept of personality • Define different dimension of personality • Understand different characteristics of personality • Understand different determinant to personality • Understand different thinking of personality with regard to theories develop in the fieldChapter content: Introduction, Concept, Characteristics, Determinant, Theories ofPersonalityIntroductionThe study of personality is outcome of the branch of psychology. In psychology, the study ofpersonality is also known as personology, which means the study of person as a whole.Psychologist have given due importance to the study of psychology in their field. For themthe study provides the important data pertaining to the thinking of a person. That is why whenasked to many of psychologists; they generally give the study a highest of all priority ascompared to any other theory in the relevant field. To them if someone is clear with theconcept of personality the other theories in the said field will be in grip of understanding.They are very correct to their approach. Every thing develops from the personality of aperson. Even if we have to consider the organisation’s scenario then the fate or the destiny ofthe organisation will have its base in personality only.Personality can be viewed as the application and the practical face of the concept of thelearning and the experience. In any organisation, the controlling and the direction of the samewill have the direct relationship with the personality a manager at the top carries.Being so important in its way, we will be having a deeper insight into the said area in thischapter. We will try to study more the relationship which personality has with the growth oforganisation. While doing so our focus will be to study the said area with the organizationalinclination and not as a psychologist.Personality: ConceptThe concept of personality is the sum total of many relevant concepts. The concept ofpersonality has its root in the concept of learning. It can be said that whatever the personalitya person carries, is the outcome of learning and experience only. As we have seen in thechapter of learning that the process of learning starts with the receipt of the inputs and otherinformation from the external environment. The information when received by the individualenters into the further processing. This processing of the information received has longer and - 93 -
  2. 2. Bhuwan Shrivastavavery important role to play in the future in the further development of many other conceptsand philosophies. The information after getting analysed takes the shape of perception andthus in turn finally arrives in the form of attitude of a person. We have already discussed thatit is not possible for the attitude to be displayed in the external environment, the attitude onceform for a particular subject matter gets the presentation in the shape of behaviour of thatperson in particular. Thus, whatever the attitude a person carries will directly reflected in theform of behaviour. In the other words, it can be assumed that the behaviour is the outcome ofthe attitude.We have seen that information, which was received as the raw material, got the final shape asthe behaviour of a person. The process does not stop here. The behaviour so formed out ofparticular information received from the external environment if remained attached to thatperson for a longer period will take the shape of personality of that person. Thus in the waypersonality can be defined as the sum total of all information received from the externalenvironment which is characterized by the attitude and behaviour. Therefore, personality canbe denoted as the representation of all the learning and experiences a person has.Actually, the information received by a person gets stored in the subconscious mind of thatperson, if that information received is not of current use. That receiving and storing of theinformation is done in particular context and the environment. Therefore, the context hasmajor role to play in the development of personality. The same information when floated totwo different person placed in different environment can result in different behaviour. This isso because the information received is analysed with context as the base. Thus, it can be saidthat the personality is more of contextual in nature. If a person is behaving in certain mannerthat is due to the context, in which that person has received and analysed the information.Furthermore, information, which a person receives, develops further into the belief and thevalue of that person. This is so because the information and input a person receives, as saidearlier, is more of contextual in nature. The context in which that information is receivedteaches that person what is right and what is wrong pertaining to the information. Right orwrong decision will help the person further to shape the attitude in that regard. Attitudeformed with a set of decision will be helpful in shaping the value and belief system. Thus,finally the personality can be defined as the set of value, belief system and the attitude ofperson. - 94 -
