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  1. 1. NuSTARThe Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) Hard X-ray (5 - 80 keV) Small Explorer (SMEX) mission Selected 11/2003 for a Phase A study Downselection 11/2005 Caltech, JPL, Columbia, LLNL, DSRI, UCSC, SLAC, Spectrum AstroCIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  2. 2. NuSTAR NuSTAR the first focusing mission above 10 keVbrings unparalleled  sensitivity,  angular resolution, and  spectral resolutionto the hard x-ray band and opens an entirely new region of the electromagnetic spectrum for sensitive study CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  3. 3. NuSTARNuSTAR has three primary science goals:NuSTAR will discover collapsed stars and black holes on allscales as a pathfinder for the Beyond Einstein missions Characterize compact stellar remnants near the Galactic centerIdentify massive black holes inthe NDWFS (wide - 9 deg2) andGOODS (deep-500’2) surveyfields CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  4. 4. NuSTARNuSTAR will map the remnants of recent supernova explosions,testing theories of where the elements are born SN 1987A NuSTAR will measure and map the 44 Ti lines at 68 and 78 keV in historic remnants: Tycho, Kepler, Cas A and SN1987A CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  5. 5. NuSTARNuSTAR will explore the most extreme physical environments inthe Universe, teaming with GLAST and Chandra to span the high-energy spectrumNuSTAR will test ourunderstanding of alltypes of black-holepowered activegalaxiesExample: GLAST’s measurements of Compton radiation in the blazar Markarian 501 arecompromised without NuSTAR’s simultaneous measurements of the time variable synchrotronpeak (SSC model is shown). Together, they strongly constrain physical models. CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  6. 6. NuSTAROther objectives: Study cosmic ray acceleration in young SNR Measure high-energy diffuse Galactic emission Detect hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters Map pulsar winds in the Crab Measure cyclotron lines in Her X-1 Unravel physics of GRBs through followup of Glast events Test models of Type 1a Sne CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  7. 7. NuSTARCore collapse events SNe lightcurves powered by radioactive decay of elements produced in non-equilibrium conditions of explosion Following gamma-ray emission lines after core-collapse provides critical tests of explosion models - difficult in core- collapse events Imaging gamma-ray emisison in a young remnant, before they enter the Sedov phase also provides a detailed understanding of the explostion dynamics. CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  8. 8. NuSTAR• 44Ti - (τ = 85 yr) - produced near the mass cut during α-rich freeze-out SN 1987A• Production and ejection very sensitive to explosion mechanism andejecta dynamics.• Believed to now power the 1987A lightcurve•Gamma-ray lines at 68/78 keV, 1157 keV (detected by Comptel inCas A Flux measurement: 44Ti yield (inferred to be high in 1987a) Mapping remnants: measure global asymmetries, ejecta mixing from velocity measurementsCIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  9. 9. NuSTARLine flux sensitivity - ~2 x 10-7 ph/cm2/s(106 s)Map 3 young remnantsMeasure asymmetry, velocity distributionClumpynessMeasure flux from SN1987aRemnant Age Dist Size 67.9 keV flux (yr) (kpc) (‘) (x 10-6 ph/cm2/s)SN 1987a 20 50 0 2.5Cas A 327 3.4 3.6 15Kepler 403 2.9 3.5 8.4 (?)Tycho 435 2.3 8x5 9.2 CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  10. 10. NuSTARType 1a SupernovaeSNe 1a widely believed to result from thermonuclear incinerationof an accreting C/O white dwarf. We don’t know: nature and evolution of the progenitor system mass of dwarf at ignition physics of subsequent nuclear burning reason for the (empirical) width-optical luminosity relationThe lightcurve is believed to be powered by the decay of 56Ni A SN 1a has never been observed in the X-ray/gamma-rayObservations of the time evolution of the 56Ni line (158 keV) wouldprovide important constraints on the explosion mechanism anddynamics CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  11. 11. Prompt Decay of 56Ni i Type Ia SNe NuSTAREvolution of the 56Ni in Type Ia SNe is sensitive to the explosion mechanism andmixing. For example, Mch and sub-Mch models can be easily distinguished.NuSTAR can measure evolution of down-scattered HXR photons to Virgo. CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum
  12. 12. Ready NuSTARAlthough it brings new capabilities to space, NuSTAR is solidly based onexisting hardware developed in a 9 years in a NASA SR&T program Based on the Spectrum Astro SA200-S bus, the NuSTAR spacecraft has extensive heritage. NuSTAR will be launched into an equatorial orbit from Kwajalein. The four NuSTAR The 9m NuSTAR telescopes have mast is a direct NuSTAR det- direct heritage to adaptation of the ector modules the completed 60m mast are the HEFT HEFT flight optics. successfully flown flight units. on SRTM. CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum