SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Serendipitous discovery of an extended xray jet without a radio counterpart in a high redshift quasar

A recent Chandra observation of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 has led to the discovery of an extended X-ray jet associated with the high-redshift background quasar B3 0727+409, a luminous radio source at redshift z = 2:5. This is one of only few examples of high-redshift X-ray jets known to date. It has a clear extension of about 1200, corresponding to a projected length of  100 kpc, with a possible hot spot located 3500 from the quasar. The archival high resolution VLA maps surprisingly reveal no extended jet emission, except for one knot about 1:400 from the quasar. The high X-ray to radio luminosity ratio for this source appears consistent with the / (1 + z)4 ampli cation expected from the inverse Compton radiative model. This serendipitous discovery may signal the existence of an entire population of similar systems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high redshift, a selection bias which must be accounted for when drawing any conclusions about the redshift evolution of jet properties and indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei in general.

1 of 6
Download to read offline
Draft version January 5, 2016
Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 5/2/11
SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED X-RAY JET WITHOUT A RADIO COUNTERPART
IN A HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR
A. Simionescu1
, L. Stawarz2
, Y. Ichinohe1, 3
, C. C. Cheung4
, M. Jamrozy2
, A. Siemiginowska5
, K. Hagino1
,
P. Gandhi6
, and N. Werner7, 8
1Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 Japan
2Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171 , 30-244 Krak´ow, Poland
3Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
4Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352, USA
5Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
6School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ, Southampton, United Kingdom
7KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and
8Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060, USA
Draft version January 5, 2016
ABSTRACT
A recent Chandra observation of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 has led to the discovery of
an extended X-ray jet associated with the high-redshift background quasar B3 0727+409, a luminous
radio source at redshift z = 2.5. This is one of only few examples of high-redshift X-ray jets known
to date. It has a clear extension of about 12 , corresponding to a projected length of ∼ 100 kpc, with
a possible hot spot located 35 from the quasar. The archival high resolution VLA maps surprisingly
reveal no extended jet emission, except for one knot about 1.4 from the quasar. The high X-ray to
radio luminosity ratio for this source appears consistent with the ∝ (1 + z)4
amplification expected
from the inverse Compton radiative model. This serendipitous discovery may signal the existence
of an entire population of similar systems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high redshift, a
selection bias which must be accounted for when drawing any conclusions about the redshift evolution
of jet properties and indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and active
galactic nuclei in general.
Subject headings: galaxies: active — galaxies: jets — quasars: individual (B3 0727+409) — radiation
mechanisms: non-thermal — radio continuum: galaxies — X-rays: general
1. INTRODUCTION
Over the years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has re-
vealed a significant number of X-ray bright, kiloparsec-
scale jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN; e.g., Harris &
Krawczynski 2006)1
. Despite notable progress in un-
derstanding these objects, it is still unclear what is the
composition of the plasma carrying the energy, how and
where the jet particles are accelerated, and how rela-
tivistic the jets are in terms of their bulk velocity, β, and
Doppler beaming factors, δ ≡ [Γ(1 − β cos θ)]−1
, with θ
being the jet inclination and Γ ≡ (1−β2
)− 1
2 the jet bulk
Lorentz factor.
Radiative models for the broad-band emission of large-
scale quasar jets have also remained a matter of de-
bate. The two main candidate mechanisms for produc-
ing the jet X-ray emission are synchrotron and inverse
Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background
(IC/CMB). A robust determination of the jet energetics
requires constraints on the relative importance of these
two processes. The IC/CMB scenario implies particle-
dominated and highly relativistic outflows (δ 10),
which do not suffer severe deceleration or energy dis-
sipation between sub-pc and kpc scales (e.g., Ghisellini
& Celotti 2001; Tavecchio et al. 2007), while the syn-
chrotron interpretation can be reconciled with highly-
magnetized and possibly slower jets on kpc distances
from the quasar cores (e.g., Stawarz et al. 2004; Hard-
1 http://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/
castle 2006).
The IC/CMB model predicts an increase in the X-ray–
to–radio flux ratio with redshift, due to the amplification
of the CMB energy density (e.g., Schwartz 2002; Ghis-
ellini et al. 2014); neglecting a weak dependance on the
spectral slope of the non-thermal continuum,
[νFν]x
[νFν]r
∝
uCMB
uB
δ
Γ
2
∝ (1 + z)4 δ
B
2
, (1)
where Fν is the observed energy flux spectral density,
uCMB 4 × 10−13
Γ2
(1 + z)4
erg cm−3
is the CMB en-
ergy density in the jet rest frame (denoted hereafter by
primes), and uB ≡ B
2
/8π is the comoving energy den-
sity of the jet magnetic field. Studying high-redshift
jets can thus provide important clues on the mecha-
nism responsible for their observed X-ray emission. How-
ever, very few high-redshift X-ray jets are known to date
(Siemiginowska et al. 2003; Yuan et al. 2003; Cheung
et al. 2006, 2012). Therefore, variations of the jet beam-
ing, δ, and jet magnetic field strength, B, both from
system to system and between different knots along the
same jet, can introduce a scatter that may mask the ex-
pected (1 + z)4
increase even when the IC/CMB model
is the dominant emission mechanism (see Cheung 2004).
Increasing the sample of high-redshift quasar jets with
good-quality X-ray data will not only allow us to distin-
guish between competing radiative models; by combining
in-depth studies of the cosmological evolution of the jet
properties from the epoch of the quasar formation up to
arXiv:1509.04822v2[astro-ph.HE]4Jan2016
2 A. Simionescu et al.
the present day with our current understanding of black
hole growth and the evolution of black hole spin (e.g.,
Volonteri et al. 2013), we can shed new light on the jet
launching mechanism, as well as on the evolution of the
intergalactic medium that the jets propagate through.
Here, we report the discovery of an extended, X-ray
bright, radio faint black hole jet associated with the
quasar B3 0727+409. Based on the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (Ahn et al. 2012), the
spectroscopic redshift of this source is z = 2.500 ±
0.001. Assuming a ΛCDM cosmology with ΩΛ = 0.73,
ΩM = 0.27, and H0 = 71 km s−1
Mpc−1
, the redshift of
B3 0727+409 corresponds to the luminosity distance of
dL 20.1 Gpc and the conversion scale 8 kpc/ .
2. OBSERVATIONS AND DATA REDUCTION
2.1. Chandra
The X-ray jet associated with B3 0727+409 was dis-
covered in a relatively short (20 ks) Chandra observation
from 2014 December 15 (ObsID 17167), targeting the
nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 (z 0.121; see Jamrozy
et al. 2014). The brightest cluster galaxy of Abell 585 is
located ∼ 2.5 northwest of the quasar, so that both were
observed in the 8.3 × 8.3 field-of-view of the Advanced
CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) S3 chip.
We reprocessed the standard level 1 event lists pro-
duced by the Chandra pipeline in the standard manner,
using the CIAO (version 4.7) software package to include
the appropriate gain maps and updated calibration prod-
ucts. Bad pixels were removed and standard grade se-
lections applied. The information available in VFAINT
mode was used to improve the rejection of cosmic ray
events. Periods of anomalously high background were
excluded by examining the light-curve of the observa-
tion in the 0.3 − 10 keV energy band using the standard
time binning methods recommended by the Chandra X-
ray Center. The net exposure time after cleaning is 19 ks.
2.2. VLA
Inspecting the Very Large Array (VLA) images of
B3 0727+409 previously presented in Jamrozy et al.
(2014) that probe a range of spatial scales > 1 , we did
not find any significant radio emission associated with
the X-ray jet. We therefore analyzed an additional set of
VLA data from the NRAO2
archive from 2007 August 6,
when it was observed as a calibrator in program AL696.
The observations were collected in the most extended A-
configuration and consisted of five short scans centered
at 1.43 GHz and three scans at 4.86 GHz. The data were
calibrated with AIPS (Bridle & Greisen 1994) following
standard procedures with amplitude calibration utilizing
a scan of 3C 286 at 1.43 GHz and 3C 147 at 4.86 GHz.
After editing, the total exposure times for B3 0727+409
were approximately 9 and 4 minutes at the respective fre-
quencies. The (u, v) data were imported into DIFMAP
(Shepherd et al. 1994) for phase and amplitude self-
calibration. CLEAN images were convolved with circular
Gaussians with full-width half maxima matched to the
natural weighted beam sizes of 0.4 at 4.86 GHz and 1.5
at 1.43 GHz (0.09 and 0.14 mJy beam−1
off-source rms,
2 The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of
the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agree-
ment by Associated Universities, Inc.
0 0.016 0.047 0.11 0.24 0.49 0.99 2 4 8 16
55.0 54.0 53.0 52.0 51.0 7:30:50.0 49.0 48.0
10.040:50:00.050.040.030.049:20.0
Right ascension
Declination
B3 0727+409
5"
Fig. 1.— Unsmoothed Chandra count map showing the
B3 0727+409 quasar core and X-ray jet. Colorbar units are counts
per native ACIS pixel (0.492 × 0.492 ).
respectively). We also reimaged the VLA 4.71 GHz B-
array dataset from Jamrozy et al. (2014) to provide an
image with the same 1.5 beam as the 1.43 GHz image.
3. RESULTS
3.1. Imaging
Figure 1 shows a raw Chandra count map of the region
around B3 0727+409 in the 0.6 − 7.5 keV energy band.
Because the jet is relatively bright and compact, no vi-
gnetting or background corrections were applied. The
image reveals a clear extension of ∼ 12 northwest of
the quasar’s core, corresponding to a projected length
of ∼ 100 kpc at z = 2.5. Note that there is no visible
charge-transfer streak in the ACIS-S3 read-out direction
(offset from the X-ray jet by ∼ 60◦
clockwise) that would
indicate significant pile-up of counts from the bright core.
In our 4.86 GHz VLA 0.4 resolution map, we confirm
the detection of a radio feature ∼ 1.4 from the quasar
core found by Gobeille et al. (2014) using the same data.
We find no significant additional emission coinciding with
the rest of the X-ray jet. Figure 2 shows a Chandra image
of the jet, rebinned to 0.1 ACIS pixels and smoothed
with a 0.5 Gaussian filter, overlaid with 4.86 GHz radio
contours.
Note that very long baseline interferometry maps show
apparent superluminal motion up to ∼ 6.6c in a one-
sided milliarcsecond-scale jet oriented toward the ex-
tended structure seen in X-rays, indicating relativistic
beaming on small scales (Britzen et al. 2008).
3.2. Spectral fitting and flux measurements
3.2.1. Extended jet
For the position on the detector corresponding to the
quasar core, the 90% enclosed-counts fraction aperture
of the Chandra point-spread function (PSF) has a radius
of rP SF 90 = 1.77 . We extracted X-ray spectra from
a 10 -long rectangular region with a width of 2 rP SF 90,
starting at a minimum distance of rP SF 90 and extending
out to 10 + rP SF 90 12 from the quasar core.
We fit the resulting spectrum in the 0.6–7.5 keV en-
ergy range with an absorbed power-law model, with the
High-redshift X-ray Jet With No Radio Counterpart 3
hydrogen column density fixed to the Galactic value,
NH = 6.2 × 1020
cm−2
(Kalberla et al. 2005), assuming
no intrinsic absorption. The background was estimated
from an annulus centered on the X-ray peak, with inner
and outer radii of 15 and 30 . The best-fit power-law
index is Γx = 1.74+0.34
−0.32, with a corresponding flux den-
sity at 1 keV of 2.7 ± 0.7 nJy.
This extraction region does not include the radio knot
at ∼ 1.4 , which is only marginally resolved from the
quasar core with Chandra (Section 3.2.2). The extended
jet is thus remarkably radio faint, with no visible emis-
sion in both VLA images. To estimate upper limits,
we used the 1.5 -beam images and defined four adja-
cent 1.5 × 2 apertures elongated along the X-ray jet
direction (position angle PA = −60◦
), centered 3.1 ,
5.4 , 7.7 , and 10.0 from the quasar. Using the AIPS
task UVSUB to subtract the cores from the (u, v) data,
as well as the modeled Gaussian representing the 1.4
knot in the 1.43 GHz data (below), the 3σ point source
upper limits in each of the respective apertures were
< 0.6, < 0.6, < 0.6, and < 0.4 mJy at 1.43 GHz, and
< 0.8 (larger due to contamination from the adjacent
1.4 knot), < 0.3, < 0.4, and < 0.3 mJy at 4.71 GHz.
Assuming the radio jet is composed of a series of four
unresolved radio knots within the defined apertures, the
total radio emission co-spatial with the X-ray jet visible
beyond the 1.4 knot is thus < 2.2 and < 1.8 mJy, cor-
responding to [νFν]x/[νFν]r > 205 and > 73 at 1.43 and
4.71 GHz, respectively.
In addition, we detect excess X-ray emission (a to-
tal of 10 counts) located 35 from the quasar core (280
kpc, projected), along the same position angle as the jet
(Figure 2). The hypothesis that this excess of counts
is solely due to Poisson fluctuations around the average
background level estimated from a neighbouring region
is ruled out at the p-value of 2.18 × 10−5
; since it lacks
any SDSS counterpart, this X-ray feature may therefore
likely represent the terminal hotspot of the B3 0727+409
jet. The corresponding 3σ point source upper limits at
the location of this X-ray hotspot are < 0.6 mJy (1.43
GHz) and < 0.3 mJy (4.71 GHz).
3.2.2. Jet knot at 1.4
By measuring the count rates in four partial annuli
with opening angles of 90◦
and spanning 0.5 − 1 rP SF 90
from the quasar core, we estimate that the azimuth corre-
sponding to the radio knot contains 6.3±3.5 X-ray counts
above the surface brightness level determined from the
other three azimuths. Assuming this emission follows the
same power-law index as the extended jet, this implies
the knot’s flux density at 1 keV is 0.44 ± 0.10 nJy, and
the 2–10 keV luminosity of the entire jet (summing the
knot and extended jet) is ∼ (6.1 ± 2.5) × 1044
erg s−1
.
From the VLA data, we measured a flux density for the
knot of 1.5 mJy at 4.86 GHz by fitting a circular Gaus-
sian component in the (u, v) plane with the modelfit
program in DIFMAP. Though at the edge of the beam
of the bright core in the lower-resolution 1.43 GHz image,
that same knot is clearly visible in the CLEAN compo-
nents, and we measured a flux density of 4.5 mJy. In the
presence of the bright core, we estimate the uncertainties
in the flux densities are 20% at both frequencies. The re-
sultant spectral index of the knot is α = 0.90±0.23. The
RA (J2000)
07
h
30
m
51
s
07
h
30
m
50
s
07
h
30
m
49
s
Dec(J2000)
+40:49:50+40:49:55+40:50:00+40:50:05+40:50:10
0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2
Hot Spot
Knot
Fig. 2.— A zoom-in on the X-ray image of B3 0727+409 shown
in Figure 1, smoothed with a 0.5 Gaussian filter. VLA 4.86 GHz
contours at 0.29, 0.58, and 0.87 mJy beam−1 are shown in green.
We have corrected for a slight offset between the X-ray and radio
contours due to the Chandra astrometric error.
broad-band emission from the knot therefore corresponds
to the flux density ratio [νFν]x/[νFν]r 15, with very
similar values at both frequencies.
3.2.3. Quasar core
We also extracted spectra from a circular region of ra-
dius rP SF 90 centered around the quasar core; subtracting
the local background as described above and fitting the
resulting spectrum with an absorbed power-law, we ob-
tain a best-fit index Γx = 1.32 ± 0.12 and a 2–10 keV
rest frame luminosity of LX,core = 2.6+0.4
−0.5 ×1045
erg s−1
.
No intrinsic absorption in addition to the Galactic NH is
required by the fit.
All our X-ray and radio flux measurements are sum-
marised in Table 1.
4. DISCUSSION
4.1. Origin of the jet X-ray emission
A non-thermal origin provides the most natural expla-
nation for the jet X-ray emission. We modeled the radio–
to–X-ray spectrum of the large-scale jet in B3 0727+409
with the IC/CMB scenario assuming a broken power-law
shape of the electron energy distribution, ne(γ ) ∝ γ
−p
for γmin ≤ γ ≤ γbr, and ne(γ ) ∝ γ
−p−1
exp[−γ /γmax]
for γ > γbr, where γ is the electron Lorentz factor. This
parametrization takes into account the expected break
in the electron spectrum resulting from radiative cool-
ing. We also assume pressure equipartition between the
emitting electrons and the jet magnetic field, and allow
for a heavy jet content with one e−
p+
pair per 1–10 e±
pairs (see Sikora & Madejski 2000). Finally, we assume
a spherical geometry for the 1.4 knot with a 3 kpc ra-
dius (consistent with the knot’s radio extent in the VLA
4.86 GHz image), and a cylindrical geometry for the ex-
tended jet with the same radius and a length of 80 kpc.
The broad-band jet spectrum can be described by the
model shown in Figure 3, returning reasonable parame-
ters: the jet inclination θ 7.5◦
, the jet bulk Lorentz
factor Γ 10 (meaning δ 7.4), the jet magnetic field
decreasing slowly along the outflow from B 30 µG
down to 15 µG, a “standard” form of the electron en-
ergy distribution with γmin = 10, γmax = 105
, p = 2.5,
4 A. Simionescu et al.
TABLE 1
Flux measurements for the B3 0727+409 jet and quasar core. Upper limits are quoted at the 3σ level.
core 1.4 knot extended jet hot spot
Chandra counts (0.6–7.5 keV) 212 ± 15 6.3 ± 3.5 38 ± 6 10 ± 3
X-ray power-law index Γ 1.32 ± 0.12 1.74 (assumed) 1.74+0.34
−0.32 1.74 (assumed)
0.6 − 7.5 keV flux (erg cm−2 s−1) 1.26+0.2
−0.13 × 10−13 ∼ 0.32 × 10−14 1.92+0.50
−0.62 × 10−14 ∼ 0.51 × 10−14
2–10 keV luminosity (erg s−1) 2.6+0.4
−0.5 × 1045 ∼ 0.9 × 1044 5.2+1.9
−3.0 × 1044 ∼ 1.4 × 1044
flux density at 1 keV (nJy) 11.4 ± 1.2 0.44 ± 0.10 2.7 ± 0.7 0.71 ± 0.18
VLA 1.43 GHz flux density (mJy) 294 ± 15 4.5 ± 0.9 < 2.2 < 0.6
VLA 4.86 GHz flux density (mJy) 243 ± 12 1.5 ± 0.3 – –
VLA 4.71 GHz upper limit (mJy) – – < 1.8 < 0.3
107
1010
1013
1016
1019
1022
1025
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
Ν Hz
ΝLΝergs
extended jet
1.4'' knot
Fig. 3.— The spectral energy distributions of the B3 0727+409
extended jet and 1.4 knot, along with the corresponding syn-
chrotron plus IC/CMB model curves.
and the cooling break decreasing from γbr = 3 × 103
at
the position of the 1.4 knot down to γbr = 103
at the
position of the outer jet.
Although all parameters are currently only weakly
constrained by the data, this model seems to favour
a high total jet kinetic power of the order of Lj ∼
(0.3 − 3) × 1047
erg s−1
(depending on the exact proton
content), and highly relativistic jet bulk velocities main-
tained over very large scales of order the de-projected
source size, dep 600 kpc. However, the estimated jet
kinetic power further depends on various assumptions in
our model: for a purely leptonic jet, Lj would be smaller
than cited here, while if the magnetic field energy den-
sity is below the equipartition value, Lj would increase,
while the required relativistic beaming would decrease.
Note also that, alternatively, a synchrotron origin of the
X-ray emission is not excluded by the data (however, see
the discussion at the end of Section 4.2).
On the other hand, a thermal origin of the X-ray emis-
sion from the extended jet region is implausible: the
best-fit thermal model (employing the apec model with
a metallicity fixed at 0.2 Solar) implies a best-fit tem-