  3. 3. Bhuwan Shrivastava Exhibit External Environment responsible for formation of personality There are numerous determinants to the formation of personality. One such determinant is the external environment in which the individual is placed. Once an individual is placed in an environment, which is directly signaling him to become a person from, say, sales department, then all of his acts and deeds will get directed in this way only. This is so because, the surrounding circumstances will provide him the input which will be in the form of the requirement to become a sales person. Thus, it is very easy to identify a sales executive in a crowd. This is because of the external environment they are placed into. The external environment forced them to form a personality which is more energetic and active decision maker. Since they have to coordinate with the customer, they need to have better communication skill as compared to other member of the organisation. If the same person would have opted for some other field then the personality which is visible here would not have been there.This has to be taken in a sense that personality has nothing to do with the charm, the build,the colour of skin or the smile. Of course, they add some value to your personality but takingthem as the determinant of the personality is the wrong preposition. Personality has nothingto do with these characteristics of physical appearance. Personality is a composite of all thelearning, the experiences, the perception and other psychological concepts, which has theconsiderable share in the development of the thought of a person. Personality is the directreflection of your thought, your views and your stance on a particular situation.When we are talking about the personality, we cannot ignore the effect of externalenvironment in this regard. External environment can be considered as the important elementin shaping the personality. As we have discussed somewhere, that it is more of contextual innature rather than the general. In simpler terms, it is the context and the external environmentin which a person has been placed plays a major role in the development of personality. Iftwo people are placed in different circumstances and with different context the developmentof their personality will definitely will take the different path as compared to the situation inwhich they are placed in the same external environment. As personality is the outcome of along process, which comprised of inputs, experiences, learning, perception, attitude andbehavior, the development has its base in all these concepts. Once the development of thesame is based on these concepts, the outcome of these concepts will definitely have the effecton the development of personality. The nature of learning will have the considerable effect in - 95 -
  4. 4. Bhuwan Shrivastavathe formation of perception, which in turn will have the effect on the formation of attitudeand then behaviour. This behaviour so formed will be the base of the personality. They serveas the raw material to this process. Whatever the nature of raw material will be the finalproduct will be of that nature only. Thus, it is always recommended that the positive learningwill help the person to develop the positive frame of thinking or personality.To study deeply the nature of organisation behaviour, the study of personality provides ahelpful insight into the subject. It is through the personality only an employee is going towork or perform in the organisation. It is not through the learning or perception or any otherimportant concept discussed earlier an employee is going to present his/her performance. It isonly through this personality only the employee is going to deliver the result. Theunderstanding of the concept of personality also assumes the importance in the sense that theworking style, the culture, the climate of the organisation will depend on the personality ofleader to achieve the objective for the organisation.With the discussion above, if some one has to discuss the concept of personality in gist, thething can be served in the fashion as given below:Personality: CharacteristicsThe points given below suggest the characteristics and the nature of the concept ofpersonality:1) Dynamic: In broader concept, the personality has the dynamism in its nature. However,this point has to be taken with due care that in broader terms only the personality has thedynamism only. That means in short term the nature of personality can change but in generalit remains the same throughout. Learning of small magnitude can change the behaviour andthereby the personality but when the concept is viewed from the top the personality remainsthe same. If we go into every detail of that person, the personality seems to be changing withevery learning and experience. You may have noticed that whenever you perform better inthe office your boss reflects the friendly behavior but the same boss comes down heavilywhen you do not achieve the required target. At that moment, your boss will have differentlearning from the earlier situation, but over all when you will view then you will find yourboss having the same broader characteristics as earlier. The situation tells us sufficiently thatpersonality is dynamic in nature. It changes with every change in learning and experience.2) Situational and Contextual: The process of formation of personality is situational andcontextual in nature. Situational in the sense that, the personality in a particular situation Awill have different face as compared to the personality in situation B. As we have seen inearlier part of this chapter that the personality is the outcome of the process of the learningand experience to the situation in which the person is positioned. If the same person ispositioned in