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  1. 1. SYNBIOTICS: POTENTIAL DIEATRY SUPPLEMENTS IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS ¹Sachin K Verma, ²Sajan Palanchoke¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  2. 2. SYNBIOTICS: POTENTIAL DIEATRY SUPPLEMENTS IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS BY SACHIN K VERMA And SAJAN PALACHOKE ABSTRACTFood healthiness has been associated with nutritional factors such as fat, fibres, salts andvitamins. In addition to this traditional healthiness, food may contain single components thatmay have a positive impact on our well-being. Food processing and biotechnology hasenabled the food industry to make food with special characteristics. A synbiotic is a supplement that contains both a Prebiotic and probiotic that workstogether to improve the “friendly flora” of the human intestine. Such functional foods provide a novel approach to the idea of healthy eating by linking asingle component with a certain health effect in a single product. In the last few years, greatattention has been dedicated to probiotics and prebiotics or their combined use (synbiotic) inimprovement of human health in a natural way because of their history of safe use and thegeneral body of evidence that supports their positive roles. Such synbiotic indicate a realisticway of using biological preparations in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in humans.The main reason for using a synbiotic that a true probiotic, without its, prebiotic food doesnot survive well in the digestive system. To enhance viability, not only on the shelf but alsoin the colon, the product allow for much greater attachment and growth rate of healthybacteria in order to minimize the growth of harmful bacteriaINTRODUCTIONConsumers are becoming more and more prebiotics, represent the largest segment ofinterested in foods that have a health the functional food market in Europe,benefit beyond basic nutrition and the food Japan and Australia. Functional foods areindustry is trying to fulfil these wishes by generally characterised as foods similar indeveloping products with measurable appearance to conventional foods,health benefits. Foods that contain consumed as part of a usual diet, andprebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics are providing health-related benefits beyondpart of these and are meriting special meeting basic nutritional needs (Stepheninterest by consumers. Both prebiotics and 1998). The use of probiotics and prebioticsprobiotics represent different but is a promising area for the development ofpotentially exciting parts of the market for functional foods (Salminen et al. 1998;healthy food and drink. Probiotic- Tannock 1999). The market for this foodcontaining foods can be categorised as category continues to expand, in parallelfunctional foods, and along with with growing consumer awareness of the¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  3. 3. role of diet in health maintenance foods or food ingredients, it is possible to(Stanton et al. 2001), and represents an increase the numbers of target bacteria.exciting market opportunity for the food „Synbiotics encourage the growth of the probiotic organism by providing theand dairy industries. specific substrate to the probiotic Synbiotics may be defined as the organism for its fermentation’ (Farnworthcombination of probiotics (the live 2001).bacteria) and prebiotics (the foodcomponents they live on). The main reason The currently available synbioticfor using a synbiotic is that a true supplements include combinations ofprobiotic, without its prebiotic „food bifidobacteria and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS); Lactobacillus GG and inulins; andsource‟, does not survive well in the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and FOS ordigestive system. Without such a necessary source for the probiotic, it will have agreater intolerance for oxygen, low pH, PROBIOTICand temperature. In addition, the probioticwill have to compete against other bacteria The term „Probiotic‟, as coined by Parkerthat will take over if its specific food (Parker 1974) is derived from a Greek word meaning „for life‟. Although thesource is not available. Therefore, a benefits of prebiotics have come to light in„synbiotic‟ product makes for a better more recent years, recognition of probioticchoice. Both work together in a synergistic effects dates back to the 19th century whenway, more efficiently promoting the the French scientist Louis Pasteurprobiotics benefits. postulated the importance of microorganisms in human life. In the US, several probiotic- andprebiotic-containing foods have recently “Probiotics can be defined asbeen introduced into the marketplace. New selected, viable microbial dietarytechniques are now being adopted by the supplements, when introduced in sufficientfood industry to develop and promote quantities, beneficially affect humanthese types of functional foods with a organism through their effects in thegreater shelf life. intestinal tract”.SYNBIOTICS By WHO & FAO- “Probiotics are "live microorganisms, which, when „A Synbiotic is a supplement that administered in adequate amounts, confercontains both, a prebiotic and a probiotic a health benefit on the host" (FAO/WHOthat work together to improve “friendly 2002).”flora” of human intestine.