perature of kT = 17.8+33.9
−6.8 keV, which would be un-
usually high for any truly diffuse structure at z = 2.5.
Also the corresponding electron density, ne, and total
mass would be exceptional: assuming the same cylindri-
cal geometry as above, the best-fit emission measure of
the apec model translates to ne ∼ 0.8 f−1/2
cm−3
and
Mgas ∼ 4 f1/2
× 1010
M , with f < 1 denoting the fill-
ing factor of the gas (with respect to the assumed cylin-
drical geometry). Such large amounts of very hot gas
aligned with radio jets have not been observed in lumi-
nous quasars, although see Carilli et al. (2002) for the
z = 2.2 radio galaxy PKS 1138-262.
4.2. Cosmological context
In the past, several claims have been made for distinct
jet properties of high-redshift quasars when compared
with their low-redshift analogs. For example, Volonteri
et al. (2011) argued for a decrease of the average bulk
Lorentz factor of high-redshift jets, because of an appar-
ent deficit of luminous SDSS radio-loud quasars above
z ∼ 3 with respect to the model predictions based on
the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) hard X-ray sur-
vey. Additionally, Singal et al. (2013) demonstrated that
the “radio-loudness” (i.e., the ratio of the 5 GHz core ra-
dio flux to the B-band core flux) of the SDSS×FIRST
(Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm) quasar
population increases with redshift.
B3 0727+409 appears particularly interesting in this
context for several reasons. First, the X-ray luminosity
of its large-scale jet is only 5–6 times lower than the X-ray
luminosity of the core. This is in contrast to the lower-
redshift quasars targeted with Chandra , for which the
jet–to–core X-ray luminosity ratio is typically ∼ 0.01,
or lower (see Marshall et al. 2005). Thus, the active
nucleus of B3 0727+409 seems under-luminous in X-rays
with respect to the emission of its large-scale outflow.
Second, the unresolved core of B3 0727+409 appears
particularly radio-loud for its accretion rate. Using
the SDSS spectrum, Jamrozy et al. (2014) estimate the
mass of the central black hole to be between MBH =
(3.33 ± 1.70) × 108
M (from the MgII line) and (2.26 ±
0.34) × 108
M (based on the CIV line). The bolometric
luminosity of the accreting matter estimated from the
MgII line is Ld 1.5 × 1045
erg s−1
, meaning the accre-
tion rate is ˙macc η−1
d (Ld/LEdd) ∼ 0.4 in Eddington
units, for the standard ηd 10% radiative efficiency of
the accretion disk. Given this rate, B3 0727+409 appears
to be characterized by a surprisingly large radio-loudness
parameter of R 106
, at least 100 times larger than lo-
cal quasars with comparable Ld/LEdd ratios (see Sikora
et al. 2007). Note that our IC/CMB modeling implies
moreover Lj/LEdd ∼ 1 − 10, which is consistent with a
very high (maximum) efficiency of the jet production in
high-z sources (Tchekhovskoy et al. 2011).
Finally, in Figure 4, we compare the measurements of
[νFν]x(1 keV )/[νFν]r(1.4 GHz) for B3 0727+409 to those of
High-redshift X-ray Jet With No Radio Counterpart 5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Redshift
0.01
0.1
1
1e+01
1e+02
1e+03
F(X-ray)/F(Radio)
B’ / = 3 µG
B’ / = 10 µG
B’ / = 30 µG
1745+624
GB1508
GB1428
0727+409
extended
jet
knot
Fig. 4.— Plot of the [νFν ]x/[νFν ]r ratio vs. redshift for X-ray
quasar jets detected with Chandra (adapted from Cheung 2004,
with the addition of two subsequently detected z > 3.5 examples).
B3 0727+409 is shown in red; the triangle represents the 3σ lower
limit for the part of the jet lacking radio detection. Curves indicate
the expected energy flux ratio in the framework of the IC/CMB
scenario for given combinations of B and δ (see Equation 1). Dif-
ferent knots from the same jet are connected by thin vertical lines.
previously published large-scale X-ray jets detected with
Chandra . The X-ray–to–radio luminosity ratios for our
target appear consistent with the amplification expected
from the IC/CMB model in the case of large jet bulk
velocities. This seems to disfavour a synchrotron ori-
gin of the jet X-ray emission in B3 0727+409. Nonethe-
less, the statistical uncertainties are large due to the rel-
atively short exposure time, and the redshift distribution
of Chandra jets at z 2 − 3 is still rather sparsely sam-
pled. Deeper X-ray and radio data will provide signif-
icantly improved constraints on the jet emission model
for this quasar.
5. SUMMARY
We report on the serendipitous discovery of an ex-
tended (∼ 12 , or ∼ 100 kpc projected) X-ray jet associ-
ated with the z = 2.5 quasar B3 0727+409, for which the
archival VLA maps reveal no radio counterpart (except
for a single knot ∼ 1.4 from the quasar core). A pos-
sible X-ray hot spot is identified 35 (280 kpc) from the
quasar. The remarkable X-ray luminosity of the struc-
ture, L2−10 keV 6 × 1044
erg s−1
, implies a very effi-
cient production of non-thermal X-ray photons by ultra-
relativistic jet electrons. The large X-ray–to–radio lu-
minosity ratio supports the scenario in which this is the
inverse-Comptonization of the CMB photons which dom-
inates radiative outputs of large-scale jets in the X-ray
domain (at least in “core-dominated quasars”, since in
the cases of sources observed at larger jet viewing angles,
i.e. “lobe-dominated quasars” and FR II radio galaxies,
the situation may be more complex; see, e.g., Kataoka
et al. 2008; Cara et al. 2013; Gentry et al. 2015). If cor-
rect, this would further imply a highly relativistic bulk
velocity (Γ ∼ 10) maintained on hundreds-of-kpc scales,
even at high redshifts, and a very high efficiency of the
jet production (Lj/LEdd 1) already during the epoch
of quasar formation.
The serendipitous discovery of such an object may sig-
nal the existence of an entire population of similar sys-
tems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high red-
shift, which will have been missed by the current ob-
serving strategies that mostly focus on Chandra follow-
up of known bright radio jets. Similar predictions for
the ubiquity of X-ray bright, radio faint lobes at z ≥ 2
were put forward by e.g. Fabian et al. (2009) and Mocz
et al. (2011). The seemingly different properties of this
source compared to local quasars suggest that this selec-
tion bias must be accounted for when drawing any con-
clusions about the redshift evolution of jet properties and
indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive
black holes in general.
L.S. and M.J. were supported by Polish NSC
grants DEC-2012/04/A/ST9/00083 and DEC-
2013/09/B/ST9/00599, respectively. Y.I. acknowledges
a Grant-in-Aid for Japan Society for the Promotion
of Science (JSPS) Fellows. C.C.C. was supported at
NRL by NASA DPR S-15633-Y. A.Sie. was supported
by NASA contract NAS8-03060 to the Chandra X-ray
Center. N.W. acknowledges NASA grant GO5-16127X.
Facilities: Chandra , VLA.
REFERENCES
Ahn, C. P., Alexandroff, R., Allende Prieto, C., Anderson, S. F.,
Anderton, T., Andrews, B. H., Aubourg, ´E., Bailey, S.,
Balbinot, E., Barnes, R., & et al. 2012, ApJS, 203, 21
Bridle, A. H., & Greisen, E. W. 1994, The NRAO AIPS Project –
a Summary (AIPS Memo 87; Charlottesville: NRAO)
Britzen, S., Vermeulen, R. C., Campbell, R. M., Taylor, G. B.,
Pearson, T. J., Readhead, A. C. S., Xu, W., Browne, I. W.,
Henstock, D. R., & Wilkinson, P. 2008, A&A, 484, 119
Cara, M., Perlman, E. S., Uchiyama, Y., Cheung, C. C., Coppi,
P. S., Georganopoulos, M., Worrall, D. M., Birkinshaw, M.,
Sparks, W. B., Marshall, H. L., Stawarz, L., Begelman, M. C.,
O’Dea, C. P., & Baum, S. A. 2013, ApJ, 773, 186
Carilli, C. L., Harris, D. E., Pentericci, L., R¨ottgering, H. J. A.,
Miley, G. K., Kurk, J. D., & van Breugel, W. 2002, ApJ, 567,
781
Cheung, C. C. 2004, ApJ, 600, L23
Cheung, C. C., Stawarz, L., & Siemiginowska, A. 2006, ApJ, 650,
679
Cheung, C. C., Stawarz, L., Siemiginowska, A., Gobeille, D.,
Wardle, J. F. C., Harris, D. E., & Schwartz, D. A. 2012, ApJ,
756, L20
Fabian, A. C., Chapman, S., Casey, C. M., Bauer, F., & Blundell,
K. M. 2009, MNRAS, 395, L67
Gentry, E. S., Marshall, H. L., Hardcastle, M. J., Perlman, E. S.,
Birkinshaw, M., Worrall, D. M., Lenc, E., Siemiginowska, A., &
Urry, C. M. 2015, ApJ, 808, 92
Ghisellini, G. & Celotti, A. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 739
Ghisellini, G., Celotti, A., Tavecchio, F., Haardt, F., & Sbarrato,
T. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 2694
Gobeille, D. B., Wardle, J. F. C., & Cheung, C. C. 2014,
arXiv:1406.4797
Hardcastle, M. J. 2006, MNRAS, 366, 1465
Harris, D. E. & Krawczynski, H. 2006, ARA&A, 44, 463
Jamrozy, M., Stawarz, L., Marchenko, V., Ku´zmicz, A.,
Ostrowski, M., Cheung, C. C., & Sikora, M. 2014, MNRAS,
441, 1260
6 A. Simionescu et al.
Kalberla, P. M. W., Burton, W. B., Hartmann, D., Arnal, E. M.,
Bajaja, E., Morras, R., & P¨oppel, W. G. L. 2005, A&A, 440,
775
Kataoka, J., Stawarz, L., Harris, D. E., Siemiginowska, A.,
Ostrowski, M., Swain, M. R., Hardcastle, M. J., Goodger, J. L.,
Iwasawa, K., & Edwards, P. G. 2008, ApJ, 685, 839
Marshall, H. L., Schwartz, D. A., Lovell, J. E. J., Murphy, D. W.,
Worrall, D. M., Birkinshaw, M., Gelbord, J. M., Perlman,
E. S., & Jauncey, D. L. 2005, ApJS, 156, 13
Mocz, P., Fabian, A. C., & Blundell, K. M. 2011, MNRAS, 413,
1107
Schwartz, D. A. 2002, ApJ, 569, L23
Shepherd, M. C., Pearson, T. J., & Taylor, G. B. 1994, BAAS,
26, 987
Siemiginowska, A., Smith, R. K., Aldcroft, T. L., Schwartz, D. A.,
Paerels, F., & Petric, A. O. 2003, ApJ, 598, L15
Sikora, M. & Madejski, G. 2000, ApJ, 534, 109
Sikora, M., Stawarz, L., & Lasota, J.-P. 2007, ApJ, 658, 815
Singal, J., Petrosian, V., Stawarz, L., & Lawrence, A. 2013, ApJ,
764, 43
Stawarz, L., Sikora, M., Ostrowski, M., & Begelman, M. C. 2004,
ApJ, 608, 95
Tavecchio, F., Maraschi, L., Wolter, A., Cheung, C. C.,
Sambruna, R. M., & Urry, C. M. 2007, ApJ, 662, 900
Tchekhovskoy, A., Narayan, R., & McKinney, J. C. 2011,
MNRAS, 418, L79
Volonteri, M., Haardt, F., Ghisellini, G., & Della Ceca, R. 2011,
MNRAS, 416, 216
Volonteri, M., Sikora, M., Lasota, J.-P., & Merloni, A. 2013, ApJ,
775, 94
Yuan, W., Fabian, A. C., Celotti, A., & Jonker, P. G. 2003,
MNRAS, 346, L7

