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El gordo


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El gordo

  1. 1. S UBMITTED TO THE A STROPHYSICAL J OURNAL , 2011 S EPTEMBER 4; ACCEPTED 2012 JANUARY 4 Preprint typeset using LTEX style emulateapj v. 5/2/11 A THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: ACT-CL J0102−4915 “EL GORDO,” A MASSIVE MERGING CLUSTER AT REDSHIFT 0.87 F ELIPE M ENANTEAU 1 † , J OHN P. H UGHES 1 , C RISTÓBAL S IFÓN 2 , M ATT H ILTON 3 , J ORGE G ONZÁLEZ 2 , L EOPOLDO I NFANTE 2 , L. F ELIPE BARRIENTOS 2 , A NDREW J. BAKER 1 , J OHN R. B OND 4 , S UDEEP DAS 5,6,7 , M ARK J. D EVLIN 8 , J OANNA D UNKLEY 9 , A MIR H AJIAN 4 , A DAM D. H INCKS 7 , A RTHUR KOSOWSKY 10 , DANICA M ARSDEN 8 , T OBIAS A. M ARRIAGE 11 , K AVILAN M OODLEY 12 , M ICHAEL D. N IEMACK 13 , M ICHAEL R. N OLTA 4 , LYMAN A. PAGE 7 , E RIK D. R EESE 8 , N EELIMA S EHGAL 14 , J ON S IEVERS 4 , DAVID N. S PERGEL 6 , S UZANNE T. S TAGGS 7 , E DWARD W OLLACK 15 1 Rutgers University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA 2 Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile 3 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK 4 Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3H8arXiv:1109.0953v3 [astro-ph.CO] 8 Jan 2012 5 Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 6 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA 7 Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA 8 University of Pennsylvania, Physics and Astronomy, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 9 Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH, UK 10 University of Pittsburgh, Physics & Astronomy Department, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA 11 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-2686, USA 12 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics & Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban, 4041, South Africa. 13 NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO, USA 80305 14 KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, USA and 15 Code 553/665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771, USA Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, 2011 September 4; accepted 2012 January 4 ABSTRACT We present a detailed analysis from new multi-wavelength observations of the exceptional galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102−4915, likely the most massive, hottest, most X-ray luminous and brightest Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect cluster known at redshifts greater than 0.6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration discovered ACT-CL J0102−4915 as the most significant Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) decrement in a sky survey area of 755 square degrees. Our VLT/FORS2 spectra of 89 member galaxies yield a cluster redshift, z = 0.870, and velocity dispersion, σgal = 1321 ± 106 km s−1 . Our Chandra observations reveal a hot and X-ray luminous system with an integrated temperature of TX = 14.5 ± 1.0 keV and 0.5–2.0 keV band luminosity of LX = (2.19 ± 0.11) × 1045 h−2 erg s−1 . We obtain several statistically consistent cluster mass estimates; using 70 empirical mass scaling relations with velocity dispersion, X-ray YX , and integrated SZ distortion, we estimate a cluster mass of M200a = (2.16 ± 0.32) × 1015 h−1 M . We constrain the stellar content of the cluster to be less 70 than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102−4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6 ± 0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 ± 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102−4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet Cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift is rare, although consistent with the standard ΛCDM cosmology in the lower part of its allowed mass range. Massive, high- redshift mergers like ACT-CL J0102−4915 are unlikely to be reproduced in the current generation of numerical N-body cosmological simulations. Subject headings: cosmology: observations — galaxy clusters: general — galaxies: clusters: individual (ACT- CL J0102−4915) — cosmic background radiation 1. INTRODUCTION a cold, dense “bullet” of low entropy gas that is clearly as- There are currently only a few examples of merging cluster sociated with the merger event. The offsets are due to the systems in which there are spatial offsets (on the order of 200- differing physical processes that act on the gas, galaxies, and 300 kpc) between the peaks of the total and baryonic matter dark matter. The gas behaves as a fluid, experiencing shocks, distributions. Some of these, like 1E0657−56 (the original viscosity, and ram pressure, while the galaxies and dark mat- “bullet” cluster at z = 0.296, Markevitch et al. 2002), Abell ter (or so we posit) are collisionless. These bullet systems 2146 (at z = 0.234, Russell et al. 2010), and possibly Abell have been used to offer direct evidence for the existence of 2744 (at z = 0.308, Merten et al. 2011), contain in addition dark matter (Clowe et al. 2004, 2006) and to set constraints on the self-interaction cross-section of the dark matter parti- † Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Ob- cle (Markevitch et al. 2004; Randall et al. 2008; Bradaˇ et al. c servatory under programme ID 086.A-0425. 2008). Additionally, the large merger velocity of 1E0657−56
  2. 2. 2 Menanteau et al.of around 3000 km s−1 (Mastropietro & Burkert 2008; Marke- 2.1. SZ observationsvitch 2006), required to explain the morphology and temper- ACT is a six-meter off-axis telescope designed forature of the gas from Chandra observations, is much higher arcminute-scale millimeter-wave observations and it is situ-than expected in cosmological simulations. These merging ated at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in the Atacamaclusters provide interesting laboratories for several important desert in northern Chile (see Fowler et al. 2010; Swetz et al.topics in astrophysics and cosmology. 2011, for a complete description). One of the goals of this Merging cluster systems can display a wide range of mass project is to measure the evolution of structure in the Uni-ratios, impact parameters, types of merging systems, and verse using massive galaxy clusters detected via the SZ effecttimes since closest approach, and clusters evolve with cos- (e.g., Sehgal et al. 2011).mic time. So it is worthwhile to find new bullet cluster sys- ACT observations began in late 2007 and to date it hastems, especially at high redshift, to exploit their different ini- surveyed two sky areas: one near declination −55 degreestial and final conditions and learn more about dark matter and (the southern strip) and the other on the celestial equator.the assembly of clusters through mergers. Massive clusters The 2008 southern observations covered a region of 455 deg2(∼1015 M ) become increasingly rare at high z while their in- and recently ACT has analyzed an additional 300 deg2 alongfall speeds are typically higher in the early Universe (see Lee the equator (centered on the SDSS Stripe82, Abazajian et al.& Komatsu 2010). 2009). In this paper we report on ACT-CL J0102−4915, a recently- ACT-CL J0102−4915 was reported by ACT as a particu-discovered system (Marriage et al. 2011) which appears to larly strong SZ detection at a frequency of 148 GHz amongbe an excellent new example of a bullet cluster at redshift 23 high-significance clusters from the 2008 southern surveyz = 0.87. It was found by the Atacama Cosmology Tele- (Marriage et al. 2011). In Figure 1 (lower right panel) wescope (ACT, Fowler et al. 2007) through its strong Sunyaev- show the filtered ACT 148 GHz intensity maps for ACT-Zel’dovich signal (SZ, Sunyaev & Zeldovich 1972) , and was CL J0102−4915 using a matched filtered (e.g., Haehnelt &confirmed through optical and X-ray data by Menanteau et Tegmark 1996; Melin, Bartlett, & Delabrouille 2006).al. (2010a). We demonstrate here that ACT-CL J0102−4915 The South Pole Telescope (SPT, Carlstrom et al. 2009) hasis a rare and exceptional system at a time in cosmic history reported its most significant cluster detections on a 2,500when the Universe was only half its current age. Addition-ally, it is a contender for being the most massive and X-ray deg2 survey (Williamson et al. 2011), which overlaps withluminous galaxy cluster at z > 0.6, likely competitors be- the ACT 2008 southern survey. This sample also containsing CL J1226+3332 (Maughan, et al. 2004) at z = 0.89 with ACT-CL J0102−4915; it is SPT’s most significant SZ clus- ter detection to date by nearly a factor of two, with a com-mass2 of M200c = (1.38 ± 0.20) × 1015 h−1 M (Jee & Tyson 70 parable beam-averaged SZ decrement to the Bullet cluster2009) and SPT-CL J2106−5844 at z = 1.14 with M200a = 1E0657−56. Among all clusters in the combined ACT and(1.27 ± 0.21) × 1015 h−1 M (Foley et al. 2011). Therefore, to 70 SPT sample, ACT-CL J0102−4915 is exceptional in havingreflect its exceptional mass and to recognize the Chilean con- the highest SZ signal (ACT, Marriage et al. 2011) or the high-tribution to ACT we dub the cluster “El Gordo,” which means est significance SZ detection (SPT, Williamson et al. 2011).The Fat/Big One in Spanish. Throughout this paper we quote cluster masses as M200a (or 2.2. Optical ImagingM500c ) which corresponds to the mass enclosed within a radiuswhere the overdensity is 200 (500) times the average (crit- The initial optical observations of ACT-CL J0102−4915ical) matter density, and we assume a standard flat ΛCDM were carried out during December 9–12, 2009 using the SOIcosmology with Ωm = 0.27 and ΩΛ = 0.73, and give relevant camera on the 4.1-m SOAR Telescope in Cerro Pachón (09B-quantities in terms of the Hubble parameter H0 = 70h70 km s−1 0355, PI: Menanteau) using the SDSS griz filter set with ex-Mpc−1 . For this cosmology the angular diameter distance to posure times of 540 s (6 × 90 s), 720 s (6 × 120 s), 2200 s (8 × 275 s) and 2200 s (8 × 275s) in g, r, i and z respectively.the cluster is 1617 h−1 Mpc and 1 corresponds to a physical 70 These exposure times were twice the nominal observations forscale of 470 h−1 kpc at the cluster redshift. Magnitudes are 70 the program as ACT-CL J0102−4915 was one of the targetedreported in the AB system and uncertainties are reported for detections suspected to be a higher-redshift cluster. The run68% confidence intervals. conditions were optimal and all four nights were photometric 2. OBSERVATIONS with seeing in the range 0. 5 to 0. 9. A complete description We have embarked on an ambitious multi-wavelength of the observations and data analysis is provided in Menan-follow-up program aimed at characterizing the baryonic (i.e., teau et al. (2010a).gas, stellar) and dark matter mass components and the SZ- As part of our 2010B spectroscopic follow-up campaignmass scaling relations of the most massive clusters discov- of the southern cluster sample, we secured additional deepered by ACT via the SZ effect. As part of this effort we and wider Riz imaging (intended for slit mask design) and ex-have obtained total mass estimates based on galaxy dynam- tensive multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) with FORS2 on theics (via measuring spectroscopic redshifts with 8-m class tele- Very Large Telescope (VLT, 086.A-0425 PI:Infante). FORS2scopes, Sifon et al. 2012), cluster X-ray emission with Chan- is a multi-mode (imaging, polarimetry, long slit and multi-dra and stellar masses from infrared IRAC/Spitzer imaging. object spectroscopy) optical instrument mounted on the UT1In the following sections we describe the different datasets (Antu) telescope. We devoted a total of 12 hours of observ-and preview the results when applied to this study of ACT- ing time (service mode) on VLT to ACT-CL J0102−4915 ofCL J0102−4915. Images of the cluster from these various which 10 hours were devoted to MOS and 2 hours to sources are shown in Fig. 1. In our original confirmation of ACT-CL J0102−4915 we re- ported the larger concentration of galaxies to the NW as the 2 Throughout this paper we distinguish between masses quoted with re- optical cluster counterpart to the ACT source and used thespect to the average or critical density using the “a” or “c” subscripts. brightest galaxy it contained as the cluster center (see Fig-
  3. 3. ACT-CL J0102−4915, “El Gordo” 3 ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 Optical + IRAC 3.6µm and 4.5µm 1 0.4 ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 cts/arcsec2 0.2 0.0 100 50 0 50 100 arcsec 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.11 7 0.2 3 0.4 8 0.6 8 1.72 1.0 7 0.1 1 ACT (148 GHz) Chandra/ACIS [-385µK,-85µK] 1Figure 1. The multi-wavelength dataset for ACT-CL J0102−4915 with all panels showing the same sky region. (Upper left) The composite optical color imagefrom the combined griz (SOAR/SOI) and Riz (VLT/FORS2) imaging with the overplotted Chandra X-ray surface brightness contours shown in white. The blackand white inset image shows a remarkably strong lensing arc. (Upper right) The composite color image from the combination of the optical imaging from VLTand SOAR and IR from the Spitzer/IRAC 3.6µm and 4.5µm imaging. The overplotted linearly-spaced contours in white correspond to the matched-filtered ACT148 GHz intensity maps. Bottom left False color image of the Chandra X-ray emission with the same set of eleven log-spaced contours between 2.71 cts/arcsec2and 0.03 cts/arcsec2 as in the panel above. The insert here shows the X-ray surface brightness in a cut across the “wake” region from the box region shown.Bottom right ACT 148 GHz intensity map with angular resolution of 1. 4 and match-filtered with a nominal galaxy cluster profile, in units of effective temperaturedifference from the mean. The color scale ranges from -85 µK at the edges to -385 µK at the center of the SZ minimum. In all panels the horizontal bar showsthe scale of the image, where north is up and east is left.ure 1 top panels). However, even in the smaller ≈ 4. 5 × 4. 5 The FORS2/VLT imaging aimed to obtain wider and deepercoverage of the SOAR images (see Figure 9 from Menanteau observations to confirm the substructure hint in the SOARet al. 2010a), we noted a number of red galaxies with simi- data and to secure galaxy positions for the spectroscopiclar photometric redshifts trailing towards the SE. The lack of observations. Our observations were carried out with thecoverage and large photometric redshift uncertainties made it standard resolution of 0. 25/pixel providing a field size ofdifficult to confidently identify these galaxies as part of the 6. 8 × 6. 8 with exposure times of 640 s (8 × 80 s), 2200 scluster. (10 × 220 s) and 2300 s (20 × 115 s) in R, I and z, respectively.
