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Dust production and_particle_acceleration_in_supernova_1987_a_revealed_with_alma

Sérgio Sacani
Sérgio Sacani
Sérgio SacaniSupervisor de Geologia na Halliburton at Halliburton

Dust production and_particle_acceleration_in_supernova_1987_a_revealed_with_alma

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arXiv:1312.4086v1 [astro-ph.SR] 14 Dec 2013

Dust Production and Particle Acceleration in Supernova 1987A Revealed with
ALMA
R. Indebetouw1,2 , M. Matsuura3 , E. Dwek4 , G. Zanardo5 , M.J. Barlow3 , M. Baes6 , P. Bouchet7 ,
D.N. Burrows8 , R. Chevalier1 , G.C. Clayton9 , C. Fransson10 , B. Gaensler11,12 , R. Kirshner13 , M.
Laki´evi´14 , K.S. Long15 , P. Lundqvist10 , I. Mart´
c c
ı-Vidal16 , J. Marcaide17 , R. McCray18 , M.
Meixner15,19 , C.-Y. Ng20 , S. Park21 , G. Sonneborn15 , L. Staveley-Smith5,11 , C. Vlahakis22 , J. van
Loon14
1

Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA;
remy@virginia.edu
2

National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA

3

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK

4

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

5

International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA
6009, Australia
6

Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent, Belgium

7

CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

8

Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

9

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

10

Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm,
Sweden
11

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)

12

Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

13

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138, USA

14

Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG, UK

15

Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

16

Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE43992 Onsala, Sweden
17

Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain

18

Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO
80309, USA
19

The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles
Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
20

Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

21

Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019,
USA
22

Joint ALMA Observatory/European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
–2–
ABSTRACT
Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by
shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic
particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 µm, 870 µm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm,
an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by
synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission
from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M ). For the
first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold
remnants of the exploded star’s core). The dust emission is concentrated to the center
of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant
fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological
dust producers.
Subject headings: supernovae: individual (1987A) — ISM: supernova remnants — galaxies: ISM — Magellanic Clouds

1.