Recommended

The shadow _of_the_flying_saucer_a_very_low_temperature_for_large_dust_grains
The shadow _of_the_flying_saucer_a_very_low_temperature_for_large_dust_grainsThe shadow _of_the_flying_saucer_a_very_low_temperature_for_large_dust_grains
The shadow _of_the_flying_saucer_a_very_low_temperature_for_large_dust_grainsSérgio Sacani
 
Studies of ngc_6720_with_calibrated_hst_wfc3_emission_line_filter_images
Studies of ngc_6720_with_calibrated_hst_wfc3_emission_line_filter_imagesStudies of ngc_6720_with_calibrated_hst_wfc3_emission_line_filter_images
Studies of ngc_6720_with_calibrated_hst_wfc3_emission_line_filter_imagesSérgio Sacani
 
Deep chandra observations_of_pictor_a
Deep chandra observations_of_pictor_aDeep chandra observations_of_pictor_a
Deep chandra observations_of_pictor_aSérgio Sacani
 
Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe
Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universeGalaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe
Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universeSérgio Sacani
 
The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues II. Photometric redshifts and rest f...
The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues II. Photometric redshifts and rest f...The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues II. Photometric redshifts and rest f...
The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues II. Photometric redshifts and rest f...Sérgio Sacani
 
Imaging the dust_sublimation_front_of_a_circumbinary_disk
Imaging the dust_sublimation_front_of_a_circumbinary_diskImaging the dust_sublimation_front_of_a_circumbinary_disk
Imaging the dust_sublimation_front_of_a_circumbinary_diskSérgio Sacani
 
Dissecting x ray_emitting_gas_around_the_center_of_our_galaxy
Dissecting x ray_emitting_gas_around_the_center_of_our_galaxyDissecting x ray_emitting_gas_around_the_center_of_our_galaxy
Dissecting x ray_emitting_gas_around_the_center_of_our_galaxySérgio Sacani
 
A highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black hole
A highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black holeA highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black hole
A highly magnetized twin-jet base pinpoints a supermassive black holeSérgio Sacani
 

More Related Content

What's hot

The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...
The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...
The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...Sérgio Sacani
 
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...Sérgio Sacani
 
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...Sérgio Sacani
 
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ring
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ringThe canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ring
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ringSérgio Sacani
 
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...Sérgio Sacani
 
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_hole
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_holeCold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_hole
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_holeSérgio Sacani
 
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...WellingtonRodrigues2014
 
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86Sérgio Sacani
 
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STIS
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STISPROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STIS
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STISSérgio Sacani
 
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxy
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxyOn some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxy
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxySérgio Sacani
 
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and Cosmology
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and CosmologyP. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and Cosmology
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and CosmologySEENET-MTP
 
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objects
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objectsDistances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objects
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objectsSérgio Sacani
 
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vla
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vlaRadio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vla
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vlaSérgio Sacani
 
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...Sérgio Sacani
 
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constant
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constantA 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constant
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constantSérgio Sacani
 

What's hot (20)

The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...
The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...
The atacama cosmology_telescope_measuring_radio_galaxy_bias_through_cross_cor...
 
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...
The discovery of_lensed_radio_and_x-ray_sources_behind_the_frontier_fields_cl...
 
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...
Detection of solar_like_oscillations_in_relies_of_the_milk_way_asteroseismolo...
 
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ring
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ringThe canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ring
The canarias einstein_ring_a_newly_discovered_optical_einstein_ring
 
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...
Frontier fields clusters_chandra_and_jvla_view_of_the_pre_m_erging_cluster_ma...
 
Nature12887
Nature12887Nature12887
Nature12887
 
Cosmology Research in China
Cosmology Research in ChinaCosmology Research in China
Cosmology Research in China
 
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_hole
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_holeCold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_hole
Cold clumpy accretion_toward_an_active_supermasive_black_hole
 
Nature12888
Nature12888Nature12888
Nature12888
 
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...
The Internal Structure of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa as Revealed by Detection o...
 
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86
The open cluster_ngc6520_and_the_nearby_dark_molecular_cloud_barnard_86
 
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STIS
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STISPROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STIS
PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST/STIS
 
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxy
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxyOn some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxy
On some structural_features_of_the_metagalaxy
 
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and Cosmology
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and CosmologyP. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and Cosmology
P. Jovanovic/L. Popovic: Gravitational Lensing Statistics and Cosmology
 
Aa17067 11
Aa17067 11Aa17067 11
Aa17067 11
 
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objects
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objectsDistances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objects
Distances luminosities and_temperatures_of_the_coldest_known_substelar_objects
 
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vla
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vlaRadio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vla
Radio continum emission_of_35_edge_on_galaxies_observed_with_the_vla
 
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...
Kepler 1647b the_largest_and_longest_period_kepler_transiting_circumbinary_pl...
 
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constant
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constantA 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constant
A 2 4_determination_of_the_local_value_of_the_hubble_constant
 
Aa17123 11
Aa17123 11Aa17123 11
Aa17123 11
 

Viewers also liked

presentasi proyek magang
presentasi proyek magangpresentasi proyek magang
presentasi proyek magangFandy Jaya
 
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피dasom013
 
Graphsheet4lesson
Graphsheet4lessonGraphsheet4lesson
Graphsheet4lessonClara Metz
 
Mortgage Application Process
Mortgage Application ProcessMortgage Application Process
Mortgage Application ProcessNye Lavalle
 
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance Guide
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance GuideFREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance Guide
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance GuideFREEandCLEAR
 
Manual d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017
Manual  d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017Manual  d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017
Manual d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017Adriana Sarmiento
 
Vsnc b2315 p-ok
Vsnc b2315 p-okVsnc b2315 p-ok
Vsnc b2315 p-okGpsLazio
 
Curso mei 549 refrigeración y aire acondicionado
Curso mei 549   refrigeración y aire acondicionadoCurso mei 549   refrigeración y aire acondicionado
Curso mei 549 refrigeración y aire acondicionadoProcasecapacita
 
Ravi Kissoon 2
Ravi Kissoon 2Ravi Kissoon 2
Ravi Kissoon 2ALLOW YOGA
 
Renewable energy and grid integration energy transition
Renewable energy and grid integration   energy transitionRenewable energy and grid integration   energy transition
Renewable energy and grid integration energy transitionNarinporn Malasri
 
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5We Are Social
 

Viewers also liked (16)

presentasi proyek magang
presentasi proyek magangpresentasi proyek magang
presentasi proyek magang
 
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피
천안오피, 강서오피,논현오피@(다솜넷)수원오피
 
Graphsheet4lesson
Graphsheet4lessonGraphsheet4lesson
Graphsheet4lesson
 
Mortgage Application Process
Mortgage Application ProcessMortgage Application Process
Mortgage Application Process
 