  4. 4. 4 Menanteau et al. velocity (km/s) [O II]3727Å emission lines, the CaII (K-H, 3950Å) (which -4000 -3000 -2000 -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 is the spectral signature of elliptical galaxies), plus other ab- 14 σgal =1321 km s−1 sorption lines such as the G-band (4300Å) as well as the 4000Å break were located in the spectral range of the grism. 12 These features facilitated the determination of galaxy red- shifts, galaxy cluster membership, and the galaxy velocity dispersion of the cluster. Integration times were 40 minutes 10 per mask in order to maximize the number of galaxies whileNumber obtaining the necessary signal-to-noise ratio in the relevant 8 lines. We observed a total of five FORS2/MXU masks in this configuration, providing redshifts for a total of 123 objects of 6 which 89 were cluster members. The redshifts were measured by cross-correlating the spec- 4 tra with galaxy spectral templates of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (Abazajian et al. 2009) using 2 the RVSAO/XCSAO package for IRAF (Kurtz & Mink 1998). Most of these member galaxies are ellipticals with no emis- 0 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 sion lines, and only a few emission line galaxies have been Redshift found to belong to the cluster. Cluster membership was determined using a rest-frame cut Figure 2. Histogram showing the redshift distribution for the 89 cluster in velocity space of 4000 km s−1 , and then applying the shift- member galaxies and the Gaussian with the same mean and width σgal . ing gapper method of Katgert et al. (1996) in order to re- The optical data were processed using a slightly modified ver- move galaxies that lie outside a given gap in velocity space sion of the Python-based Rutgers Southern Cosmology image from the main body of galaxies. In particular, we defined pipeline (Menanteau et al. 2009, 2010b) that takes us from the main body in bins of 15 galaxies and used a velocity gap raw data to galaxy catalogs. Here we give a brief overview of 500 km s−1 . We used the well-accepted biweight estimator of the steps involved and refer the reader to the above pa- (Beers et al. 1990) to estimate both the mean redshift of the pers for a complete description. The initial standard CCD sample, z = 0.87008±0.00010, and the velocity dispersion4 of processing steps (i.e. flat fielding, bias subtraction) were per- the cluster, σgal = 1321 ± 106 km s−1 . Errors were estimated formed via system calls to the ESO Recipe Execution tool via bootstrap resampling. The velocity dispersion of ACT- (EsoRex)3 . In order to increase the depth and coverage for CL J0102−4915 is larger than all other clusters in the ACT ACT-CL J0102−4915 we co-added the imaging in the r, i and sample (Menanteau et al. 2010a; Sifon et al. 2012) and also z and R, I and z from SOAR and FORS2 respectively into larger than SPT-CL 2106−5844 which is the largest in the full an über dataset. As the FORS2 RIz images were taken un- 2,500 deg2 SPT sample (Foley et al. 2011; Williamson et al. der clear but non-photometric conditions we utilize the SOAR 2011). Using only the passive galaxies (i.e., objects with no photometric data to calibrate the photometry of the combined emission lines) in ACT-CL J0102−4915, we obtained a mean data. All science frames were aligned and median combined redshift of z = 0.86963 ± 0.00012 with a velocity dispersion into a common pixel reference frame using SWarp (Bertin of 1280 ± 108 km s−1 . 2006) to a plate scale of 0. 2525/pixel. Source detection In Figure 2 we show the redshift distribution for all galaxy and photometry for the science catalogs were performed us- members from the FORS2 spectra. We see no indication of ing SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996) in dual-image mode substructure along the line of sight, confirming the conclusion in which sources were identified on the über i−band images of Sifon et al. (2012) which used the Dressler & Shectman using a 1.5σ detection threshold, while magnitudes were ex- (1988) test. However, as we will discuss in Sec. 3.2 we find tracted at matching locations from all other bands. substantial evidence for spatial substructure. 2.3. Optical Spectroscopy and Redshifts 2.4. Chandra X-ray Observations Based on the possibility that ACT-CL J0102−4915 was ex- We were awarded 60 ks of Chandra observing time on this ceptional, we devoted the bulk (10 of 15 hrs) of the awarded target during cycle 12 (PI: Hughes, ObsId: 12258) as part of time on VLT in semester 2010B to securing spectra for galax- our follow-up effort on the SZ clusters found in the ACT 2008 ies with colors consistent with being early-type cluster mem- bers. We refer the reader to a companion paper (Sifon et al. 455-deg2 survey (Menanteau et al. 2010a). The Chandra ob- 2012) where we fully describe the spectroscopic observing servation was carried out on January 26–27, 2011 for an ef- campaign of the 19 clusters at z > 0.3 in the ACT southern fective exposure of 59,260 s using the ACIS-I array. Figure 1 sample (of which ACT-CL J0102−4915 was part), including (bottom left panel) shows the surface brightness of the cluster the data reduction, analysis and redshift determination. Here after point source removal, exposure correction, and adaptive we summarize the most salient aspects of this work. kernel smoothing. The observations were executed in January 2011 under pho- The cometary appearance of the X-rays is remarkable, ex- tometric conditions with seeing of 0. 8. The observations tending even to the apparent presence of two “tails” extend- ing off toward the NW. Orthogonal slices of the X-ray surface cover the wavelength range ∼ 4000 − 8000Å using the GRIS brightness show that these “tails” arise from significant de- 300+11 Grism at 1.62 Å/pixel and resolution λ/∆λ ∼ 660 at pressions in the X-ray intensity, at a level of 20–40%, in a the central wavelength. At the cluster redshift of z = 0.87, the 4 As customary the quoted uncertainties for z and σ gal only reflect statisti- 3 cal errors from 89 objects and do not include systematic effects.