Introduction

Supernova (SN) 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud was the closest supernova explosion to
Earth (50kpc) observed since Kepler’s SN1604AD, making it a unique target to study supernova
and supernova remnant physics. Supernovae are thought to be one of the most important sources
of dust in the universe. Stars synthesize heavy elements, and after they explode, rapid expansion
and radiation cause the ejected gas to cool rapidly, allowing refractory elements to condense into
dust grains. Dust masses have been measured in over twenty supernovae and supernova remnants
(Gall et al. 2011); most contain 10−6 -10−3 M of warm dust, far below predictions of 0.1-1.0 M
(Todini & Ferrara 2001; Nozawa et al. 2003; Cherchneff & Dwek 2010). One of the few exceptions
is SN 1987A – far infrared photometry (100-350µm) with the Herschel Space Observatory in 2011
implied 0.4-0.7 M of dust at 20-26 K (Matsuura et al. 2011). Measured 24 years after the explosion,
that dust mass is significantly higher than the 10−4 M reported from infrared measurements 12 years after the explosion (Wooden et al. 1993; Bouchet et al. 2004). While the Herschel result
supports theoretical models of significant dust production, the discrepancy with prior results caused
many to question whether all of the dust detected in 2011 was in fact produced in the supernova.
SN 1987A’s progenitor star could have created a massive dust shell during its Red Supergiant phase.
Mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of SN 1987A in 2003 (Bouchet et al. 2004) and spectroscopy in 2005
(Dwek et al. 2010) only found 10−5 M of warm progenitor dust. However, observations of Galactic
evolved stars with masses bracketing that of SN 1987A’s progenitor reveal between 0.01 and 0.4 M
of dust (the Egg Nebula, Jura et al. (2000) and Eta Carina, Gomez et al. (2010)), so if only a minor
–3–
warm component of the progenitor dust was detected in the MIR, a large cold progenitor dust mass
detected for the first time by Herschel is plausible. Herschel had insufficient spatial resolution to
distinguish between the ejecta, shocked progenitor wind, and nearby interstellar material.
Resolved observations of SN 1987A in the submillimeter regime are required to establish the
location of the emission measured by Herschel. Multi-wavelength resolved images are required to
determine its physical origin, and such images can be used to simultaneously study shock particle
acceleration. Twenty-five years after the explosion, SN 1987A’s blast wave had propagated to a
radius of 7×1017 cm (0.9 on the sky), shocking material lost from the progenitor star (Crotts &
Heathcote 2000). Electrons accelerated by the shocks produce a bright shell or torus of synchrotron
radiation at centimeter wavelengths (Potter et al. 2009; Ng et al. 2013). The shocks are interacting with a dense equatorial ring tilted 43 degrees from the line-of-sight (Tziamtzis et al. 2011),
dominating the emission at Xray, optical to thermal infrared (<30 µm) wavelengths (Bouchet et al.
2004; Dwek et al. 2010). Interior to the shock and ring are the remnants of the star’s metal-rich
core, referred to hereafter as the inner ejecta. A supernova explosion can also leave behind a black
hole or a neutron star. The observed neutrino burst implies that a neutron star must have at least
temporarily formed in SN 1987A (McCray 1993), but it has yet to be detected. If the neutron
star energizes a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), its emission would most likely have a spectrum with
power-law spectral index of -0.3 to 0 (Gaensler & Slane 2006), flatter than synchrotron emission
from the shock, perhaps detectable at millimeter wavelengths or even contributing to the Herschel
far-infrared emission. Previous observations at 10 mm (Potter et al. 2009), 6.8 mm (Zanardo et
al. 2013), and 3.2 mm (Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b) tentatively detected such excess emission at the
c c
remnant’s center, with large uncertainties from image deconvolution; high spatial resolution images
from millimeter to submillimeter wavelengths are essential to disentangle the emission mechanisms.

2.

Observations

ALMA observations are executed according to the quality of the weather, and in general the observing requirements are more stringent the higher the frequency of the observation. SN 1987A was
observed during 2012 multiple times with ∼20 antennas in configurations containing baselines between ∼20 m and ∼400 m. Bands 3,6,7, and 9 (2.8 mm, 1.4 mm, 870 µm, and 450 µm) were observed
in approximately chronological order. Band 3: A002/X3c5ee0/X24b (5 Apr), A002/X3c7a84/X1c
(6 Apr); Band 6: A002/X3c8f66/X352 (7 Apr), A002/X45f1dd/Xd13 (15 Jul), A002/X494155/X8be
(10 Aug); Band 7: A002/X45e2af/X458 (14 Jul), A002/X4ae797/X776 (24 Aug); Band 9: A002/X4afc39/X8ce
(25 Aug), A002/X4b29af/Xd21 (27 Aug), A002/X535168/X796 (05 Nov). Each dataset was calibrated individually with Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA; casa.nrao.edu). All
data in a given wavelength band were then combined for imaging and deconvolution with the “clean”
algorithm. Only the channels free of bright CO and SiO emission were used (212.56-213.59 GHz
and 100.07-103.91 GHz in bands 6 and 3). In synthesis imaging the weighting as a function of
baseline length can be adjusted, to achieve finer spatial resolution at the expense of somewhat
–4–
higher noise per beam. Briggs weighting was used with “robust” parameters and resulting Gaussian restoring beams as noted in the Figures. ATCA images were deconvolved using the maximum
entropy algorithm (Zanardo et al. 2013; Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b).
c c

3.

Results

In Figure 1, we present the first spatially resolved submillimeter continuum observations of
SN 1987A, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA).

Fig. 1.— Top row: continuum images of SN 1987A in ALMA bands 3, 6, 7, and 9 (2.8 mm, 1.4 mm,
870 µm and 450 µm respectively). The spatial resolution is marked by dark-blue ovals. In band 9
it is 0.33×0.25 , 15% of the diameter of the equatorial ring. At bands 7, 6, and 3 the beams
are 0.69×0.42 , 0.83×0.61 , and 1.56×1.12 , respectively. At long wavelengths, the emission is a
torus associated with the supernova shock wave; shorter wavelengths are dominated by the inner
supernova ejecta. The bottom row shows images of the continuum at 6.8 mm imaged with the
Australia Telescope Compact Array ATCA (Zanardo et al. 2013, 0.25 beam), the Hydrogen Hα
line imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope HST (Image courtesy of R. Kirshner and the SAINTS
collaboration, see also Larsson et al. 2013), and the soft X-ray emission imaged with the Chandra
X-ray Observatory (Helder et al. 2013).
We can now separate emission from the torus from that of the inner ejecta at 450 µm, 870 µm,
and 1.4 mm. Decomposition of the torus and inner ejecta was performed in the image plane. The
torus was represented with the clean model (collection of point sources or clean components) from
deconvolving the ATCA 6.8 mm image. The inner ejecta were represented by the ALMA Band 9
–5–
(450 µm) model. For each band, the image was decomposed into a clean model and residual. The
torus or ejecta model, scaled in amplitude, was subtracted from the model, which was then restored
with the appropriate Gaussian restoring beam, and the residual image added back in. This method
results in minimal noise from the torus or ejecta observation being introduced, merely preserving
the noise already present in each original image. The amplitude scaling is varied to minimize the
residuals in the subtracted image. The torus and ejecta were also subtracted from each other in
the Fourier plane, with consistent results. The torus and ejecta flux densities measured using these
independent decompositions were combined to determine the flux densities and uncertainties listed
in Table 1.

4.

Discussion

We discuss the torus first since the physical emission mechanism, sychrotron emission from
shock-accelerated particles, is less controversial than the inner ejecta emission mechanism. Images
of the torus alone (central ejecta removed) are shown in Figure 2. The eastern side is brighter at
all (sub)millimeter wavelengths, and the asymmetry decreases at shorter wavelengths. In contrast,
Hα emission (Larsson et al. 2013) from shocks being driven into the equatorial ring, and soft XTable 1.
Component

ν
[GHz]

λ

Fν
[mJy]

torus
torus
torus
both
torus
ejecta
torus
ejecta
torus
ejecta
both
both
both
both
both

36.2
44
90
110
215
215
345
345
680
680
860
860
1200
1900
3000

8.3 mm
6.8 mm
3.2 mm
2.8 mm
1.4 mm
1.4 mm
870 µm
870 µm
440 µm
440 µm
350 µm
350 µm
250 µm
160 µm
100 µm

27±6
40±2
23.7±2.6
27±3
17±3
<2
10±1.5
5±1
<7
50±15
54±18
44±7
123±13
125±42
54±18

Flux densities.

Epoch Telescope Angular
Res.
2008
2011
2011
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2010
2011
2010
2010
2010

ATCA
ATCA
ATCA
ALMA
ALMA
ALMA
ALMA
ALMA
ALMA
ALMA
Herschel
APEX
Herschel
Herschel
Herschel

0.3
0.3
0.7
1.3
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
24
8
18
9.5
13.5

Ref.

Potter et al. (2009)
Zanardo et al. (2013)
Laki´evi´ et al. (2012b)
c c
this
this
this
this
this
this
this
Matsuura et al. (2011)
Laki´evi´ et al. (2012a)
c c
Matsuura et al. (2011)
Matsuura et al. (2011)
Matsuura et al. (2011)
–6–
ray emission (Helder et al. 2013) from hot plasma behind the shocks is now brighter in the west
(Fig. 1). All wavelengths shown have brightened with time, and the emission distribution has
become geometrically flatter in the equatorial plane, as the shocks interact with the dense ring (Ng
et al. 2013; Racusin et al. 2009). Asymmetry results from differences in how far that interaction
has progressed (e.g. the X-ray asymmetry can be explained by faster shocks in the east; Zhekov et
al. 2009).