situation A and later on the same person has been asked to get positioned insituation B the reaction to these two situations will be different. This is so because thesituation A and situation B carries different equation, which ultimately calls for differentbehaviour thus different personality. Again, overall if you analyse the same then you will findthat the concept has same reflection of the situations overall. This point has to be taken withgreat care that the personality in situations can be same. This is applicable to the situations ifobserve them very closely.As far as the contextual is concern, personality has more to say in this regard. The concept ofpersonality develops in coordination and cooperation with other concepts of psychology likelearning, perception etc. with these concepts as the base personality adopts the contextualnature. This is imperative from the situation that person from a particular social class will - 96 -
  5. 5. Bhuwan Shrivastavadisplay a particular characteristics as compared to the person from a different social class.The person with the upbringing in a context has different set of personality. Thus, it can besaid that the personality is more of contextual in nature rather than a general. A person with aset of characteristics will directly reflect the context in which he/she is being brought up orhas the considerable time spent so much that the period was sufficient to make the effect inthis regard.3) Exerts power: Personality exerts power on other members of the group. We know thatpersonality is the set of characteristics and behaviour a person carries. We also know that thebehaviour and the characteristics displayed is the reflection of the situation and the context inwhich the person is. The situation and the context in which the person is, will force thatperson to display a characteristics, which can exert on others to follow the same. The exertionof characteristics will be so powerful that other people who witnessed that power will try tocopy the same characteristics if fall in the same situation again of that nature. This will giveto the birth of leadership for that situation. We will see in the chapter pertaining to theleadership that follower tend to follow the characteristics shown by leader in a specificsituation. Thus in this way the personality of a leader will exert power on the follower so thatthey will be inclined to be like their leader only.4) Personality is powerful: It is very true to say that personality is more powerful then anyother concept of same nature. Personality pierces through the thinking process of anyindividual and thereby creates the space of its own. Personality should not be confused withthe charisma only. Personality means the concept, which cannot be denoted with such anarrow attribution. Personality means lot more than that. It is the way of thinking, it is thephilosophy, it is the sum total of an individual emotional capabilities, and decision makingskills. When a person comes in the arena of another one carrying these traits then it is highpossibility that the person will surrender himself to the person carrying that distinctivepersonality. When a person surrenders himself to that person than the traits of this personpierces through his thought process and finds a space for itself in the mind space. Theimplication of this characteristic is that, the follower will try to ape the leader in everysituation.5) Personality can be changed: As said above in earlier discussion that the personality isdynamic in nature. This simply means that the personality is open to change. The only thingneeds to get the control in this situation is the control on the learning and the experience aperson derives from that. By gaining the control on these concepts, the change in the conceptof personality can be made. The changes can be made to suit the individual needs of theorganisation. Thus, a person carrying the personality earlier not suiting to the organisation’sculture and climate can be mould into the arena of organisation demand. This change hasimportant implication. The person with the right kind of personality can turn the loss-makingunit into the profit generating one.Personality: DeterminantWhat determines the personality? On what different factors the personality of a persondepends. What are those factors, which are responsible for the personality to form? These aresome of the question, which needs the quick answers to have the better understanding of theconcept.The determinant of personality can be many, but for the better understanding of the concept,it can be grouped as: • Biological Factors - 97 -