  5. 5. ACT-CL J0102−4915, “El Gordo” 5 -49°14 Region 6 Region 5 -49°15 Region 4 Dec. (J2000) Region 3 -49°16 2 1 -49°17 -49°18 01h 03m 10s 01h 03m 00s 01h 02m 50s 01h 02m 40s R.A. (J2000) Figure 3. Chandra X-ray spectra of ACT-CL J0102−4915 for the total clus- ter in black, the cool bright peak (region 1 in Fig. 5) in blue, and the highest temperature region (region 5) in red. The bottom panel shows the residuals between the best fit models (histograms in top panel) and data. 100 BulletLbol(1 + z)−1.5 [1044 h702 erg s−1 ] 50 ACT-CL J0102-4915 − 10 5 Figure 5. (Upper panel) Chandra X-ray image showing raw detected counts and the spectral extraction regions. (Lower panel) Best-fitted X-ray tempera- tures plotted versus spectral extraction region (see key in figure to left). Error bars are 1-σ. Region 1, corresponding to the bright peak, is the coolest region. 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 tour in Fig. 1, which is at a radius of around 2. 2 (1.0 h−170 Te [keV] Mpc). An absorbed phabs*mekal model yielded a best- fit (source frame) temperature of kT = 14.5 ± 1.0 keV, metal Figure 4. The X-ray bolometric luminosity vs. temperature for a sample abundance 0.19 ± 0.09 with respect to solar values, and a of well-studied clusters taken from Markevitch (1998). The Bullet cluster bolometric luminosity of Lbol = 13.6 × 1045 h−2 erg s−1 . Fig- 70 (1E0657−56) is the open square point at high temperature and luminosity ure 4 shows the Lbol -TX relation with ACT-CL J0102−4915 from Markevitch (2006). ACT-CL J0102−4915 is the red circle in the same region of the plot. added as the red point (note that a redshift correction fac- tor of (1 + z)−1.5 was applied to Lbol following Vikhlinin et band extending from about 1 NW of the compact peak emis- al. 2002). The nearby point on this figure is the closest sion region and continuing off to the NW out to the faint parts comparison cluster, 1E0657−56. Similarly, the X-ray lumi- of the cluster. The depression is about 35 (270 h−1 kpc) wide. nosity of ACT-CL J0102−4915 in the 0.5–2.0 keV band is 70 We refer to this feature as the “wake”. LX = 2.19 ± 0.11 × 1045 h−2 erg s−1 . 70 The integrated Chandra spectrum is shown in Figure 3 The modest count rate of ACT-CL J0102−4915 (i.e., 0.2 s−1 (top black points). The extraction region for this spectrum corresponding to a total number of detected X-ray photons of excludes the central peak emission (from within the inner- nearly 12,000) limits the number of regions into which the most contour in Fig. 1) and extends out to the outermost con- cluster can be subdivided for spatially resolved spectroscopy.
  6. 6. 6 Menanteau et al. Chandra/ACIS + SZ (ACT 148 GHz) 1 Chandra/ACIS + SZ (Predicted) 1 [-385µK,-85µK] [-383µK,-85µK]Figure 6. The X-ray Chandra emission overlaid with the ACT 148 GHz data contours from Fig. 1 (left) and the predicted SZ signal at 148 GHz from thedeprojected X-ray data (right). The black cross represents the SZ position reported by Williamson et al. (2011) for ACT-CL J0102−4915. The contour levels arelinearly spaced between the limits shown in brackets on each panel. The minimum central value of the ACT and predicted signals agree to within ∼15%. Thewhite dotted line shows the symmetry axis chosen for the deconvolution.We perform this measurement by dividing the total emission ferent angular resolutions (< 1 vs. 1. 4) is particularly rele-into roughly equal parts as shown in Figure 5. Spectra were vant for observations of merging clusters with complex gasextracted and fitted to the same absorbed thermal model as density substructure.before; the best-fit temperatures are plotted vs. region num- In order to investigate these differences we developed a newber in Fig. 5. The coolest (region 1, kT = 6.6 ± 0.7 keV) technique for deprojecting X-ray images that, unlike tradi-and the hottest (region 5, kT = 22+6 keV) spectra are plot- −5 tional methods utilizing azimuthally-averaged profiles, takested in Figure 3 in blue and red, respectively. Note the strong account of the full observed two-dimensional structure. TheFe K line (observed at E = 3.56 keV) in the spectrum of process assumes rotational symmetry about a user-definedthe coolest region, which yielded a rather high metal abun- axis and independently deprojects each column of pixels per-dance of 0.57 ± 0.20. Elsewhere the Fe K line is not detected pendicular to that axis. For ACT-CL J0102−4915 we chosestrongly, pointing to abundance variations in the cluster gas. the symmetry axis so that it runs through both the peak X- We see that the peak emission region in ACT- ray emission at the bullet and the surface brightness depres-CL J0102−4915 is an X-ray–bright, relatively cool, “bullet” sion toward the NW. The axis is centered on R.A.=01:02:54.9,of low entropy gas like in 1E0657−56. The enhanced Fe Dec.=−49:15:52.5 and oriented at a position angle of 136◦abundance suggests it was the core of a cool-core cluster (see Figure 6). Beyond a certain radius from the centerthat has, so far, survived a high velocity merger with another (1. 65 in the case of ACT-CL J0102−4915), where the sur-system. The cluster’s high overall gas temperature and spatial face brightness is background dominated, we used an analytictemperature variations (Fig. 3) argue for significant amounts β-profile fit to the azimuthally-averaged data to deproject theof shock heating of the gas. The steep fall-off in the X-ray cluster emission smoothly to large radii. Interior to this ra-surface brightness toward the SE, as well as the “wake” in dius, using the adaptively-smoothed, 0.5–2.0 keV band im-the main cluster gas toward the NW, clearly indicate that the age, we deproject the X-ray surface brightness in strips per-bullet is moving toward the SE. pendicular to the symmetry axis. Deprojection of the cluster The two lower panels of Fig. 1 show that the SZ and X- emission is done in the usual manner (“peeling the onion”)ray peaks are displaced by about 1. 2. Similar offsets between using the best-fit integrated spectral parameters given abovethe peak SZ and X-ray emission have also been reported in to relate the X-ray emission to the gas density of each depro-the bullet-like cluster Abell 2146 at z = 0.23, for which Chan- jected shell. We deproject the north and south parts of thedra and Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) observations cluster separately, but interpolate the density value across theat 13.9–18.2 GHz show a remarkably similar separation of cluster when “peeling” back any individual layer (to avoid athe SZ and X-ray signal distributions (see AMI Consortium: discontinuity at the symmetry axis). In general this process isRodríguez-Gonzálvez et al. 2011, Figures 13 and 15). Two not guaranteed to produce positive definite values (as physi-factors contribute to this. First, X-ray emission is more sensi- cally required), so we force the computed density to be zerotive to denser parts of the cluster, since X-ray surface bright- in cases where the deprojection would result in a negative (orness is proportional to n2 Teα dl, where ne and Te are the elec- e more precisely, imaginary) value. We quote electron densitytron number density and temperature and α 0.1 (for band- values using an electron to proton number ratio of ne /n p = 1.2limited X-ray emission at high temperature), while the SZ sig- and for mass densities we assume a mean mass of 1.4m p .nal is proportional to the line-of-sight gas pressure ne Te dl. The deprojection results in an estimate of the three-Second, the combination of Chandra and ACT’s widely dif- dimensional distribution of the gas density in the cluster.
  7. 7. ACT-CL J0102−4915, “El Gordo” 7From this we compute the predicted SZ signal at 148 GHz. tractor error estimates. These scaling factors were determinedSince the SZ depends linearly on the gas temperature, as a first using the method outlined in Barmby et al. (2008). Finally,approximation, we use the fitted X-ray temperatures in the 6 the uncertainties in the aperture corrections were added to theregions shown in Fig. 3 to generate a temperature-corrected photometric errors in quadrature.SZ map of the cluster. This was done by computing the ratio 3. ANALYSIS AND RESULTSof expected SZ signal (Nozawa et al. 1998) for the observedtemperatures in each of the six regions to the average cluster 3.1. Mass estimationtemperature and multiplying the single temperature SZ map Here we estimate the mass for ACT-CL J0102−4915 usingby the appropriate ratio for the region. The multiplicative ra- all the mass proxies available from the X-ray data and opticaltios vary from a value of 0.5 (region 1) to 1.6 (region 5). A spectroscopy. We present values in Table 2 and discuss themmore refined calculation would take into account the depro- in detail in the next sections. In all cases we quote uncertain-jection of the X-ray temperatures, however, for our purposes ties that include measurement errors as well as the uncertain-here (i.e., to study the centroid differences), the simpler ap- ties in scaling relations between observables and cluster mass.proximation is sufficent. relation. For the dynamical and X-ray masses, scaling to the This temperature-corrected SZ map is then convolved with common mass estimator M200a carries additional uncertaintythe ACT beam model (Hincks et al. 2010), added to a that we quantify below and include in the Table.source-free region of the ACT map in the vicinity ACT-CL J0102−4915 (to include similar CMB and intrumental 3.1.1. Dynamical Massnoise), and then is filtered with the same procedure used to Here we report in more detail the dynamical mass esti-detect ACT-CL J0102−4915. In Figure 6 we show contours of mates for ACT-CL J0102−4915 calculated by Sifon et al.the predicted SZ signal overlaid on the Chandra data (right), (2012). The velocity dispersion of the cluster is σgal = 1321 ±next to an identical plot with contours of the ACT data (left). 106 km s−1 . This matches the largest reported dispersion of allThe resulting centroid difference between the peak of the SZ known clusters at z > 0.6 from RX J0152.7−1357 at z = 0.836signal and the simulated SZ map is 6 , which is within the and σgal = 1322+74 km s−1 (Girardi et al. 2005), although note −28expected positional error circle. Furthermore the intensity of that the quoted velocity dispersion is for a well-studied merg-the predicted SZ signal agrees to within ∼15% with the ACT ing system which is resolved into two components of con-data. To conclude, we note that the offset between the peak siderably lower mass. We use the M200c -σDM scaling relationX-ray and SZ signals is predominantly a result of the differ- from Evrard et al. (2008) to convert the measured velocityent sizes of the beams between Chandra and ACT (at least a dispersion into a dynamical mass estimate,factor of 60). 1/α 1015 σDM 2.5. Spitzer/IRAC Imaging M200c = M , (1) 0.7h70 (z) σDM,15 As part of a larger warm-phase Spitzer program (PID:70149, PI:Menanteau) which aims to characterize the stellar where h70 (z) = h70 Ωm (1 + z)3 + ΩΛ , σDM,15 = 1082.9 ±mass content of clusters in the ACT sample (Hilton et al., in 4.0 km s−1 , α = 0.3361 ± 0.0026 and σDM is the velocity dis-prep.), in August 2010 we obtained IRAC 3.6µm and 4.5µm persion of the dark matter halo. The latter is related to theobservations of ACT-CL J0102−4915. Our observations were observed galaxy velocity dispersion by the velocity bias pa-designed to provide coverage out to the virial radius for clus- rameter, bv = σgal /σDM . The latest physically motivated sim-ters at z > 0.4, using a 2 × 2 grid of IRAC pointings centered ulations (see Evrard et al. 2008, and references therein) indi-on the cluster position. A total of 10 × 100 s frames were cate that galaxies are essentially unbiased tracers of the darkobtained in each channel at each grid position, using a large matter potential, bv = 1.00 ± 0.05. Using a bias factor ofscale cycling dither pattern. The basic calibrated data (BCD) bv = 1 for the velocity dispersion for all galaxies, we obtain aimages were corrected for pulldown using the software of dynamical mass of M200a,dyn = 1.86+0.54 × 1015 h−1 M . Simi-Ashby & Hora 5 and then mosaiced using MOPEX (Makovoz −0.49 70 larly, using only the passively evolving galaxies without emis-& Khan 2005) to give maps which are ≈ 13 on a side with sion lines, we obtain M200a,dyn = 1.72+0.50 × 1015 h−1 M . We 700. 6 pixel scale. The maps for each channel were then reg- −0.47 note that the Evrard et al. (2008) scaling uses M200c as theistered to a common pixel coordinate system. By inserting mass within a radius where the overdensity is 200 times thesynthetic point sources, we estimate the 80% completeness critical density of the Universe, so the observed mass valuesdepths of the final maps to be ≈ 22.6 mag (AB) in both chan- reported in Sifon et al. (2012) have been scaled from criticalnels. Matched aperture photometry was performed on the IRAC to average density using M200a = 1.16+0.04 × M200c . This con- −0.03maps using SExtractor in dual image mode, using the 3.6µm version factor was derived using a Navarro, Frenk, & Whitechannel as the detection band. We measure fluxes through 4 (1997) mass profile (hereafter NFW) and the concentration-diameter circular apertures, which are corrected to estimates mass relation, c(M, z), from simulations (Duffy et al. 2008)of total magnitude using aperture corrections (as measured at z = 0.87 for the mass of the cluster. The reported uncer-by Barmby et al. 2008) of −0.35 ± 0.04, −0.37 ± 0.04 mag tainties in the conversion factor reflect the σlog c = 0.15 scatterin the 3.6µm, 4.5µm channels respectively. The photometric in the log-normal probability distribution of c(M, z). The ra-uncertainties were scaled upwards by factors of 2.8, 2.6 in the dius r200 = 2111 ± 189 h−1 kpc was also calculated using M200a 703.6µm, 4.5µm channels respectively, in order to account for and assuming spherical symmetry, using the average densitynoise correlation between pixels introduced in the production of the Universe at redshift z, ρ(z) = Ωm (1 + z)3 3H0 / (8πG). ¯ 2of the mosaics which is not taken into account in the SEx- 3.1.2. X-ray Mass 5 See We estimated the cluster mass from several X-ray massdataanalysistools/tools/contributed/irac/fixpulldown/ proxies using the scaling relations in Vikhlinin et al. (2009)