Fig. 2.— Emission from the synchrotron torus of SN 1987A as a function of wavelength, on the
same intensity color scale. Emission from the inner ejecta has been subtracted to isolate the torus.
The 6.8 mm ATCA image (Zanardo et al. 2013) has been smoothed to 0.55 beam similar to the
ATCA 3.2 mm (0.7 , Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b) and ALMA images.
c c
The integrated spectrum of the torus (Figure 3) is fit from 17 mm to 870 µm by a power-law
with a spectral index α = -0.8±0.1 (Fν ∝ ν α ) and no evident spectral break. This rules out
significant synchrotron losses that would steepen the spectrum, or contamination from free-free
emission that would flatten it. The spectrum is quite steep (few high energy particles), compared
to what would be produced by diffusive shock acceleration in the test particle limit, in a single
shock at the observed ∼2000 km s−1 expansion velocity (Helder et al. 2013; Ng et al. 2013). The
shock structure is therefore likely being modified by pressure from the accelerated particles (Ellison
et al. 2000) or by an amplified tangled magnetic field (Kirk et al. 1996).
The torus with its simple spectrum can now be removed from the images to isolate the inner
ejecta (Fig. 4). Inner ejecta emission is well resolved at 450 µm, with a beam-deconvolved full-width
at half-max (FWHM) of 0.3±0.03 by 0.16±0.05 , or 2.2±0.2×1017 cm by 1.2±0.4×1017 cm, corresponding to constant expansion velocities of 1350±150 km s−1 by 750±250 km s−1 . It is marginally
resolved at 870 µm; constrained by the observations to have FWHM<0.4 , consistent with the
450 µm size.
The spectrum of the inner ejecta rises steeply with frequency, inconsistent with PWN emission,
but very well modeled by dust. The ALMA and Herschel photometry can be fit with 0.23±0.05 M
of amorphous carbon dust at 26±3 K (Fig. 3). This implies that that the carbon dust mass is
much higher today than the 5×10−4 M measured two years after the explosion (Wooden et al.
1993; Ercolano et al. 2007), and that within uncertainties nearly all of the 0.23±0.1 M of carbon

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Dust production and_particle_acceleration_in_supernova_1987_a_revealed_with_alma