Web2.0
Web2.0Web2.0
Web2.0
 
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance Guide
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance GuideFREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance Guide
FREEandCLEAR.com Mortgage Refinance Guide
 
resume final
resume finalresume final
resume final
 
Rishabh Bhardwaj
Rishabh BhardwajRishabh Bhardwaj
Rishabh Bhardwaj
 
Manual d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017
Manual  d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017Manual  d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017
Manual d2 phaser-brochure_doc-b88-sxs017
 
Vsnc b2315 p-ok
Vsnc b2315 p-okVsnc b2315 p-ok
Vsnc b2315 p-ok
 
Curso mei 549 refrigeración y aire acondicionado
Curso mei 549   refrigeración y aire acondicionadoCurso mei 549   refrigeración y aire acondicionado
Curso mei 549 refrigeración y aire acondicionado
 
Tecnología multimedia
Tecnología multimediaTecnología multimedia
Tecnología multimedia
 
Ravi Kissoon 2
Ravi Kissoon 2Ravi Kissoon 2
Ravi Kissoon 2
 
Group Finance Companies
Group Finance CompaniesGroup Finance Companies
Group Finance Companies
 
Renewable energy and grid integration energy transition
Renewable energy and grid integration   energy transitionRenewable energy and grid integration   energy transition
Renewable energy and grid integration energy transition
 
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5
We Are Social: Curiosity Stop #5
 

Similar to Serendipitous discovery of an extended xray jet without a radio counterpart in a high redshift quasar

The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_look
The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_lookThe nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_look
The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_lookSérgio Sacani
 
Major contributor to_agn_feedback
Major contributor to_agn_feedbackMajor contributor to_agn_feedback
Major contributor to_agn_feedbackSérgio Sacani
 
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...Sérgio Sacani
 
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...Sérgio Sacani
 
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1Sérgio Sacani
 
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational Waves
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational WavesImaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational Waves
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational WavesSérgio Sacani
 
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...Sérgio Sacani
 
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...Sérgio Sacani
 
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...Sérgio Sacani
 
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...Sérgio Sacani
 
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxies
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxiesA spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxies
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxiesSérgio Sacani
 
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...Sérgio Sacani
 
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...Sérgio Sacani
 
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri e
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri eDetection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri e
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri eSérgio Sacani
 
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5Sérgio Sacani
 
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...Sérgio Sacani
 
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...Sérgio Sacani
 
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...Sérgio Sacani
 

Similar to Serendipitous discovery of an extended xray jet without a radio counterpart in a high redshift quasar (20)

The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_look
The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_lookThe nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_look
The nustar extragalactic_survey_a_first_sensitive_look
 
Major contributor to_agn_feedback
Major contributor to_agn_feedbackMajor contributor to_agn_feedback
Major contributor to_agn_feedback
 
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...
A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star ...
 
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...
Probing the fermi_bubbles_in_ultraviolet_absorption_spectroscopic_signature_o...
 
Aa16869 11
Aa16869 11Aa16869 11
Aa16869 11
 
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1
Polarized gamma ray emission from the galactic black hole cygnus x-1
 
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational Waves
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational WavesImaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational Waves
Imaging the Milky Way with Millihertz Gravitational Waves
 
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW1...
 
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...
The JWST Discovery of the Triply-imaged Type Ia “Supernova H0pe” and Observat...
 
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...
AT2023fhn (the Finch): a Luminous Fast Blue Optical Transient at a large offs...
 
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...
Multiple images of_a_highly_magnified_supernova_formed_by_an_early_type_clust...
 
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxies
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxiesA spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxies
A spectroscopic sample_of_massive_galaxies
 
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...
Measuring the Hubble constant with kilonovae using the expanding photosphere ...
 
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...
The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in...
 
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri e
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri eDetection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri e
Detection of an atmosphere around the super earth 55 cancri e
 
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5
Chandra deep observation_of_xdcpj004402033_a_massive_galaxy_cluster_at_z_1_5
 
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...
Orbital configurations of spaceborne interferometers for studying photon ring...
 
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...
A thirty-four billion solar mass black hole in SMSS J2157–3602, the most lumi...
 
Ngc 4151 03
Ngc 4151 03Ngc 4151 03
Ngc 4151 03
 
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...
Major mergers host_the_most_luminous_red_quasars_at_z2_a_hubble_space_telesco...
 

More from Sérgio Sacani

Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our Galaxy
Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our GalaxyQuasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our Galaxy
Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our GalaxySérgio Sacani
 
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesA galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesSérgio Sacani
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NineSérgio Sacani
 
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1Sérgio Sacani
 
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binaryA seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binarySérgio Sacani
 
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightning
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightningA review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightning
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightningSérgio Sacani
 
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Sérgio Sacani
 
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasA recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasSérgio Sacani
 
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...Sérgio Sacani
 
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a Nutshell
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a NutshellLife, the Universe, andSETI in a Nutshell
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a NutshellSérgio Sacani
 
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ...."Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....Sérgio Sacani
 
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...Sérgio Sacani
 
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...Sérgio Sacani
 
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORY
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORYFROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORY
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORYSérgio Sacani
 
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...Sérgio Sacani
 
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionization
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionizationDeciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionization
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionizationSérgio Sacani
 
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...Sérgio Sacani
 
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?Sérgio Sacani
 
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced Spins
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced SpinsA Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced Spins
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced SpinsSérgio Sacani
 

More from Sérgio Sacani (20)

Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our Galaxy
Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our GalaxyQuasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our Galaxy
Quasar and Microquasar Series - Microquasars in our Galaxy
 
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesA galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
 
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1
IM-1 Press Kit - Kit de Imprensa do Lançmento da Missão IM-1
 
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binaryA seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
A seven-Earth-radius helium-burning star inside a 20.5-min detached binary
 
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightning
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightningA review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightning
A review of volcanic electrification of the atmosphere and volcanic lightning
 
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
Geological evidence of extensive N-fixation by volcanic lightning during very...
 
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon MimasA recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
A recently formed ocean inside Saturn’s moon Mimas
 
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...
The BINGO Project IX. Search for fast radio bursts – A forecast for the BINGO...
 
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a Nutshell
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a NutshellLife, the Universe, andSETI in a Nutshell
Life, the Universe, andSETI in a Nutshell
 
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ...."Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....
"Space Shuttle: '. . .When data flows, crew and craft are knit into action. ....
 
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...
The Transcension Hypothesis: Sufficiently Advanced Civilizations Invariably L...
 
Projeto Ranger
Projeto RangerProjeto Ranger
Projeto Ranger
 
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...
Detection and characterisation of icy cavities on the nucleus of comet 67P/Ch...
 
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORY
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORYFROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORY
FROM DUST TO SEED: A LUNAR CHICKPEA STORY
 
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...
Prospects for Detecting Gaps in Globular Cluster Stellar Streams in External ...
 
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionization
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionizationDeciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionization
Deciphering Lyman-α emission deep into the epoch of reionization
 
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...
The ALMA Survey of Star Formation and Evolution in Massive Protoclusters with...
 
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?
Is the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-121 b variable?
 
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced Spins
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced SpinsA Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced Spins
A Comprehensive Theory for Neutron Star and Black Hole Kicks and Induced Spins
 

Recently uploaded

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxNavanidhan.M
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisMarkus Roggen
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeGaia Science Pte Ltd
 
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET
 
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsPeter Coles
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Naresh Gupta
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English BrochureInsilico Gen
 
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Nan Yang Academy of Sciences
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsAlaaOraby6
 
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Education
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science EducationKavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Education
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Educationdsnow9802
 
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationChemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationayuqroyjohn85
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...Advanced-Concepts-Team
 
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and ChargesPhysics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Chargesalinford
 
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdf
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdfCW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdf
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdfMollyWinterbottom
 
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointElbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointTELISHA2
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesAhmed Metwaly
 
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websiteThornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websitesuelcarter1
 
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptgreen chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptRashmiSanghi1
 
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfFINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfThane Heins
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptxDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy or DMD .pptx
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
 
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
dkNET Webinar: An Encyclopedia of the Adipose Tissue Secretome to Identify Me...
 