  8. 8. 8 Menanteau et al.and Kravtsov, Vikhlinin, & Nagai (2006). For the gas temper- 10-15 ID = 801 ID = 760 age = 0.72 Gyr age = 1.43 Gyrature and luminosity we essentially follow the prescriptions in τ = 0.1 Gyr τ = 0.2 Gyr 10-16 log M ∗ = 11.34 ± 0.02 M log M ∗ = 10.36 ± 0.06 M Flux Density (erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 )Vikhlinin et al. (2009) to apply those scaling laws to the X-ray E(B-V) = 0.06 E(B-V) = 0.14 ◦ χ2 /dof = 19.02 χ2 /dof = 1.96data. We obtain masses of M500c = 1.39+0.20 ×1015 h70 M and −0.19 −1 10-17 15 −1M500c = 1.40−0.36 × 10 h70 M from the M500c -TX and M500c - +0.44LX relations, respectively. We refrain, however, from apply- 10-18ing the 17% "merging cluster mass boost" as implemented by 10-19Vikhlinin et al. (2009), since, given the exceptional nature ofACT-CL J0102−4915, it is not obvious that such a correc- 10-20tion factor is appropriate. Due to the complex substructure of 10-15the cluster, for the Mgas -based relations (YX and Mgas ), we use ID = 2508 age = 0.57 Gyr ID = 2477 age = 1.01 Gyrthe 2D deprojection to generate an azimuthally-average radial τ = 0.1 Gyr τ = 0.4 Gyr 10-16 log M ∗ = 10.14 ± 0.04 M log M ∗ = 10.39 ± 0.15 M Flux Density (erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 ) E(B-V) = 0.30 E(B-V) = 0.36gas mass profile about the cluster center, which agrees well ◦ χ2 /dof = 0.48 χ2 /dof = 1.72(within ∼15%) with the azimuthally-averaged core-excised 10-17surface brightness profile. For the YX mass proxy we obtain amass of M500c = 1.55+0.15 × 1015 h−1 M . 10-18 −0.15 70 Since all of these mass proxies are potentially sensitive tomerger boosts on TX and LX , we also explored using Mgas , 10-19which is intrinsically unaffected by merger boosts. How- 10-20ever, the X-ray–derived measurement of Mgas , which comesfrom the reconstructed density by deprojecting the surface 104 105 104 105brightness, is sensitive to clumping. This can in principle Wavelength (A) ◦ Wavelength (A) ◦result in a bias, depending on whether clusters are indeed Figure 7. Examples of the SED fitting for four galaxy cluster members inmore highly clumped during mergers. In the case of ACT- ACT-CL J0102−4915. The solid line represents the best-fit SED for theCL J0102−4915, the excellent agreement between our pre- broad-band g, r, i, z, 3.6µm and 4.5µm photometry shown as open symbols.dicted SZ signal from the Chandra data and the actual mm-band ACT data suggests that gas clumping is not significant. eter aperture corrected magnitudes as measurements of totalWe use the scaling law for M500c − Mgas at redshift z = 0.6 from flux in the IRAC bands.Kravtsov, Vikhlinin, & Nagai (2006), which yields a value of We fit the broadband Spectral Energy Distributions (SED)M500c = 1.67+0.20 × 1015 h−1 M and implies a gas mass frac- −0.20 70 using a similar methodology to that described in Shapley ettion fgas = 0.133. The agreement among the four X-ray mass al. (2005, see also Hilton et al. 2010). We augmented theproxies is excellent: all are consistent within their 1-σ ranges sample of 89 spectroscopic members to a total of 411 selectedwith a single mass value. using photometric redshifts (Benítez 2000) re-calibrated with Our M200a X-ray mass estimates are given in Table 2 using a the 517 redshifts from seven clusters in the range 0.4 < z < 0.9conversion factor of 1.85+0.30 from M500c to M200a . This factor −0.20 from Sifon et al. (2012) and with the same griz photometry asis derived using the same procedure as in Section 3.1.1. ACT-CL J0102−4915. The improved photometric redshifts had typical δz = 0.04 in the redshift range 0.8 < z < 0.9. We 3.1.3. SZ Mass select galaxies with photometric redshifts within ∆z ± 0.06 of We estimate the SZ-derived mass of this cluster using the the cluster mean redshift.peak Compton signal for the brightest 0.’5 pixel (yTCMB ) of We construct a grid of Bruzual & Charlot (2003) solar490 ± 60µK as published in Sehgal et al. (2011). We com- metallicity models with exponentially declining star forma-bined this measurement with a fiducial scaling relation be- tion histories with 20 values of τ in the range 0.1 − 20 Gyr,tween yTCMB and M200a derived from simulations and cali- and 53 ages in the range 0.001 − 7.0 Gyr. We adopt a Chabrierbrated by X-ray observations with best-fit parameters given (2003) initial mass function (IMF), and model the effect ofin that same work. Using this scaling relation, we find the dust extinction using the Calzetti et al. (2000) law, allowingmass of this cluster to be M200,SZ = 1.64+0.62 × 1015 h−1 M . E(B − V ) to vary in the range 0.0 − 0.5 in steps of 0.02. The −0.42 70 SEDs are fitted by analytically calculating the normalizationThis mass is consistent with the independently-derived massreported by SPT (Williamson et al. 2011) of M200,SZ = (1.78 ± N for each model SED where dχ2 /dN = 0, adopting the model0.64) × 1015 h−1 M , which uses a similar scaling relation be- with the lowest χ2 value as the best fit. The stellar mass M∗ 70tween the significance, ζ, and M200a . This value also includes is then estimated from the value of N. We therefore fit for aa 6% reduction to the published mass value to reflect the total of four parameters (age, τ , E(B −V ), M∗ ). Errors on thechange in redshift from their photometric estimate (z = 0.78) SED parameters were estimated using Monte-Carlo simula-to the true spectroscopic value (z = 0.87). tions. Figure 7 shows some examples of fitted SEDs. Given the small number of SED points compared to the number of free parameters, coupled with degeneracies be- 3.1.4. Stellar Mass from SED Fitting tween several parameters (age, τ , E(B − V ); see the discus- In order to measure stellar population parameters and the sion in Shapley et al. 2005), we do not expect the values ofstellar mass content of the cluster using galaxy members, these parameters to be very robust. However, stellar mass iswe combine the optical photometry described in Section 2.2 well constrained by the IRAC photometry, which probes thewith the IRAC photometry described in Section 2.5 by cross rest-frame near-IR at the cluster redshift, and stellar mass es-matching the catalogs using a 1. 2 matching radius. We adopt timates have been shown to be fairly insensitive to variationsthe SExtractor MAG_AUTO measurements as estimates of in other model parameters, such as the assumed star forma-total galaxy magnitudes in the optical bands, and the 4 diam- tion history (e.g., Förster Schreiber et al. 2004; Shapley et al.