  • 1. arXiv:1312.4086v1 [astro-ph.SR] 14 Dec 2013 Dust Production and Particle Acceleration in Supernova 1987A Revealed with ALMA R. Indebetouw1,2 , M. Matsuura3 , E. Dwek4 , G. Zanardo5 , M.J. Barlow3 , M. Baes6 , P. Bouchet7 , D.N. Burrows8 , R. Chevalier1 , G.C. Clayton9 , C. Fransson10 , B. Gaensler11,12 , R. Kirshner13 , M. Laki´evi´14 , K.S. Long15 , P. Lundqvist10 , I. Mart´ c c ı-Vidal16 , J. Marcaide17 , R. McCray18 , M. Meixner15,19 , C.-Y. Ng20 , S. Park21 , G. Sonneborn15 , L. Staveley-Smith5,11 , C. Vlahakis22 , J. van Loon14 1 Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA; remy@virginia.edu 2 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 4 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA 5 International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 6 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent, Belgium 7 CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France 8 Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA 9 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 10 Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden 11 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) 12 Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 13 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138, USA 14 Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG, UK 15 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA 16 Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE43992 Onsala, Sweden 17 Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain 18 Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 19 The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA 20 Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong 21 Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019, USA 22 Joint ALMA Observatory/European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
  • 2. –2– ABSTRACT Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 µm, 870 µm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M ). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star’s core). The dust emission is concentrated to the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers. Subject headings: supernovae: individual (1987A) — ISM: supernova remnants — galaxies: ISM — Magellanic Clouds 1. Introduction Supernova (SN) 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud was the closest supernova explosion to Earth (50kpc) observed since Kepler’s SN1604AD, making it a unique target to study supernova and supernova remnant physics. Supernovae are thought to be one of the most important sources of dust in the universe. Stars synthesize heavy elements, and after they explode, rapid expansion and radiation cause the ejected gas to cool rapidly, allowing refractory elements to condense into dust grains. Dust masses have been measured in over twenty supernovae and supernova remnants (Gall et al. 2011); most contain 10−6 -10−3 M of warm dust, far below predictions of 0.1-1.0 M (Todini & Ferrara 2001; Nozawa et al. 2003; Cherchneff & Dwek 2010). One of the few exceptions is SN 1987A – far infrared photometry (100-350µm) with the Herschel Space Observatory in 2011 implied 0.4-0.7 M of dust at 20-26 K (Matsuura et al. 2011). Measured 24 years after the explosion, that dust mass is significantly higher than the 10−4 M reported from infrared measurements 12 years after the explosion (Wooden et al. 1993; Bouchet et al. 2004). While the Herschel result supports theoretical models of significant dust production, the discrepancy with prior results caused many to question whether all of the dust detected in 2011 was in fact produced in the supernova. SN 1987A’s progenitor star could have created a massive dust shell during its Red Supergiant phase. Mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of SN 1987A in 2003 (Bouchet et al. 2004) and spectroscopy in 2005 (Dwek et al. 2010) only found 10−5 M of warm progenitor dust. However, observations of Galactic evolved stars with masses bracketing that of SN 1987A’s progenitor reveal between 0.01 and 0.4 M of dust (the Egg Nebula, Jura et al. (2000) and Eta Carina, Gomez et al. (2010)), so if only a minor