  6. 6. Bhuwan Shrivastava • Situational factors • Social factorsBiological Factors: Biological factors include the gender, race, the height, the age etc of theperson. At very first sight, these factors are every important determinant for the personality.You can crosscheck the same with by undertaking a test with a nonprofessional. Ask thatperson that what does he means with the personality. He will definitely come out with theanswer, which will be a direct interpretation of the biological factors a person carries.According to many people, a personality means an appropriate blend of race, age, colour,height of a person.Actually, the person is not wrong. We, in general terms tend to understand the concept inmuch simpler terms. This is the result of our generalization that we have framed certainpoints which serves as the test to determine whether that person has appropriate personalityaccording to our standard or not. If that person does not carry, the required trait andcharacteristics then we presume that person does not carry any personality. Biological factoris the outcome of our thought process and the result, which we find, is in the form of list oftrait, which is must for a person to be called as the person having the personality. Considerthe example of a person whose father had a very tall height and was fair in complexion. Ifthat is the case then one may presume that his son will definitely carry the said characteristicsas it was with his father.Likewise, in the same other biological factors viz. genes have the considerable effect on thepersonality of a person. The genetic factors are also to the extent is amongst them. Whiletalking about the development of personality we have talked about the internal environmentin the process. The genetic factor is the part of that process. Actually, the way of thinking, thedirection of thinking is generally guided by these factors only. A person has continuousinvolvement and intervention from its gene in its decision-making. The process in turndecides the way, the direction that individual wants to take the organisation. Whileconsidering the study of personality the effect of determinant like has to be considered.Situational Factors: Situational factor is the part of the external environment in shaping thepersonality of a person. We have already discussed the implication the same in defining thepersonality. The personality is the reaction to the external environment’s information andinput, which that person receives. External environment may also carry the inputs likeeducation system and values, income levels; employment level etc. each of these inputs willhave the effect in their own way. Each of the information as described here will pose theeffect to the development of the personality. A person when placed in a particular situationwill react to that information based on the situation. This is to note that the information,which is there in the environment itself, is situational in nature. The same information insituation A will have different implication as compared to the same information in situationB. Now when the information itself is in situational in nature then the final product, whichsprouts from it, will have to be situational in nature. Same the thing happens with personalityalso. Since the personality is the final product of information, thus is becomes obvious stancethat the personality has to be situational in nature. You may have noticed that same coolminded friend of yours turns into hot ready to erupt volcano when placed in such a situationin which he is not finding himself to be comfortable. The big question arises here is that whya person behaves in this way? Why there is change in the personality of the same personwhen placed in different environment. The answer is very simple and it is there with the basein the formation of the personality itself. We all know that the personality develops under theaegis of information and other inputs, which we are going to receive from the environment - 98 -
  7. 7. Bhuwan Shrivastava(external as well internal both), will help us in formation of the perception and attitude. Nowonce a person with a particular set of characteristics and traits is placed in a situation, he/shewill first judge the situation. This judgment regarding the situation will be the automatic onewhereby no individual has to take the special different effort for the same. Once the result ofthat analysis is out the person will take the step accordingly based on the result received fromthe analysis. If the result receive is in tune with the thought process develop out of theperception and the attitude so formed, then the person will deliver the different personality ascompared to the situation which is not in tune with the information a person has.Therefore, in this way, the personality is situational in nature and that is how situationdetermines the direction of flow of personality. In this way, a person has to consider thesituation before saying something about the personality. The other things have to be takenunder the consideration, which we have discussed above.Social Factors: Another important factor that carries the huge effect on the development inthe personality of a person is the social factor. Just now in the above paragraph we havetalked about the effect of the external environment in the development of personality, thisspecific point has the direct relationship with that environment. Social factor is anotherimportant constituent of the external environment. - 99 -