‟ Common examples of probiotic bacteria The principal behind synbiotics is are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,that our gastrointestinal (GI) system is Streptococcus and Enterococcus species.populated by a large number and variety ofdifferent bacteria. Some of the bacteria PREBIOTICSpresent in our GI tract (Bifidobacteria in Prebiotics are defined as “non-digestibleparticular) have very specific nutrient food ingredients that beneficially affect theneeds, and therefore by selecting specific host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  4. 4. of bacteria in the colon, which can communicable diseases and allergicimprove host health” (Gibson 1995). situations.AVAILABLE SYNBIOTICS IN THE  Lactobacillus bulgaricus- This isMARKET considered as a kind of transitory probiotic bacteria because it does not BIFIDOBACTERIA AND FOS stay in the intestinal panel to develop a camp of bacteria. Relatively it Bifidobacteria bifidum- This kind of basically goes by the digestive system bacteria is considered as one of the and departs from your body in the form chief components of the regular flora of stool. As soon as it goes by the in your colon and is the most usual digestive tract, advantageous result type of bifidobacteria present in most happens such as: improvement of milk probiotic products. product and protein absorption; and the Bifidobacteria longum- This is development of normal antibiotic another type of bifidobacteria which is elements that particularly aim also present in probiotic produces. It pathogenic bacteria while safeguarding has the ability to eradicate the nitrates the good bacteria. that are usually obtained from food that  Lactobacillus salivarius- This type of we eat. probiotic bacteria has the ability to Bifidobacteria infantis-This is slow down the development of identified to have an ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. The latter is the activity of omnipresent pathogenic known to take charge in the growth of bacteria like E. coli. peptic ulcers.  Lactobacillus plantarum- This kindFOS (Fructooligosaccharide) of bacteria is considered as a very dominant type in almost normallyA Fructooligosaccharide (also written fermented food. It is useful infructo-oligosaccharide) is a carbohydrate, obstructing receptor sites for gramwhich is made out of a short chain of negative bacteria and is alsofructose molecules. It is also classed as an considered as an efficient form ofoligosaccharide; oligo meaning few and antibiotic.saccharide, sugar. It is used as alternative  Lactobacillus casei- This type issweetener, FOS sweetening level between usually present in probiotic dairy30-50 percent of sugar in commercially products like live yogurt. The wordprepared syrup. casei is actually connected to the milk protein known as casein. LACTOBACILLI AND LACTITOL  Lactobacillus sporogenes - This type has the ability to reduce cholesterol Lactobacillus acidophilus- This is the levels by as much as 104 points. It can most popular probiotic bacteria that are significantly lessen bad cholesterol incorporated in all probiotic food and levels as it slowly but considerably dietary supplements. improves your good cholesterol Lactobacillus rhamnosus- This is a amount. kind of probiotic bacteria that has been gaining a lot of interest because of its LACTITOL ability to treat a lot of ailments due to its GG strain component. There are Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a studies being conducted to back up its replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie usefulness, especially for foods with approximately 40% of the¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  5. 5. sweetness of sugar. Lactitol, erythritol, mineral absorption and balance and maysorbitol, xylitol, manitol, and maltitol are all have anti-osteoporotic activitysugar alcohols. The United States Food and (Zubillaga et al. 2001; Holzapfel andDrug Administration (FDA) classifies sugar Schilling 2002). In the human body,alcohols as "generally recognized as safe" prebiotics nourish the microflora(GRAS). They are approved as food additives, (probiotics) and encourage them to workand are recognized as not contributing to tooth more efficiently, keeping the human bodydecay or causing increases in blood glucose.Lactitol is also approved for use in foods in healthy and strong. The synbiotic effect ofmost countries around the world. fermented foods and drinks not only populates our intestines with beneficial BIFIDOBACTERIA AND GOS bacteria, but also helps in improving the survival, implantation and growth of newlyBifidobacteria already have been discussed added microflora the first type of synbiotics (In  Immune enhancementBifidobacteria and FOS). Probiotics can enhance both specific and nonspecific immune responses, withoutGOS (Galacto-oligosaccharides) eliciting a harmful inflammatory response. The cell components of Lactobacillus areGalacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), also known to stimulate the immune response,known as, oligogalactosyllactose which tends to protect the host fromoligogalactose, oligolactose or infection as well as from conditionstransgalactooligosacchariden (TOS), involving the