  • 3. –3– warm component of the progenitor dust was detected in the MIR, a large cold progenitor dust mass detected for the first time by Herschel is plausible. Herschel had insufficient spatial resolution to distinguish between the ejecta, shocked progenitor wind, and nearby interstellar material. Resolved observations of SN 1987A in the submillimeter regime are required to establish the location of the emission measured by Herschel. Multi-wavelength resolved images are required to determine its physical origin, and such images can be used to simultaneously study shock particle acceleration. Twenty-five years after the explosion, SN 1987A’s blast wave had propagated to a radius of 7×1017 cm (0.9 on the sky), shocking material lost from the progenitor star (Crotts & Heathcote 2000). Electrons accelerated by the shocks produce a bright shell or torus of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths (Potter et al. 2009; Ng et al. 2013). The shocks are interacting with a dense equatorial ring tilted 43 degrees from the line-of-sight (Tziamtzis et al. 2011), dominating the emission at Xray, optical to thermal infrared (<30 µm) wavelengths (Bouchet et al. 2004; Dwek et al. 2010). Interior to the shock and ring are the remnants of the star’s metal-rich core, referred to hereafter as the inner ejecta. A supernova explosion can also leave behind a black hole or a neutron star. The observed neutrino burst implies that a neutron star must have at least temporarily formed in SN 1987A (McCray 1993), but it has yet to be detected. If the neutron star energizes a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), its emission would most likely have a spectrum with power-law spectral index of -0.3 to 0 (Gaensler & Slane 2006), flatter than synchrotron emission from the shock, perhaps detectable at millimeter wavelengths or even contributing to the Herschel far-infrared emission. Previous observations at 10 mm (Potter et al. 2009), 6.8 mm (Zanardo et al. 2013), and 3.2 mm (Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b) tentatively detected such excess emission at the c c remnant’s center, with large uncertainties from image deconvolution; high spatial resolution images from millimeter to submillimeter wavelengths are essential to disentangle the emission mechanisms. 2. Observations ALMA observations are executed according to the quality of the weather, and in general the observing requirements are more stringent the higher the frequency of the observation. SN 1987A was observed during 2012 multiple times with ∼20 antennas in configurations containing baselines between ∼20 m and ∼400 m. Bands 3,6,7, and 9 (2.8 mm, 1.4 mm, 870 µm, and 450 µm) were observed in approximately chronological order. Band 3: A002/X3c5ee0/X24b (5 Apr), A002/X3c7a84/X1c (6 Apr); Band 6: A002/X3c8f66/X352 (7 Apr), A002/X45f1dd/Xd13 (15 Jul), A002/X494155/X8be (10 Aug); Band 7: A002/X45e2af/X458 (14 Jul), A002/X4ae797/X776 (24 Aug); Band 9: A002/X4afc39/X8ce (25 Aug), A002/X4b29af/Xd21 (27 Aug), A002/X535168/X796 (05 Nov). Each dataset was calibrated individually with Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA; casa.nrao.edu). All data in a given wavelength band were then combined for imaging and deconvolution with the “clean” algorithm. Only the channels free of bright CO and SiO emission were used (212.56-213.59 GHz and 100.07-103.91 GHz in bands 6 and 3). In synthesis imaging the weighting as a function of baseline length can be adjusted, to achieve finer spatial resolution at the expense of somewhat
  • 4. –4– higher noise per beam. Briggs weighting was used with “robust” parameters and resulting Gaussian restoring beams as noted in the Figures. ATCA images were deconvolved using the maximum entropy algorithm (Zanardo et al. 2013; Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b). c c 3. Results In Figure 1, we present the first spatially resolved submillimeter continuum observations of SN 1987A, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). Fig. 1.— Top row: continuum images of SN 1987A in ALMA bands 3, 6, 7, and 9 (2.8 mm, 1.4 mm, 870 µm and 450 µm respectively). The spatial resolution is marked by dark-blue ovals. In band 9 it is 0.33×0.25 , 15% of the diameter of the equatorial ring. At bands 7, 6, and 3 the beams are 0.69×0.42 , 0.83×0.61 , and 1.56×1.12 , respectively. At long wavelengths, the emission is a torus associated with the supernova shock wave; shorter wavelengths are dominated by the inner supernova ejecta. The bottom row shows images of the continuum at 6.8 mm imaged with the Australia Telescope Compact Array ATCA (Zanardo et al. 2013, 0.25 beam), the Hydrogen Hα line imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope HST (Image courtesy of R. Kirshner and the SAINTS collaboration, see also Larsson et al. 2013), and the soft X-ray emission imaged with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (Helder et al. 2013). We can now separate emission from the torus from that of the inner ejecta at 450 µm, 870 µm, and 1.4 mm. Decomposition of the torus and inner ejecta was performed in the image plane. The torus was represented with the clean model (collection of point sources or clean components) from deconvolving the ATCA 6.8 mm image. The inner ejecta were represented by the ALMA Band 9