  8. 8. Bhuwan Shrivastava Application Role of Social factors in developing personality Rajiv Gandhi, when he became Prime minister for India, he was the youngest ever Indian government had. He was born on 20th August, 1944. Rajiv Gandhi, an introvert, by profession was a pilot of Indian Airlines. Inspite being son of then prime minister of India, Smt Indira Gandhi and the brother of an active politician Sanjay Gandhi, he never showed interest in politics. Even, he used to live in a separate house in New Delhi, when his mother was prime minister. He was never inclined towards politics, but it was only after his brother, Sanjay Gandhi’s death he was pressurized by party men and his mother Smt. Indira Gandhi and thus he joined politics. He kept on saying that he will not contest from his brother’s constituency, but again due to pressure from all around he was declared as candidate to contest for Lok Sabha seat from Amethi. He won that LokSabha seat by a record count. To this moment he was not so interested in active politics, butafter his mother’s assassination he was offered the seat of Prime Minister by members of hisparty and parliament.After becoming the Prime minister, he advised President to dissolve the parliament and holdthe election again. After the election, his party saw a major victory in Indian Parliamentwhich is record. He won 411 out of 542 seats in parliament.His prime ministerial tenure is full of achievements and changes; he brought in IndianSystem of administration. He abolished license raj which was daunting to the growth of thenation. He was the key in introducing the wide usage of computers and modern methods oftelecommunications. Realising the need for faster and hassle free communication betweenand within two important cities of India, New Delhi and Mumbai, he created MTNL. Heintroduced the concept of PCOs in India in order to generate the connectivity between thepeople of far flung areas of India.He was assassinated in the year 1991 by LTTE activities in a town 30 miles away fromChennai.The above case of Rajiv Gandhi is the perfect case for social factors affecting the person ofan individual. Sometimes the social factors play a very important role in framing a directionfor individual to move. This is so because; the social factor forms a part of externalenvironment. As we have seen that external environment consists of inputs and informationfor which the major source is social factor. The effect of this social factor is so strong that itchanges the course of formation of personality of an individual.In the above case, Rajiv Gandhi was trying to stay from politics. Even though he wasintrovert from his basic nature, he became one of the successful prime ministers ever Indiahad. This is so because, for him external factor played a very constructive role in giving aparticular direction to him. - 100 -
  9. 9. Bhuwan ShrivastavaSocial factor consists of the friends, family, peers, colleagues, nearby movie theatre, or naysuch places of public importance. Society consists of important element of the externalenvironment. Social factor helps the person to develop their thought in a particular direction.The direction, which a society gives to the person, that person, moves in that directionwithout thinking whether the information so we have received is right or wrong. The impactof the society to overall development of the personality of a persona is as such that the personnever asks a question regarding the information, which is being imparted to him/her from thesociety front. This effect is so regular that we hardly feel any presence of the process ofreceiving the information. The effect of such receiving the information can be felt in our dayto day habit which if analyse then we will find the habit is in exactly in lines with the societyto which I belongs to. So whatever the habit and the values of the society is going to be, thesame value and the habit will be get inducted in the personality of the person. Thus, theoutcome will be that personality which is the true representation of the society to which thatperson belongs.Social factors has different dimension to determine the development of the personality. Thediscussion, which we had in the above paragraphs, is subject to the condition that the point,which we are going to discuss, does not have any effect on the said front. The part, which caneven nullify the effect of the society to the development of the personality, is the presence ofthe peer or the friend group. According to the discussion if a person belongs to a society thenit will be reflected in the habit and the thinking process of that person. Now if other groupslike friends and social group surround that person then the person will have the effect, whichwill show the outcome of the group and not the society. In this case, the peer and friend groupwill have the effect, which will be of bigger in magnitude as compared to the effect from thesociety.Theories of Personality:Many contributors to the field have worked vastly in this regard. Their intention was todetermine the basic test, which can distinguish a personality. In turn, they have end up inascertaining the determinant of personality. All the thinkers have tried to club the mass intothe group of one or more trait. According to them, the world comprises of the traits and it isvery easy and possible for us to judge them and group them in one or more possible bunch.Trait theory of personality:The study of trait has been the topic of conversation for many thinkers since the beginning.According to them, it is possible to judge a person based on the trait. Once identified it willbe very easy for us to group them together so that the appropriate strategy can be formed. Thework on the trait in relation to the personality is supposed to be initiated by Carl Jung. Lateron the work was supplemented with contribution from mother daughter duo Myers andBriggs, Hans Eysenck, and others.According to the theorist described above trait is the way in which an individual believes,feels or react in a certain way. Thus keeping this thinking about the trait, they went further toclub the personality based on the trait, making it easier for the further thinkers to formulatethe step to deal with these set of characteristics.Carl Jung was the first thinker considered to work in this direction. He provided the base tofurther thinkers as in his theory he propounded the word temperaments. According to CarlJung, every human being in the word is born with some inborn characteristics or traits. He - 101 -