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
 
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cells
 
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Education
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science EducationKavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Education
Kavita Punekar: Illuminating Minds and Igniting Passion in Science Education
 
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationChemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
 
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and ChargesPhysics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
 
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdf
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdfCW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdf
CW 2 - Frustrated Lewis Pair - Molly winterbottom.pdf
 
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointElbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
 
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websiteThornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
 
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHESINTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
 
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptgreen chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
 
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfFINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
 

Serendipitous discovery of an extended xray jet without a radio counterpart in a high redshift quasar

  • 1. Draft version January 5, 2016 Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 5/2/11 SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED X-RAY JET WITHOUT A RADIO COUNTERPART IN A HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR A. Simionescu1 , L. Stawarz2 , Y. Ichinohe1, 3 , C. C. Cheung4 , M. Jamrozy2 , A. Siemiginowska5 , K. Hagino1 , P. Gandhi6 , and N. Werner7, 8 1Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 Japan 2Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171 , 30-244 Krak´ow, Poland 3Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 4Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352, USA 5Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 6School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ, Southampton, United Kingdom 7KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and 8Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060, USA Draft version January 5, 2016 ABSTRACT A recent Chandra observation of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 has led to the discovery of an extended X-ray jet associated with the high-redshift background quasar B3 0727+409, a luminous radio source at redshift z = 2.5. This is one of only few examples of high-redshift X-ray jets known to date. It has a clear extension of about 12 , corresponding to a projected length of ∼ 100 kpc, with a possible hot spot located 35 from the quasar. The archival high resolution VLA maps surprisingly reveal no extended jet emission, except for one knot about 1.4 from the quasar. The high X-ray to radio luminosity ratio for this source appears consistent with the ∝ (1 + z)4 amplification expected from the inverse Compton radiative model. This serendipitous discovery may signal the existence of an entire population of similar systems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high redshift, a selection bias which must be accounted for when drawing any conclusions about the redshift evolution of jet properties and indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei in general. Subject headings: galaxies: active — galaxies: jets — quasars: individual (B3 0727+409) — radiation mechanisms: non-thermal — radio continuum: galaxies — X-rays: general 1. INTRODUCTION Over the years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has re- vealed a significant number of X-ray bright, kiloparsec- scale jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN; e.g., Harris & Krawczynski 2006)1 . Despite notable progress in un- derstanding these objects, it is still unclear what is the composition of the plasma carrying the energy, how and where the jet particles are accelerated, and how rela- tivistic the jets are in terms of their bulk velocity, β, and Doppler beaming factors, δ ≡ [Γ(1 − β cos θ)]−1 , with θ being the jet inclination and Γ ≡ (1−β2 )− 1 2 the jet bulk Lorentz factor. Radiative models for the broad-band emission of large- scale quasar jets have also remained a matter of de- bate. The two main candidate mechanisms for produc- ing the jet X-ray emission are synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB). A robust determination of the jet energetics requires constraints on the relative importance of these two processes. The IC/CMB scenario implies particle- dominated and highly relativistic outflows (δ 10), which do not suffer severe deceleration or energy dis- sipation between sub-pc and kpc scales (e.g., Ghisellini & Celotti 2001; Tavecchio et al. 2007), while the syn- chrotron interpretation can be reconciled with highly- magnetized and possibly slower jets on kpc distances from the quasar cores (e.g., Stawarz et al. 2004; Hard- 1 http://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/ castle 2006). The IC/CMB model predicts an increase in the X-ray– to–radio flux ratio with redshift, due to the amplification of the CMB energy density (e.g., Schwartz 2002; Ghis- ellini et al. 2014); neglecting a weak dependance on the spectral slope of the non-thermal continuum, [νFν]x [νFν]r ∝ uCMB uB δ Γ 2 ∝ (1 + z)4 δ B 2 , (1) where Fν is the observed energy flux spectral density, uCMB 4 × 10−13 Γ2 (1 + z)4 erg cm−3 is the CMB en- ergy density in the jet rest frame (denoted hereafter by primes), and uB ≡ B 2 /8π is the comoving energy den- sity of the jet magnetic field. Studying high-redshift jets can thus provide important clues on the mecha- nism responsible for their observed X-ray emission. How- ever, very few high-redshift X-ray jets are known to date (Siemiginowska et al. 2003; Yuan et al. 2003; Cheung et al. 2006, 2012). Therefore, variations of the jet beam- ing, δ, and jet magnetic field strength, B, both from system to system and between different knots along the same jet, can introduce a scatter that may mask the ex- pected (1 + z)4 increase even when the IC/CMB model is the dominant emission mechanism (see Cheung 2004). Increasing the sample of high-redshift quasar jets with good-quality X-ray data will not only allow us to distin- guish between competing radiative models; by combining in-depth studies of the cosmological evolution of the jet properties from the epoch of the quasar formation up to arXiv:1509.04822v2[astro-ph.HE]4Jan2016
  • 2. 2 A. Simionescu et al. the present day with our current understanding of black hole growth and the evolution of black hole spin (e.g., Volonteri et al. 2013), we can shed new light on the jet launching mechanism, as well as on the evolution of the intergalactic medium that the jets propagate through. Here, we report the discovery of an extended, X-ray bright, radio faint black hole jet associated with the quasar B3 0727+409. Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (Ahn et al. 2012), the spectroscopic redshift of this source is z = 2.500 ± 0.001. Assuming a ΛCDM cosmology with ΩΛ = 0.73, ΩM = 0.27, and H0 = 71 km s−1 Mpc−1 , the redshift of B3 0727+409 corresponds to the luminosity distance of dL 20.1 Gpc and the conversion scale 8 kpc/ . 2. OBSERVATIONS AND DATA REDUCTION 2.1. Chandra The X-ray jet associated with B3 0727+409 was dis- covered in a relatively short (20 ks) Chandra observation from 2014 December 15 (ObsID 17167), targeting the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 (z 0.121; see Jamrozy et al. 2014). The brightest cluster galaxy of Abell 585 is located ∼ 2.5 northwest of the quasar, so that both were observed in the 8.3 × 8.3 field-of-view of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) S3 chip. We reprocessed the standard level 1 event lists pro- duced by the Chandra pipeline in the standard manner, using the CIAO (version 4.7) software package to include the appropriate gain maps and updated calibration prod- ucts. Bad pixels were removed and standard grade se- lections applied. The information available in VFAINT mode was used to improve the rejection of cosmic ray events. Periods of anomalously high background were excluded by examining the light-curve of the observa- tion in the 0.3 − 10 keV energy band using the standard time binning methods recommended by the Chandra X- ray Center. The net exposure time after cleaning is 19 ks. 2.2. VLA Inspecting the Very Large Array (VLA) images of B3 0727+409 previously presented in Jamrozy et al. (2014) that probe a range of spatial scales > 1 , we did not find any significant radio emission associated with the X-ray jet. We therefore analyzed an additional set of VLA data from the NRAO2 archive from 2007 August 6, when it was observed as a calibrator in program AL696. The observations were collected in the most extended A- configuration and consisted of five short scans centered at 1.43 GHz and three scans at 4.86 GHz. The data were calibrated with AIPS (Bridle & Greisen 1994) following standard procedures with amplitude calibration utilizing a scan of 3C 286 at 1.43 GHz and 3C 147 at 4.86 GHz. After editing, the total exposure times for B3 0727+409 were approximately 9 and 4 minutes at the respective fre- quencies. The (u, v) data were imported into DIFMAP (Shepherd et al. 1994) for phase and amplitude self- calibration. CLEAN images were convolved with circular Gaussians with full-width half maxima matched to the natural weighted beam sizes of 0.4 at 4.86 GHz and 1.5 at 1.43 GHz (0.09 and 0.14 mJy beam−1 off-source rms, 2 The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agree- ment by Associated Universities, Inc. 0 0.016 0.047 0.11 0.24 0.49 0.99 2 4 8 16 55.0 54.0 53.0 52.0 51.0 7:30:50.0 49.0 48.0 10.040:50:00.050.040.030.049:20.0 Right ascension Declination B3 0727+409 5" Fig. 1.