  • 5. –5– (450 µm) model. For each band, the image was decomposed into a clean model and residual. The torus or ejecta model, scaled in amplitude, was subtracted from the model, which was then restored with the appropriate Gaussian restoring beam, and the residual image added back in. This method results in minimal noise from the torus or ejecta observation being introduced, merely preserving the noise already present in each original image. The amplitude scaling is varied to minimize the residuals in the subtracted image. The torus and ejecta were also subtracted from each other in the Fourier plane, with consistent results. The torus and ejecta flux densities measured using these independent decompositions were combined to determine the flux densities and uncertainties listed in Table 1. 4. Discussion We discuss the torus first since the physical emission mechanism, sychrotron emission from shock-accelerated particles, is less controversial than the inner ejecta emission mechanism. Images of the torus alone (central ejecta removed) are shown in Figure 2. The eastern side is brighter at all (sub)millimeter wavelengths, and the asymmetry decreases at shorter wavelengths. In contrast, Hα emission (Larsson et al. 2013) from shocks being driven into the equatorial ring, and soft XTable 1. Component ν [GHz] λ Fν [mJy] torus torus torus both torus ejecta torus ejecta torus ejecta both both both both both 36.2 44 90 110 215 215 345 345 680 680 860 860 1200 1900 3000 8.3 mm 6.8 mm 3.2 mm 2.8 mm 1.4 mm 1.4 mm 870 µm 870 µm 440 µm 440 µm 350 µm 350 µm 250 µm 160 µm 100 µm 27±6 40±2 23.7±2.6 27±3 17±3 <2 10±1.5 5±1 <7 50±15 54±18 44±7 123±13 125±42 54±18 Flux densities. Epoch Telescope Angular Res. 2008 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2010 2011 2010 2010 2010 ATCA ATCA ATCA ALMA ALMA ALMA ALMA ALMA ALMA ALMA Herschel APEX Herschel Herschel Herschel 0.3 0.3 0.7 1.3 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 24 8 18 9.5 13.5 Ref. Potter et al. (2009) Zanardo et al. (2013) Laki´evi´ et al. (2012b) c c this this this this this this this Matsuura et al. (2011) Laki´evi´ et al. (2012a) c c Matsuura et al. (2011) Matsuura et al. (2011) Matsuura et al. (2011)
  • 6. –6– ray emission (Helder et al. 2013) from hot plasma behind the shocks is now brighter in the west (Fig. 1). All wavelengths shown have brightened with time, and the emission distribution has become geometrically flatter in the equatorial plane, as the shocks interact with the dense ring (Ng et al. 2013; Racusin et al. 2009). Asymmetry results from differences in how far that interaction has progressed (e.g. the X-ray asymmetry can be explained by faster shocks in the east; Zhekov et al. 2009). Fig. 2.— Emission from the synchrotron torus of SN 1987A as a function of wavelength, on the same intensity color scale. Emission from the inner ejecta has been subtracted to isolate the torus. The 6.8 mm ATCA image (Zanardo et al. 2013) has been smoothed to 0.55 beam similar to the ATCA 3.2 mm (0.7 , Laki´evi´ et al. 2012b) and ALMA images. c c The integrated spectrum of the torus (Figure 3) is fit from 17 mm to 870 µm by a power-law with a spectral index α = -0.8±0.1 (Fν ∝ ν α ) and no evident spectral break. This rules out significant synchrotron losses that would steepen the spectrum, or contamination from free-free emission that would flatten it. The spectrum is quite steep (few high energy particles), compared to what would be produced by diffusive shock acceleration in the test particle limit, in a single shock at the observed ∼2000 km s−1 expansion velocity (Helder et al. 2013; Ng et al. 2013). The shock structure is therefore likely being modified by pressure from the accelerated particles (Ellison et al. 2000) or by an amplified tangled magnetic field (Kirk et al. 1996). The torus with its simple spectrum can now be removed from the images to isolate the inner ejecta (Fig. 4). Inner ejecta emission is well resolved at 450 µm, with a beam-deconvolved full-width at half-max (FWHM) of 0.3±0.03 by 0.16±0.05 , or 2.2±0.2×1017 cm by 1.2±0.4×1017 cm, corresponding to constant expansion velocities of 1350±150 km s−1 by 750±250 km s−1 . It is marginally resolved at 870 µm; constrained by the observations to have FWHM<0.4 , consistent with the 450 µm size. The spectrum of the inner ejecta rises steeply with frequency, inconsistent with PWN emission, but very well modeled by dust. The ALMA and Herschel photometry can be fit with 0.23±0.05 M of amorphous carbon dust at 26±3 K (Fig. 3). This implies that that the carbon dust mass is much higher today than the 5×10−4 M measured two years after the explosion (Wooden et al. 1993; Ercolano et al. 2007), and that within uncertainties nearly all of the 0.23±0.1 M of carbon