  10. 10. Bhuwan Shrivastavanamed these in born traits as temperaments. His thought was carried further by motherdaughter duo Myers and Briggs, whose work was based on the temperaments as proposed byCarl Jung. Myers and Briggs developed a test based on the Carl Jung’s proposal, known asMyers-Briggs Type Inventory or MBTI. The test as devised by Myers-Briggs later onidentified as the leading authority in the field of personality. The test as proposed by Myers-Briggs took Carl Jung’s theory of temperaments as the base, came up with pair of traits,which are opposite, in their standing:Introversion-Extraversion: It is important to be note here is that the term introversion andextraversion was propounded by Carl Jung itself. This pair of personality traits are exactlyopposite in nature while dealing with the external environment or the outer world. Accordingto Myers-Briggs, introversion are those types of personality which is not open to world. Theyfeel uncomfortable while in open world. They are very reserve and shy in nature. This isexact opposite to what extraversion type of personality is. Extraversion type of personalitydeals with the external world with great comfort and ease. They feel uncomfortable whilethey are alone. They need the presence of someone all the time. According to Myers-Briggsmajority of the person born are of extraversion in nature. Further as Myers-Briggs says, sincethe majority is of the extraverts that is why the introverts feel awkward. Therefore, manyfeels that introverts are in the need of some therapy. Further, Carl Jung believes that a personis born with either of the quality as described above. He believed that no person can switchbetween the two traits. This is because of the genetic factor only that a person is characterizedby either of the characteristic.Sensing and intuiting: this the second contrasting pair propounded by Myers-Briggs.According to them the sensing are those types of personality, which takes the decision morepractically that is keeping everything under their consideration. They make use of every sensethey have. These types of personality generally consume time to come up with an appropriatedecision. Reverse is the case with the intuiting type of personality. The intuiting is thatpersonality, which takes the decision based on their intuition. They are considered as non-pragmatic decision maker. They tend to take the decision not on the basis of the facts andfigures but on the basis of their intuition, which they carry towards a subject element.Thinking and feeling: Another contrasting personality types as given by Myers-Briggs. In thiscase the personality in thinking style, will take the decision on the process basis, i.e. movingstep by step towards the solution. They are inclined towards taking the decision in style thatis more logical rather than on abruptly basis. Every step towards the solution is clearly jottedout and the personality tries to move in predefined manner. The step towards the solution isthe result of the hard work of the thinking type of personality. Now, reverse is the case withthe feeling type of personality. Here the base for every decision is their feeling about thesubject matter and not the facts and figures. They rely more on the feeling, which is alreadyformed, to come up with the final wordings pertaining to the solution. As Carl Jung has saidthat, half of the world has thinking type of personality and half of the world have feeling typeof personality. Further, according to him, it is men who have mostly thinking type ofpersonality and most of women have feeling type of personality.Judging and Perceiving: The last of the contrasting pair of personality as given by Myers-Briggs. Judging type of personality is considered more systematic and disciplined in theirapproach. They are supposed to be the best timekeepers, they generally arrives to office intime, finish off their work before and if not before schedule, at least on time. They judge theimportance of the task and the situation they are into and thereby they plan the thingsaccordingly. Whereas in case of perceiving type of personality the tendency is to move alongwith the spirits. Perceiving type of personality do not take prior decision regarding the stepand the direction of the decision. They take the decision spontaneously. It is the impulse, - 102 -