  9. 9. ACT-CL J0102−4915, “El Gordo” 92005). We note that uncertainties in the IMF and the modeling or their integrated light contribution, it is clear that there is aof thermally pulsating AGB stars (e.g., Maraston 2005; Con- double peak structure in their spatial distribution with nearlyroy et al. 2009) is likely to lead to the stellar mass estimates parallel contours that also align with the direction of the lens-only being accurate to within a factor of two; these system- ing arc. We use this feature to define two components inatic uncertainties are not taken into account in quoted errors the cluster (which we refer to as the NW and SE compo-on M∗ . The total stellar mass for all cluster members within nents) and investigate their masses and differences in veloci- ∗r200 = 2111 h−1 kpc is M200 = 1.31 ± 0.26 × 1013 M . This sug- 70 ties of the components. Specifically, we divide cluster galax-gests a ratio of stellar mass to total mass of < 1% within r200 ies into two groups along the line defined by the pair of RAfor ACT-CL J0102−4915. and Dec positions (01:03:22.0, −49:12:32.9) and (01:02:35.1, −49:18:09.8). The velocity dispersions of the NW and SE 3.2. Cluster Structure components are 1290 ± 134 and 1089 ± 200 km s−1 , respec- In the ΛCDM paradigm, the dark matter distribution should tively. We compute their masses using the same method de-be aligned with the distribution of galaxies if the dark mat- scribed in section 3.1.1 and obtain 1.76+0.62 × 1015 h−1 M and −0.58 70ter particles are indeed collisionless. The cometary and 1.06+0.64 × 1015 h−1 M , respectively. Formally this implies a −0.59 70bullet-like X-ray structure of ACT-CL J0102−4915 motivates range of possible mass ratios from approximately 5:1 to 1:1our search for a spatial offset between the galaxies (that between the cluster components; in subsequent analysis weshould primarily trace the dark matter distribution) and the will consider a 2:1 mass ratio. Table 1 gives computed valuesX-ray gas in a cluster subcomponent as seen in, for example, for the cluster components, as well as the cluster total. The1E 0657−558 (Clowe et al. 2004), MS 1054−0321 (Jeltema et sum of the masses of the two components determined sepa-al. 2001), and MACS J0025.4−1222 (Bradaˇ et al. 2008). c rately, (2.8 ± 0.9) × 1015 h−1 M , is about 1-σ higher than the Our VLT campaign (Sifon et al. 2012) found no clear evi- 70 total cluster mass inferred from the velocity dispersion of alldence for velocity substructure or a bimodal velocity distribu- galaxies. We discuss this more in the next section.tion in ACT-CL J0102−4915. However, visual inspection of The SE component has a line-of-sight peculiar velocity 6 ofthe optical images immediately suggested an elongated struc-ture in the distribution of the red galaxies along the NW-SE 586 ± 96 km s−1 with respect to the main (NW) component.axis, coincident with the direction of the structure seen in the We also note that the cluster BCG (z = 0.87014 ± 0.00030),X-ray emission (see Figure 1 left panels). We investigate the which is spatially located in the smaller SE mass component,spatial cluster structure in more detail by constructing four has a peculiar velocity of 731 ± 66 km s−1 with respect to themaps: a) the surface density of galaxies, b) the i−band lu- main (NW) component. In Figure 9 we compare the distribu-minosity density, c) the 3.6µm/IRAC rest-frame luminosity tion of the velocities for the NW and SE components showndensity and d) the SED-fitted stellar mass density for spectro- in red and blue respectively against the distribution for the fullscopically and photometrically selected cluster members as sample.described in Section 3.1.4. These four maps use a 6 /pixel We also use the cluster spatial information to obtain the stel-grid smoothed with a Gaussian kernel of width 20 . Fig- lar mass of the components with their respective r200 valueure 8 shows our deep optical multi-band imaging of ACT- using the SED fits from section 3.1.4. Following the sameCL J0102−4915 overplotted with yellow contours of the four component segregration as described above, we obtain stellardensity maps (one per figure panel) along with the same X-ray masses of (7.5 ± 1.4) × 1012 M and (5.6 ± 1.3) × 1012 M forsurface brightness contours from Figure 1 displayed in white. the NW and SE components respectively. In all cases the galaxy distribution is obviously double 3.3. Combined Masspeaked and a bright cD-type galaxy sits near each peak. Forthe galaxy density (Figure 8 top left) and stellar mass den- Table 2 compiles our mass estimates for ACT-sity (lower right) maps, the peak of the X-ray emission lies CL J0102−4915 from X-ray, SZ, and optical data sets.between the peaks of the density. The luminosity densities While central values range over nearly a factor of two,for the i− and 3.6µm−bands (Figure 8 upper right and lower all estimates are statistically consistent. This can be seenleft panels, respectively) are also double-peaked distributions. by noting that the 2-σ mass ranges for all six mass esti-The i-band luminosity density, which probes the ultraviolet mates overlap for the mass range 1.78 × 1015 h−1 M and 70at z = 0.87, is somewhat unusual because it is dominated by 2.88 × 1015 h−1 M ; in other words, for any mass in this 70the light contribution of the ultra-luminous Brightest Clus- range, none of the six mass proxies are more than 2-σ away.ter Galaxy (BCG), discussed further below. As a result, the For a combined mass estimate on which to base furtherSE peak has the higher amplitude in the i-band, and coin- conclusions, we construct a χ2 curve for a fit to a singlecides with the peak of the X-ray emission and with the lo- combined mass value using the several mass estimates withcation of the BCG. In the 3.6µm band, which better traces their appropriate plus and minus error bars. For the threethe stellar mass, the NW peak is dominant, as with the galaxy independent mass estimators from velocity dispersion, YX ,number distribution. Note that the spatial distribution of the and Sunyaev-Zeldovich decrement, we obtain a minimum χ2spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members is also double- of 2.7 for 2 degrees of freedom (statistically acceptable) at apeaked, similar to the contours in the top left panel of Fig- mass value of M200a = (2.16 ± 0.32) × 1015 h−1 M . We do not 70ure 8. combine all six mass proxies (which gives a somewhat higher Between and nearly equidistant from the two peaks in all mass value), since the four derived from the same X-ray datafour distributions lies a 20 -long straight blue arc, presum- are all likely correlated to a degree that is difficult to evaluate.ably the strongly lensed image of a high-redshift background The above error range includes uncertainties from measure-galaxy (see black and white insert in Figure 1). This feature ment error, mass scaling relations, and extrapolation to a com-appears in the trough between the two peaks of all four distri- 6 This is estimated as ∆v = c(z − z )/(1 + z ), the peculiar velocity of thebutions. 1 2 1 Regardless of whether we inspect the individual galaxies SE component in the reference frame of the NW component.