— Unsmoothed Chandra count map showing the B3 0727+409 quasar core and X-ray jet. Colorbar units are counts per native ACIS pixel (0.492 × 0.492 ). respectively). We also reimaged the VLA 4.71 GHz B- array dataset from Jamrozy et al. (2014) to provide an image with the same 1.5 beam as the 1.43 GHz image. 3. RESULTS 3.1. Imaging Figure 1 shows a raw Chandra count map of the region around B3 0727+409 in the 0.6 − 7.5 keV energy band. Because the jet is relatively bright and compact, no vi- gnetting or background corrections were applied. The image reveals a clear extension of ∼ 12 northwest of the quasar’s core, corresponding to a projected length of ∼ 100 kpc at z = 2.5. Note that there is no visible charge-transfer streak in the ACIS-S3 read-out direction (offset from the X-ray jet by ∼ 60◦ clockwise) that would indicate significant pile-up of counts from the bright core. In our 4.86 GHz VLA 0.4 resolution map, we confirm the detection of a radio feature ∼ 1.4 from the quasar core found by Gobeille et al. (2014) using the same data. We find no significant additional emission coinciding with the rest of the X-ray jet. Figure 2 shows a Chandra image of the jet, rebinned to 0.1 ACIS pixels and smoothed with a 0.5 Gaussian filter, overlaid with 4.86 GHz radio contours. Note that very long baseline interferometry maps show apparent superluminal motion up to ∼ 6.6c in a one- sided milliarcsecond-scale jet oriented toward the ex- tended structure seen in X-rays, indicating relativistic beaming on small scales (Britzen et al. 2008). 3.2. Spectral fitting and flux measurements 3.2.1. Extended jet For the position on the detector corresponding to the quasar core, the 90% enclosed-counts fraction aperture of the Chandra point-spread function (PSF) has a radius of rP SF 90 = 1.77 . We extracted X-ray spectra from a 10 -long rectangular region with a width of 2 rP SF 90, starting at a minimum distance of rP SF 90 and extending out to 10 + rP SF 90 12 from the quasar core. We fit the resulting spectrum in the 0.6–7.5 keV en- ergy range with an absorbed power-law model, with the
  • 3. High-redshift X-ray Jet With No Radio Counterpart 3 hydrogen column density fixed to the Galactic value, NH = 6.2 × 1020 cm−2 (Kalberla et al. 2005), assuming no intrinsic absorption. The background was estimated from an annulus centered on the X-ray peak, with inner and outer radii of 15 and 30 . The best-fit power-law index is Γx = 1.74+0.34 −0.32, with a corresponding flux den- sity at 1 keV of 2.7 ± 0.7 nJy. This extraction region does not include the radio knot at ∼ 1.4 , which is only marginally resolved from the quasar core with Chandra (Section 3.2.2). The extended jet is thus remarkably radio faint, with no visible emis- sion in both VLA images. To estimate upper limits, we used the 1.5 -beam images and defined four adja- cent 1.5 × 2 apertures elongated along the X-ray jet direction (position angle PA = −60◦ ), centered 3.1 , 5.4 , 7.7 , and 10.0 from the quasar. Using the AIPS task UVSUB to subtract the cores from the (u, v) data, as well as the modeled Gaussian representing the 1.4 knot in the 1.43 GHz data (below), the 3σ point source upper limits in each of the respective apertures were < 0.6, < 0.6, < 0.6, and < 0.4 mJy at 1.43 GHz, and < 0.8 (larger due to contamination from the adjacent 1.4 knot), < 0.3, < 0.4, and < 0.3 mJy at 4.71 GHz. Assuming the radio jet is composed of a series of four unresolved radio knots within the defined apertures, the total radio emission co-spatial with the X-ray jet visible beyond the 1.4 knot is thus < 2.2 and < 1.8 mJy, cor- responding to [νFν]x/[νFν]r > 205 and > 73 at 1.43 and 4.71 GHz, respectively. In addition, we detect excess X-ray emission (a to- tal of 10 counts) located 35 from the quasar core (280 kpc, projected), along the same position angle as the jet (Figure 2). The hypothesis that this excess of counts is solely due to Poisson fluctuations around the average background level estimated from a neighbouring region is ruled out at the p-value of 2.18 × 10−5 ; since it lacks any SDSS counterpart, this X-ray feature may therefore likely represent the terminal hotspot of the B3 0727+409 jet. The corresponding 3σ point source upper limits at the location of this X-ray hotspot are < 0.6 mJy (1.43 GHz) and < 0.3 mJy (4.71 GHz). 3.2.2. Jet knot at 1.4 By measuring the count rates in four partial annuli with opening angles of 90◦ and spanning 0.5 − 1 rP SF 90 from the quasar core, we estimate that the azimuth corre- sponding to the radio knot contains 6.3±3.5 X-ray counts above the surface brightness level determined from the other three azimuths. Assuming this emission follows the same power-law index as the extended jet, this implies the knot’s flux density at 1 keV is 0.44 ± 0.10 nJy, and the 2–10 keV luminosity of the entire jet (summing the knot and extended jet) is ∼ (6.1 ± 2.5) × 1044 erg s−1 . From the VLA data, we measured a flux density for the knot of 1.5 mJy at 4.86 GHz by fitting a circular Gaus- sian component in the (u, v) plane with the modelfit program in DIFMAP. Though at the edge of the beam of the bright core in the lower-resolution 1.43 GHz image, that same knot is clearly visible in the CLEAN compo- nents, and we measured a flux density of 4.5 mJy. In the presence of the bright core, we estimate the uncertainties in the flux densities are 20% at both frequencies. The re- sultant spectral index of the knot is α = 0.90±0.23. The RA (J2000) 07 h 30 m 51 s 07 h 30 m 50 s 07 h 30 m 49 s Dec(J2000) +40:49:50+40:49:55+40:50:00+40:50:05+40:50:10 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 Hot Spot Knot Fig. 2.— A zoom-in on the X-ray image of B3 0727+409 shown in Figure 1, smoothed with a 0.5 Gaussian filter. VLA 4.86 GHz contours at 0.29, 0.58, and 0.87 mJy beam−1 are shown in green. We have corrected for a slight offset between the X-ray and radio contours due to the Chandra astrometric error. broad-band emission from the knot therefore corresponds to the flux density ratio [νFν]x/[νFν]r 15, with very similar values at both frequencies. 3.2.3. Quasar core We also extracted spectra from a circular region of ra- dius rP SF 90 centered around the quasar core; subtracting the local background as described above and fitting the resulting spectrum with an absorbed power-law, we ob- tain a best-fit index Γx = 1.32 ± 0.12 and a 2–10 keV rest frame luminosity of LX,core = 2.6+0.4 −0.5 ×1045 erg s−1 . No intrinsic absorption in addition to the Galactic NH is required by the fit. All our X-ray and radio flux measurements are sum- marised in Table 1. 4. DISCUSSION 4.1. Origin of the jet X-ray emission A non-thermal origin provides the most natural expla- nation for the jet X-ray emission. We modeled the radio– to–X-ray spectrum of the large-scale jet in B3 0727+409 with the IC/CMB scenario assuming a broken power-law shape of the electron energy distribution, ne(γ ) ∝ γ −p for γmin ≤ γ ≤ γbr, and ne(γ ) ∝ γ −p−1 exp[−γ /γmax] for γ > γbr, where γ is the electron Lorentz factor. This parametrization takes into account the expected break in the electron spectrum resulting from radiative cool- ing. We also assume pressure equipartition between the emitting electrons and the jet magnetic field, and allow for a heavy jet content with one e− p+ pair per 1–10 e± pairs (see Sikora & Madejski 2000). Finally, we assume a spherical geometry for the 1.4 knot with a 3 kpc ra- dius (consistent with the knot’s radio extent in the VLA 4.86 GHz image), and a cylindrical geometry for the ex- tended jet with the same radius and a length of 80 kpc. The broad-band jet spectrum can be described by the model shown in Figure 3, returning reasonable parame- ters: the jet inclination θ 7.5◦ , the jet bulk Lorentz factor Γ 10 (meaning δ 7.4), the jet magnetic field decreasing slowly along the outflow from B 30 µG down to 15 µG, a “standard” form of the electron en- ergy distribution with γmin = 10, γmax = 105 , p = 2.5,
  • 4. 4 A. Simionescu et al. TABLE 1 Flux measurements for the B3 0727+409 jet and quasar core. Upper limits are quoted at the 3σ level. core 1.4 knot extended jet hot spot Chandra counts (0.6–7.5 keV) 212 ± 15 6.3 ± 3.5 38 ± 6 10 ± 3 X-ray power-law index Γ 1.32 ± 0.12 1.74 (assumed) 1.74+0.34 −0.32 1.74 (assumed) 0.6 − 7.5 keV flux (erg cm−2 s−1) 1.26+0.2 −0.13 × 10−13 ∼ 0.32 × 10−14 1.92+0.50 −0.62 × 10−14 ∼ 0.51 × 10−14 2–10 keV luminosity (erg s−1) 2.6+0.4 −0.5 × 1045 ∼ 0.9 × 1044 5.2+1.9 −3.0 × 1044 ∼ 1.4 × 1044 flux density at 1 keV (nJy) 11.4 ± 1.2 0.44 ± 0.10 2.7 ± 0.7 0.71 ± 0.18 VLA 1.43 GHz flux density (mJy) 294 ± 15 4.5 ± 0.9 < 2.2 < 0.6 VLA 4.86 GHz flux density (mJy) 243 ± 12 1.5 ± 0.3 – – VLA 4.71 GHz upper limit (mJy) – – < 1.8 < 0.3 107 1010 1013 1016 1019 1022 1025 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 Ν Hz ΝLΝergs extended jet 1.4'' knot Fig. 3.— The spectral energy distributions of the B3 0727+409 extended jet and 1.4 knot, along with the corresponding syn- chrotron plus IC/CMB model curves. and the cooling break decreasing from γbr = 3 × 103 at the position of the 1.4 knot down to γbr = 103 at the position of the outer jet. Although all parameters are currently only weakly constrained by the data, this model seems to favour a high total jet kinetic power of the order of Lj ∼ (0.3 − 3) × 1047 erg s−1 (depending on the exact proton content), and highly relativistic jet bulk velocities main- tained over very large scales of order the de-projected source size, dep 600 kpc. However, the estimated jet kinetic power further depends on various assumptions in our model: for a purely leptonic jet, Lj would be smaller than cited here, while if the magnetic field energy den- sity is below the equipartition value, Lj would increase, while the required relativistic beaming would decrease. Note also that, alternatively, a synchrotron origin of the X-ray emission is not excluded by the data (however, see the discussion at the end of Section 4.2). On the other hand, a thermal origin of the X-ray emis- sion from the extended jet region is implausible: the best-fit thermal model (employing the apec model with a metallicity fixed at 0.2 Solar) implies a best-fit tem- perature of kT = 17.8+33.9 −6.8 keV, which would be un- usually high for any truly diffuse structure at z = 2.5. Also the corresponding electron density, ne, and total mass would be exceptional: assuming the same cylindri- cal geometry as above, the best-fit emission measure of the apec model translates to ne ∼ 0.8 f−1/2 cm−3 and Mgas ∼ 4 f1/2 × 1010 M , with f < 1 denoting the fill- ing factor of the gas (with respect to the assumed cylin- drical geometry). Such large amounts of very hot gas aligned with radio jets have not been observed in lumi- nous quasars, although see Carilli et al. (2002) for the z = 2.2 radio galaxy PKS 1138-262. 