  11. 11. Bhuwan Shrivastavawhich decides the decision and not the step by step. As Carl Jung has pointed out that it is thecollege professors, who are generally judging in nature as opposite to the college studentswho are “perceiving” in personality.Thus with above set of personality traits the person can be judged. Actually in order to judgethe personality Myers-Briggs has suggested a test. After taking the test, the personality traitof a person can be judged and thus the proper strategy can be formulated in order to cope upwith that type of personality.’In the field of trait theory, the work of Hans Eysenck provided a more mathematicalviewpoint for the better understanding of the same. He understood different dimension ofpersonality and in order to judge them he used the mathematical numbers. It became impliedwith this that unlike the Carl Jung’s theory, which says that it, is not possible any person tohave two traits at one go, but this was with Hans Eysenck that it was possible for apersonality to have two dimension. This is possible when a person’s score fall in between therange as described by Hans Eysenck. The first dimension as given by Hans Eysenck wassame as that of Carl Jung, the Extraversion and introversion. He used the scale to determinethe personality. If the score is on the lower side then the personality has to be taken as theintrovert type of personality. Neuroticism was the second dimension, which Hans Eysenckused to determine the personality. This particular dimension was used to judge the emotionalstability of a person. Again the scale method was used to determine the standing in the scale.High score on the scale means the person in emotionally more active. That personality ismore prone towards developing the phobias. The said personality is more emotional in natureand is more likely to be more frustrated or nervous is respective situation. Now we oftendenote a person with low score on the scale with a person of high emotional stability. Thirddimension on which Hans Eysenck has devoted the considerable time was psychoticism. Asthe name suggest that person of this personality carries a symptom which can differentiatethat personality with other in very different way. The personality of this nature has got thefeeling that somewhere someone is watching them. They tend to be more alert in terms oftheir personality and posture. Thus it is obvious that person with high score in this scale havethe confirmation of carrying this personality. A range in middle of this scale will clearlymean that person is more ready to take the risk then the person of any other range.Type theory of personality:Type theory deals with the type of the personality. In actual sense the theory deals withnature of personality. In this regard it is very important to distinguish between the trait andthe type of personality. The trait of personality tells about the characteristics of thepersonality. It details the various elements a personality is carrying with himself. Whereas incase of type of personality, the personality goes beyond the trait. Once the trait of personalityhas been defined, the nature as reflected from the trait is the type of personality. Thus thedifference between the two important concepts has to be understood with greater clarity.As said above the type theory of personality will be dealing with the nature of the personality.According to the type theory, if we go on segregating the world on the basis of the nature ofpersonality then we will find the situation where the world has been divided into two parts.One part will contain the Type A personality and other part will contain the Type Bpersonality.Type A consists of those personalities which are more restless in nature. They are more eagerin achieving the target given to them. They can sometimes over do the things. The colleaguesof Type A personality may sometimes find lacking in the speed of this personality. If boss isof this nature then, subordinates will find it difficult to assume the speed in which this - 103 -
  12. 12. Bhuwan Shrivastavapersonality is moving. They are passionate about the job which is given to them. They wantto do more work in less given time. But this is not the end. There is another dimension aswell to this effect. The attrition rate in this case can sometime be of higher in numbersbecause of the pressure this personality is going to the external environment. This personalityalways wants the external environment to move with his speed. If that is not so thensometimes this personality shows the negative behaviour also. The fanatic behaviourpertaining to the job sometimes lead to the frustration and depression amongst the colleague,the subordinates and sometimes to the person itself. That is why the Type A personality isconsidered sometimes good for the organizational health and sometimes can lead to thenegative result also.If Type A personality is of urgency in nature with regard to the completion of the job, theType B personality is exactly opposite of that behaviour. Type B personality is of easy goingtype. They generally do not want to take the pressure of finishing up the job early. Theyconcentrate more on the quality irrespective of the time it is consuming. The person who is inType B personality work hard towards the increment in the quality of the product. This easygoing nature and concentration on the quality of the product gives Type B personality moretime to think on the issue. They find by themselves the time to think more on product. Theyare considered more imaginative as compared to Type A personality. But being a Type Bpersonality should not be taken in the negative sense. In the organisation both type ofbehaviour is required. It is not that for the successful organisation to work only Type Apersonality is must. the perfect blend of both the personality is must. To serve this need ahybrid form of personality was identified. The personality identified was named as Type ABpersonality or some literatures have denoted it as Type X personality. Type AB or Type Xpersonality is that personality which cannot be clearly categorized by one of the said criteria.They are supposed to carry the