  10. 10. 10 Menanteau et al. Table 1 Dynamical Mass for ACT-CL J0102−4915 components Group Ngal redshift σgal r200 M200a (km s−1 ) (kpc h−1 ) 70 (1015 h−1 M ) 70 ACT-CL J0102−4915 (NW) 51 0.86849 ± 0.00020 1290 ± 134 2062 ± 233 +0.62 1.76−0.58 ACT-CL J0102−4915 (SE) 36 0.87175 ± 0.00024 1089 ± 200 1743 ± 336 +0.64 1.06−0.59 ACT-CL J0102−4915 (total) 89 0.87008 ± 0.00010 1321 ± 106 2111 ± 189 +0.54 1.86−0.49 ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 31.98 35.68 7 6.18 13.4 7.11 7 2.4 24.58 28.28 7.11 5.25 8.04 4.32 6.18 31.98 87 20. .17 17 9 3.3 Galaxy Number Density per arcmin2 1 Rest-frame i-band Luminosity Density in 109 L per arcsec2 1 SOAR/SOI (griz) + VLT/FORS2 (RIz) SOAR/SOI (griz) + VLT/FORS2 (RIz) ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 ACT-CL J0102-4915, z=0.870 3.81 2.85 4.39 3.23 4.98 1.45 6 2.4 3.22 2.08 1 1.3 3.22 2.63 3.81 2.46 1.69 2.04 8 2.0 3 0.9 Rest-frame 3.6 µm Luminosity Density in 109 L per arcsec2 1 Stellar Mass Density in 109 L per arcsec2 1 SOAR/SOI (griz) + VLT/FORS2 (RIz) SOAR/SOI (griz) + VLT/FORS2 (RIz)Figure 8. The isopleths from the joint spectroscopically and photometrically selected galaxies in ACT-CL J0102−4915 using four methods. The isopleth contoursusing (upper left) the number density of galaxies per square arcminute, (upper right) the rest-frame optical i-band luminosity, (lower left) the rest-frame 3.6µmSpitzer/IRAC luminosity and (lower right) the SED-fitted stellar mass. The luminosity contours are both in units of 109 L arcsec−2 , and the stellar mass map isin units of 109 M arcsec−2 . The X-ray emission is shown as white contours using the same levels from Figure 1. All panels agree on the bimodal structure ofthe galaxy distribution; moreover, both the galaxy number and stellar mass density maps have peaks with statistically significant offsets with respect to the X-rayemission peak.
  11. 11. ACT-CL J0102−4915, “El Gordo” 11 velocity (km/s) component velocities primarily in the plane of the sky, then -4000 -3000 -2000 -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 significant kinetic energy can be contained in motions trans- σgal =1321 km s−1 verse to the line of sight which are not observed in galaxy 14 redshifts; the dynamically inferred mass would be lower than the actual system mass. This seems to be consistent with the 12 measurements of the dynamical masses of the two subcom- ponents in ACT-CL J0102−4915 (explored in Section 3.2), 10 which when summed, (2.8 ± 0.9) × 1015 h−1 M , is in better 70Number agreement with the X-ray–derived masses than the full galaxy 8 sample. Therefore the dynamical mass of the full cluster quoted in Table 2 may be an underestimate. 6 A number of groups (e.g., Ricker & Sarazin 2001; Randall et al. 2002) have shown that cluster mergers can result in a 4 transient boost in X-ray temperaure and luminosity during a merger, compared to the X-ray emission of the merged clus- 2 ter once it relaxes. The effect that such boosts have on the X-ray mass proxies has been more recently investigated by 0 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 Kravtsov, Vikhlinin, & Nagai (2006), Poole et al. (2007) and Redshift Yang et al. (2010), among others. Vikhlinin et al. (2009) ar- gue that masses estimated from TX should be increased by a Figure 9. Redshift distributions for spectroscopic member galaxies in the factor of 1.17 (which we do not apply) for merger systems, to NW (red) and SE (blue) clusters subcomponent. The underlying distribution account for the fraction of merger kinetic energy that remains for all of the 89 cluster member galaxies for ACT-CL J0102−4915 is shown in gray. unthermalized. Kravtsov, Vikhlinin, & Nagai (2006) intro- duced the YX mass proxy which has been shown to be fairly independent of merger dynamics (e.g., Kravtsov, Vikhlinin, & Nagai 2006; Poole et al. 2007). ACT-CL J0102−4915 shows Table 2 strong evidence for being in the merger process, particularly Mass measurements for ACT-CL J0102−4915. the compact region of X-ray enhancement and the double- peaked sky density distribution of galaxies. So in our com- Mass Proxy Measurement Scaling Law M200a bined mass estimate we strongly prefer to use YX , but we note 15 h−1 M (10 70 ) that the masses for all the X-ray proxies are consistent with each other. In particular the agreement of our masses from the YX and Mgas proxies suggest that our X-ray masses are not σ gal 1321 ± 106 km s−1 M200 − σ +0.54 1.86−0.49 significantly boosted by the merger. TX 14.5 ± 1.0 keV M500c − TX 2.58+0.84 −0.59 The accuracy of the mass scaling law for the SZ proxy (here LX 2.19 ± 0.11 M500c − LX 2.60+1.36 −0.87 yTCMB ) is yet to be determined and in fact is one goal of the YX 3.20 ± 0.24 M500c −YX 2.88+0.78 −0.55 ACT follow-up program. Still it is interesting to note that Mgas 2.2 ± 0.1 × 1014 M M500c − Mgas 3.10+0.92 the inferred SZ mass for ACT-CL J0102−4915 is only 60% −0.66 of the YX -inferred mass, albeit consistent within the large er- yTCMB 490 ± 60 µK M200 − y 1.64+0.62 −0.42 rors. The excellent agreement we find between the predicted SZ signal from the Chandra and ACT data (as illustrated in Figure 6) suggests that we have a realistic gas model for the Combined 2.16 ± 0.32 cluster and thus points to the mass scaling law, particularly at high redshift, as the main source of possible discrepancy. A similar difference between the SZ and X-ray derived masses Note. — M500c masses from LX and TX were scaled to M200a is also seen for the massive cluster SPT-CL J2106−5844 at masses assuming an NFW density profile and the mass-concentration z = 1.132 (Foley et al. 2011), while Andersson et al. (2010) relation of Duffy et al. (2008) as described in the text. LX is in units of 1045 h−2 erg s−1 and is in the 0.5–2.0 keV band. YX is in units of find that SZ-derived masses are some 22% less than their X- 70 1015 M keV. The combined mass is the minimum χ2 of the mass prox- ray masses. Given six mass proxies for ACT-CL J0102−4915 ies in bold (σgal , YX , and yTCMB ). which are all statistically consistent, it seems unlikely that our combined mass estimate is subject to significant systematic error. mon M200a mass scale. Estimates of galaxy cluster masses For cosmological model comparisons, the theoretical mass also may be impacted by a number of potential systematic er- function for clusters this massive is not precisely determined. rors. Since cosmological conclusions are strongly sensitive to In principle, direct numerical simulations of dark matter cos- the estimated cluster mass, it is important to have a realistic mology in large volumes and low mass resolution can de- appraisal of these errors. Here we describe several relevant termine the high end of the mass function in a straightfor- sources of systematic error or biases in both measured mass ward way. The largest simulations to date have comoving estimates and in the theoretical comparison with cosmological volumes of roughly 2000 Gpc3 , on the order of our Hub- models. ble volume, which nonetheless contain perhaps only a sin- Dynamical mass estimates are based on the assumption that gle cluster with mass 1015 M at z = 1. An analytical model the system is dynamically relaxed, which is almost surely not of the high-mass mass function accurate at the 10% level the case in ACT-CL J0102−4915, based on the observed spa- has not yet been demonstrated, so the mass functions used tial galaxy distribution. If we are observing a merger with the