immune response, such asbelong, because of their indigestible irritable bowel syndrome and colon cancer.nature, to the group of prebiotics. Probiotic bacteria regulate the immune system as they are known to have theGalactooligosacchairdes have been shown ability to increase the levels of circulatingto be an excellent source for health- immunoglobulin A (IgA).promoting bacteria such as Bifidobacteria  Antidiarrhoeal aspectsand Lactobacilli. Many studies with Gastrointestinal infections includinginfants and adults have shown that foods diarrhoea result from a change in the gutor drinks enriched with galacto- microflora caused by an invadingoligosaccharides resulted in a significant pathogen. The pathogen has to establishincrease in Bifidobacteria. In comparison itself in sufficient numbers within the gut.with other oligosaccharides, the It has been suggested that probioticbifidogenicity for galacto-oligosaccharides bacteria interfere with the colonisation andwas strongly shown. subsequent proliferation of food borne pathogens, thus preventing the manifestation of infection through competition with pathogens for binding HEALTH BENEFITS OF sites and through release of inhibitory SYNBIOTICS compounds.  Alleviation of lactose intoleranceSynbiotics have been reported to provide Lactose intolerance is a problem for ≤70%different health benefits such as of the world‟s population and is found inantimicrobial, immunomodulatory, persons lacking the enzyme lactase (β-antidiarrhoeal, antiallergenic, galactosidase). Symptoms includehypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic abdominal pain and osmotic diarrhoeaactivities. They also help in improving after eating foods high in lactose, since the lactose is not degraded and absorbed in the¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  6. 6. upper regions of the small intestine and is Probiotic bacteria also stimulate antigenthus used by the indigenous microbiota, specific and nonspecific immuneresulting in production of gases and responses. They also compete for nutrientsorganic acids responsible for the necessary for pathogen survivalcharacteristic symptoms of lactose (Ouwehand 1998).intolerance. Probiotic microbes containing  Nutrient synthesis andlactase can degrade lactose before it bioavailabilityreaches the indigenous microbes in the Fermentation of foods with lactic acidlower part of the small intestine (Sanders bacteria has been shown to increase folic1993). acid content of yoghurt, bifidus milk and Antiallergenic qualities kefir and to increase niacin and riboflavinProbiotics may help prevent allergic levels in yoghurt, vitamin B12 in cottagereactions in individuals at high risk of cheese and vitamin B6 in Cheddar cheeseallergies, such as food allergies. Probiotic (Friend and Shahani 1984). In addition tobacteria help to reinforce the barrier nutrient synthesis, probiotics may improvefunction of the intestinal wall, thereby the digestibility of some dietary nutrientspossibly preventing the absorption of some such as protein and fat (Shahani andantigens (Kirjavainen 2003). Chandan 1979). Osteoporosis prevention FUTURE PROSPECTSThis may occur as a result of an Functional foods containing synbioticsimprovement in mineral absorption and should be developed by keeping in mindbalance. This ability comes as a result of the specific functional characteristicsoligosaccharides (3-6 sugar chains), which associated with targeting specific groupsbind such minerals as calcium and of individuals, e.g. infants, children,magnesium in the small intestine, but then elderly people, and for people sufferingrelease them in the large intestine where from diseases like diabetes and lactosethey are better absorbed (Ouwehand et al. intolerance. Genetic analysis and1999). Fatty acids, also formed from the modification of probiotics can lead to thefermentation process, will then assist with development of new probiotics withthe absorption of these minerals. beneficial health effects. New and cheaper Reduced risk of heart disease sources of prebiotics and probiotics shouldProbiotics may potentially reduce the risk be generated, for example from wasteof heart disease by lowering blood agriculture biomass (i.e. residues fromcholesterol levels, increasing the plant, animal and microbial processing)resistance of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and using lactose from inexpensive wheycholesterol to oxidation, and reducing feed stocks. There is potential for inblood pressure (Tannock 1999). Prebiotics situ manufacture of prebiotics during foodappear to lower triglyceride levels, as well processing operations. This might, foras total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol example involve the enzymaticlevels. In addition, a substance released modification or acid hydrolysis of variousthrough fermentation (propionate) appears carbohydrates and polysaccharides duringto make better use of the glucose molecule food processing. Better analytical methodsconversion. should be developed, which can identify Antimicrobial qualities novel prebiotic oligosaccharides in foods; Antimicrobial qualities may ideally, these should have goodresult more from the probiotic components reproducibility, reliability and should notthan prebiotic components. Probiotic involve expensive, specialist analyticalbacteria compete with pathogens to equipment. Technology now seems to beprevent their adhesion to intestinal walls.¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  7. 7. available for the expansion of new ranges organisms throughout the digestiveof foods and drinks containing synbiotics, system, proper digestion, absorption,which can provide the industry with better and/or manufacture of nutrients cannotprospects and an opportunity for growth. take place.The use of synbiotics in food in criticalcare is promising; however, they should be A synbiotic will also suppress theadministered carefully and cautiously, and development of putrefactive processes inonly on the basis of strong scientific the stomach and intestines thus preventingevidence. the occurrence of a number of serious diseases: food allergies, ulcerous colitis,CONCLUSION constipation, diarrhea, cancers, gastrointestinal infections, and so on.Consuming a probiotic supplement that Typically, a synbiotic product containingalso includes the appropriate prebiotic has one to ten billion active cells is takenmany beneficial effects. Most importantly, several times a week, if not daily. In casesthe combination has the ability to heal and where antibiotics have been taken, it isregulate the intestinal flora, particularly sometimes suggested that such a productafter the destruction of microorganisms be taken several times a day, preferably atfollowing antibiotic, chemotherapy, or least 30 minutes before meals.radiation therapies. Without the beneficial¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²
  8. 8. REFERENCESFarnworth, E.R. 2001. Probiotics and prebiotics. In: Wildman, R.E.C.Handbook of nutraceuticals andfunctional foods: 407-422. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.Friend, B.A. and Shahani, K.M. 1984. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. Journal of AppliedNutrition 36:125-53.Gallaher, D.D., Stallings, W.H. and Blessing, L.L. 1996. Journal of Nutrition 126: 1362.Gulewicz, P., Ciesiodea, D., Frias, J., Vidal-Valverde, C., Frejnagel, S., Trojanowska, K. and Gulewicz, K.2003. Simple method of isolation and purification of β-galactosides from legumes. Journal of Agricultural andFood Chemistry 48: 3120-3123.Gibson, G.R. and Roberfroid, M.B. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microflora: introducing theconcept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition 125: 1401–1412.Gorbach, S.L. 2002. Probiotics in the third millennium. Digestive and Liver Disease 43 (suppl. 2): S2-S7.Holzapfel, W.H. and Schillinger, U. 2002. Introduction to pre- and probiotics. Food Research International 35:109-116.Ishibashi, N. and Shimamura, S. 1993. Bifidobacteria: research and development in Japan. Food Technology 47:126–135.Kirjavainen, P.V., Salminen, S.J. and Isolauri, E. 2003. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 36:223.Lee, Y.K. and Salminen, S. 1995. The coming of age of probiotics. Trends in Food Science and Technology 6:241–245.Ouwehand, A.C. 1998. Antimicrobial components from lactic acid bacteria. In: Salminen S. and von Wright, A.,editors. Lactic acid bacteria, microbiology and functional aspects: 139–160. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,USA.Ouwehand, A.C., Kirjavainen, P.V., Shortt, C. and Salminen, S. 1999. Probiotics: mechanisms and establishedeffects. International Dairy Journal 9: 43-52.Parker, R.B. 1974. Probiotics. The other half of the antibiotics story. Animal Nutrition and Health 29: 4-8.Perdigon, G., Maldonado-Galdeano, G. and Valdez, J.C. 2002.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56: 21s.Playne, M.J. and Crittenden, R. 1996. Commercially available oligosaccharides. Bulletin of the Internationaldairy Federation 313: 10-22.Saavedra, J.M. and Bauman, N.A. 1994. Feeding Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus toinfants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344:1046–1049.Salminen, S., Bouley, C. and Boutron-Ruault, M.C. 1998. Functional food science and gastrointestinalphysiology and function. British Journal of Nutrition 80: S147–171.Sanders, M.E. 1993. Summary of the conclusions from a consensus panel of experts on health attributes onlactic cultures: significance to fluid milk products containing cultures. Journal of Dairy Science76:1819–1828.Sanders, M.E. 1999. Probiotics: a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists Expert Panel on FoodSafety and Nutrition. Food Technology 53: 67-77.Shahani, K.M. and Chandan, R.C. 1979. Nutritional and healthful aspects of cultured and culture-containingdairy foods. Journal of Dairy Science 62: 1685-1694.Stanton, C., Gardiner, G., Meehan, H., Collins, K., Fitzgerald, G., Lynch, P.B. and Ross, R.P. 2001. Marketpotential for probiotics. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73: 476s–483s.Stanton, C., Desmond, C., Coakley, M., Collins, J.K., Fitzgerald, G. and Ross, R.P. 2003. Challenges associatedwith the development of probiotic-containing functional foods. In: Farnworth, E.R., editor. Handbook offermented functional foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.¹Department of Dairy Science and Technology ²Department of Food Engineering WSFDT, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 Contact: ¹, ²