characteristics of both the personality.Social Learning Theory:Social learning theory is the outcome of work of Albert Bandura. This theory takes thesituation as the base for the development of a specific trait of personality. It says thepersonality is the reflection of the situation. The personality can be developed and are proneto changes as it is nit stick to the person. It has been developed due to the environmentprevailing. According to the social learning theory, a personality develops by taking someother personality as the base. The base personality is known as Model personality and thefollower tend to imitate the model, the personality shown in a particular situation. Thefollower then will copy the behaviour of model and will try to act in the same manner andway the model has acted in that same nature of situation.There is misconception regarding the social learning theory of personality that follower willact the performance of model with regard to the particular situation. But this is not true as theperson will duplicate the outcome not the act. If the result of any act is negative then thefollower will not follow the act, he/she will reject the intention of following the same. Thusbefore following the model the result has to be considered.The social learning model has its own implication to the organisation’s working and thedevelopment. Every organisation should try to develop as many as model as it can. This willultimately ease the job of a manager to perform the task and achieve the objective. The modelin its group will perform certain task for which the probability of getting duplicated willmuch more as compared to other member of the group. And it is there that the group memberis not going to follow the model as it is. They are definitely going to analyse the result or theoutcome of the process and if the result is negative then only it will get imitated. - 104 -
  13. 13. Bhuwan ShrivastavaThe social learning behavior model has got its maximum of application in early childhooddays. The intensity and quantum of learning in this stage of life is highest. This may be due tothe inclination of the child to learn and the emptiness in the mind from any sort of learning.Thus a child finding his father smoking and having the high status in the society maycorrelate this aspect and can generate the understanding thereafter that smoking makes personacceptable in the society. But while saying that the childhood years are the best period for thesocial learning to take place, does not mean that a adolescent or a older person cannot learn.They can but the intensity and the quantum may vary.Thus whatever the theory may be, the implication of the same has to be in consent with theenvironment and the growth of the organisation. The best personality is that personalitywhich shapes the growth of the organisation and thereby confirms the moving of theorganisation upward. ++++ Questions 1) Explain the concept of personality? 2) Discuss the characteristics of personality? 3) Discuss the determinant to personality? 4) Write short notes on: • Trait Theory • Social learning theory • Type theory of personality 5) Amongst the different theories of personality discussed in this chapter, which theory describes personality in most correct manner? 6) Discuss the effect which personality brings to the normal working of the organisation? 7) How far learning is responsible for shaping up the personality of individual? 8) Can system theory of organisation be related to development of personality? 9) How does personality holds its relevancy across the world in the same company, when there are biological factors, situational factors and social factors are different for different geographical locations? Discuss 10) “Personality is important ingredients for the development of ideal group”. Discuss the correctness of the statement. Group TaskConduct a research to determine the effect of biological factor of personality in the growth ofthe organisation. How these factors determine the path for further growth in organisation? Individual TaskConduct a research to determine the effect of change of guard in the organisation. Here theobjective is to cross check whether there is really any effect whenever there is change inmanagerial position in the organisation or organisation moves in the way as it wants to. Ifthere is some change than what can be best possible way to utilize that change in positivemanner, suggest. Discussion - 105 -
  14. 14. Bhuwan ShrivastavaShyam is Introvert. He did his MBA from a reputed institute while doing it he was havinghigh hope that he will end up getting some job viz Brand ManagementBut actuality was entirely different then what was thought; he got placed somewhere intosales with a very good pay package and salary. He joined the company, but to some corner ofhis consciousness he still wanted to be into some in house activity.The performance he was delivering was something that no one can achieve; he establishedthe brand where ever he went. But that was not at all he wanted. He was having desire ofsomething else; something as defined above. During this course he changed many jobs andmany industries but not as under performer but as achiever.Q) Discuss the scenario with reference to the personality discussed in the above case?Q) Suggest Shyam the best possible way with respect to the personality he has? - 106 -

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