4.2. Cosmological context In the past, several claims have been made for distinct jet properties of high-redshift quasars when compared with their low-redshift analogs. For example, Volonteri et al. (2011) argued for a decrease of the average bulk Lorentz factor of high-redshift jets, because of an appar- ent deficit of luminous SDSS radio-loud quasars above z ∼ 3 with respect to the model predictions based on the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) hard X-ray sur- vey. Additionally, Singal et al. (2013) demonstrated that the “radio-loudness” (i.e., the ratio of the 5 GHz core ra- dio flux to the B-band core flux) of the SDSS×FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm) quasar population increases with redshift. B3 0727+409 appears particularly interesting in this context for several reasons. First, the X-ray luminosity of its large-scale jet is only 5–6 times lower than the X-ray luminosity of the core. This is in contrast to the lower- redshift quasars targeted with Chandra , for which the jet–to–core X-ray luminosity ratio is typically ∼ 0.01, or lower (see Marshall et al. 2005). Thus, the active nucleus of B3 0727+409 seems under-luminous in X-rays with respect to the emission of its large-scale outflow. Second, the unresolved core of B3 0727+409 appears particularly radio-loud for its accretion rate. Using the SDSS spectrum, Jamrozy et al. (2014) estimate the mass of the central black hole to be between MBH = (3.33 ± 1.70) × 108 M (from the MgII line) and (2.26 ± 0.34) × 108 M (based on the CIV line). The bolometric luminosity of the accreting matter estimated from the MgII line is Ld 1.5 × 1045 erg s−1 , meaning the accre- tion rate is ˙macc η−1 d (Ld/LEdd) ∼ 0.4 in Eddington units, for the standard ηd 10% radiative efficiency of the accretion disk. Given this rate, B3 0727+409 appears to be characterized by a surprisingly large radio-loudness parameter of R 106 , at least 100 times larger than lo- cal quasars with comparable Ld/LEdd ratios (see Sikora et al. 2007). Note that our IC/CMB modeling implies moreover Lj/LEdd ∼ 1 − 10, which is consistent with a very high (maximum) efficiency of the jet production in high-z sources (Tchekhovskoy et al. 2011). Finally, in Figure 4, we compare the measurements of [νFν]x(1 keV )/[νFν]r(1.4 GHz) for B3 0727+409 to those of
  • 5. High-redshift X-ray Jet With No Radio Counterpart 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Redshift 0.01 0.1 1 1e+01 1e+02 1e+03 F(X-ray)/F(Radio) B’ / = 3 µG B’ / = 10 µG B’ / = 30 µG 1745+624 GB1508 GB1428 0727+409 extended jet knot Fig. 4.— Plot of the [νFν ]x/[νFν ]r ratio vs. redshift for X-ray quasar jets detected with Chandra (adapted from Cheung 2004, with the addition of two subsequently detected z > 3.5 examples). B3 0727+409 is shown in red; the triangle represents the 3σ lower limit for the part of the jet lacking radio detection. Curves indicate the expected energy flux ratio in the framework of the IC/CMB scenario for given combinations of B and δ (see Equation 1). Dif- ferent knots from the same jet are connected by thin vertical lines. previously published large-scale X-ray jets detected with Chandra . The X-ray–to–radio luminosity ratios for our target appear consistent with the amplification expected from the IC/CMB model in the case of large jet bulk velocities. This seems to disfavour a synchrotron ori- gin of the jet X-ray emission in B3 0727+409. Nonethe- less, the statistical uncertainties are large due to the rel- atively short exposure time, and the redshift distribution of Chandra jets at z 2 − 3 is still rather sparsely sam- pled. Deeper X-ray and radio data will provide signif- icantly improved constraints on the jet emission model for this quasar. 5. SUMMARY We report on the serendipitous discovery of an ex- tended (∼ 12 , or ∼ 100 kpc projected) X-ray jet associ- ated with the z = 2.5 quasar B3 0727+409, for which the archival VLA maps reveal no radio counterpart (except for a single knot ∼ 1.4 from the quasar core). A pos- sible X-ray hot spot is identified 35 (280 kpc) from the quasar. The remarkable X-ray luminosity of the struc- ture, L2−10 keV 6 × 1044 erg s−1 , implies a very effi- cient production of non-thermal X-ray photons by ultra- relativistic jet electrons. The large X-ray–to–radio lu- minosity ratio supports the scenario in which this is the inverse-Comptonization of the CMB photons which dom- inates radiative outputs of large-scale jets in the X-ray domain (at least in “core-dominated quasars”, since in the cases of sources observed at larger jet viewing angles, i.e. “lobe-dominated quasars” and FR II radio galaxies, the situation may be more complex; see, e.g., Kataoka et al. 2008; Cara et al. 2013; Gentry et al. 2015). If cor- rect, this would further imply a highly relativistic bulk velocity (Γ ∼ 10) maintained on hundreds-of-kpc scales, even at high redshifts, and a very high efficiency of the jet production (Lj/LEdd 1) already during the epoch of quasar formation. The serendipitous discovery of such an object may sig- nal the existence of an entire population of similar sys- tems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high red- shift, which will have been missed by the current ob- serving strategies that mostly focus on Chandra follow- up of known bright radio jets. Similar predictions for the ubiquity of X-ray bright, radio faint lobes at z ≥ 2 were put forward by e.g. Fabian et al. (2009) and Mocz et al. (2011). The seemingly different properties of this source compared to local quasars suggest that this selec- tion bias must be accounted for when drawing any con- clusions about the redshift evolution of jet properties and indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in general. L.S. and M.J. were supported by Polish NSC grants DEC-2012/04/A/ST9/00083 and DEC- 2013/09/B/ST9/00599, respectively. Y.I. acknowledges a Grant-in-Aid for Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows. C.C.C. was supported at NRL by NASA DPR S-15633-Y. A.Sie. was supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 to the Chandra X-ray Center. N.W. acknowledges NASA grant GO5-16127X. Facilities: Chandra , VLA. REFERENCES Ahn, C. P., Alexandroff, R., Allende Prieto, C., Anderson, S. F., Anderton, T., Andrews, B. H., Aubourg, ´E., Bailey, S., Balbinot, E., Barnes, R., & et al. 2012, ApJS, 203, 21 Bridle, A. H., & Greisen, E. W. 1994, The NRAO AIPS Project – a Summary (AIPS Memo 87; Charlottesville: NRAO) Britzen, S., Vermeulen, R. C., Campbell, R. M., Taylor, G. B., Pearson, T. J., Readhead, A. C. S., Xu, W., Browne, I. W., Henstock, D. R., & Wilkinson, P. 2008, A&A, 484, 119 Cara, M., Perlman, E. S., Uchiyama, Y., Cheung, C. C., Coppi, P. S., Georganopoulos, M., Worrall, D. M., Birkinshaw, M., Sparks, W. B., Marshall, H. L., Stawarz, L., Begelman, M. C., O’Dea, C. P., & Baum, S. A. 2013, ApJ, 773, 186 Carilli, C. L., Harris, D. E., Pentericci, L., R¨ottgering, H. J. A., Miley, G. K., Kurk, J. D., & van Breugel, W. 2002, ApJ, 567, 781 Cheung, C. C. 2004, ApJ, 600, L23 Cheung, C. C., Stawarz, L., & Siemiginowska, A. 2006, ApJ, 650, 679 Cheung, C. C., Stawarz, L., Siemiginowska, A., Gobeille, D., Wardle, J. F. C., Harris, D. E., & Schwartz, D. A. 2012, ApJ, 756, L20 Fabian, A. C., Chapman, S., Casey, C. M., Bauer, F., & Blundell, K. M. 2009, MNRAS, 395, L67 Gentry, E. S., Marshall, H. L., Hardcastle, M. J., Perlman, E. S., Birkinshaw, M., Worrall, D. M., Lenc, E., Siemiginowska, A., & Urry, C. M. 2015, ApJ, 808, 92 Ghisellini, G. & Celotti, A. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 739 Ghisellini, G., Celotti, A., Tavecchio, F., Haardt, F., & Sbarrato, T. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 2694 Gobeille, D. B., Wardle, J. F. C., & Cheung, C. C. 2014, arXiv:1406.4797 Hardcastle, M. J. 2006, MNRAS, 366, 1465 Harris, D. E. & Krawczynski, H. 2006, ARA&A, 44, 463 Jamrozy, M., Stawarz, L., Marchenko, V., Ku´zmicz, A., Ostrowski, M., Cheung, C. C., & Sikora, M. 2014, MNRAS, 441, 1260
  • 6. 6 A. Simionescu et al. Kalberla, P. M. W., Burton, W. B., Hartmann, D., Arnal, E. M., Bajaja, E., Morras, R., & P¨oppel, W. G. L. 2005, A&A, 440, 775 Kataoka, J., Stawarz, L., Harris, D. E., Siemiginowska, A., Ostrowski, M., Swain, M. R., Hardcastle, M. J., Goodger, J. L., Iwasawa, K., & Edwards, P. G. 2008, ApJ, 685, 839 Marshall, H. L., Schwartz, D. A., Lovell, J. E. J., Murphy, D. W., Worrall, D. M., Birkinshaw, M., Gelbord, J. M., Perlman, E. S., & Jauncey, D. L. 2005, ApJS, 156, 13 Mocz, P., Fabian, A. C., & Blundell, K. M. 2011, MNRAS, 413, 1107 Schwartz, D. A. 2002, ApJ, 569, L23 Shepherd, M. C., Pearson, T. J., & Taylor, G. B. 1994, BAAS, 26, 987 Siemiginowska, A., Smith, R. K., Aldcroft, T. L., Schwartz, D. A., Paerels, F., & Petric, A. O. 2003, ApJ, 598, L15 Sikora, M. & Madejski, G. 2000, ApJ, 534, 109 Sikora, M., Stawarz, L., & Lasota, J.-P. 2007, ApJ, 658, 815 Singal, J., Petrosian, V., Stawarz, L., & Lawrence, A. 2013, ApJ, 764, 43 Stawarz, L., Sikora, M., Ostrowski, M., & Begelman, M. C. 2004, ApJ, 608, 95 Tavecchio, F., Maraschi, L., Wolter, A., Cheung, C. C., Sambruna, R. M., & Urry, C. M. 2007, ApJ, 662, 900 Tchekhovskoy, A., Narayan, R., & McKinney, J. C. 2011, MNRAS, 418, L79 Volonteri, M., Haardt, F., Ghisellini, G., & Della Ceca, R. 2011, MNRAS, 416, 216 Volonteri, M., Sikora, M., Lasota, J.-P., & Merloni, A. 2013, ApJ, 775, 94 Yuan, W., Fabian, A. C., Celotti, A., & Jonker, P. G. 2003, MNRAS, 346, L7