  • 7. –7– Fig. 3.— Spatially separated ALMA flux densities of the torus (green) and inner ejecta (red). Previous measurements are marked in black (Potter et al. 2009; Zanardo et al. 2013; Laki´evi´ c c et al. 2012b,a; Matsuura et al. 2011). Measurements at longer wavelengths dominated by shock emission have been scaled to the epoch of the ALMA observations according to the light curve Fν ∝e((t−5000)/2231) at 44 GHz (Zanardo et al. 2010); the original flux densities at their epochs of observation are shown as open circles. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the torus is a power-law Fν ∝ ν α with a single index α = -0.8±0.1 (green dashed line). The SED of the inner ejecta is fit well by a model of dust emission – shown here is 0.23 M of amorphous carbon dust at 26 K (red dashed line), and a combination of amorphous carbon and silicate dust (0.24 M and 0.39 M respectively, both at 22 K, two lower magenta dotted lines sum to the upper dotted line). (Thielemann et al. 1990; Woosley & Heger 2007) released in the explosion is now in dust. The dust mass depends on opacity, temperature, and optical depth but is quite robustly constrained by the data. We use amorphous carbon opacity κ=10 and 3 cm2 g−1 at 450 and 870 µm, respectively (Rouleau & Martin 1991). Values in the literature range from 2-10 cm2 g−1 at 450 µm (e.g. Planck Collaboration et al. 2013; Jager et al. 1998); using a lower value would only raise the dust mass. Our analysis of CO emission observed with ALMA and Herschel finds >0.01 M of CO in SN1987A
  • 8. –8– Fig. 4.— The inner ejecta of SN 1987A. The top row shows the ALMA images with the torus subtracted (location marked by dotted ellipse). The bottom row shows the ALMA integrated images of emission from carbon monoxide and silicon oxide (Kamenetzky et al. 2013, 0.57×0.5 beam), and an HST F625W (optical) image (image courtesy of R. Kirshner and the SAINTS collaboration) with 450 µm contours. The 450 µm emission has the same north/south elongation as the optical and NIR (Larsson et al. 2013) emission, and the 450 µm peak may correspond to a hole in the optical emission. Images are not at the same intensity scale; the dashed line is the location of the reverse shock (Michael et al. 2003; France et al. 2010). (Kamenetzky et al. 2013). Within uncertainties, the carbon in dust and CO doesn’t yet exceed the nucleosynthetic yield, but as future observations refine the CO and dust masses, strong constraints may be placed on nucleosynthesis, chemistry, dust coagulation, or all three. The temperature is quite well constrained by these data, and theoretical models predict a similar temperature. Cooling by adiabatic expansion and radiation is offset by heating from 44 Ti decay and by external X-ray heating from the shocks. The current gas temperature in the absence of X-ray heating is modeled to be 20-100 K (Fransson et al. 2013). Models predict that significant X-rays do not yet penetrate inwards as far as the 2×1017 cm radius of the ALMA 450 µm emission (Fransson et al. 2013). The compact and centrally peaked 450 µm emission supports this interpretation, since external heating would likely result in more limb-brightened or extended dust emission. Since the ionization fraction is below 1% (Larsson et al. 2013), less than ∼40% of the X-ray flux
  • 9. –9– will go into heating (Xu & McCray 1991), and <5% of the observed total flux 4.7×1036 erg s−1 (Helder et al. 2013) is intercepted by the ejecta. Even if it did reach the dusty inner core, the energy deposition would be <10% of the heating from 44 Ti decay (Jerkstrand et al. 2011). The best-fit dust mass Md scales approximately as T−2 , and Md >0.1 M for Td <50 K. d The emission is optically thin at 450 µm, and Md is insensitive to unresolved clumpiness: If 0.23 M of dust uniformly filled a region the size of the ALMA emission, the peak surface density would be 0.02 g cm−2 , with an optical depth τ450 <0.2. If the dust is clumpy, each clump remains optically thin unless the filling fraction is less than ∼2%; a filling fraction of 10-20% was fitted to the infrared spectrum (Lucy et al. 1991; Ercolano et al. 2007) and consistent with the CO clump filling factor of 0.14 fitted to ALMA CO emission (Kamenetzky et al. 2013). Analytical formulae for radiative transfer in dense clumps (V´rosi & Dwek 1999) indicate that the effective optical depth a of the ensemble of clumps remains low over a very wide range of clump filling fraction and number. The data can also be fit by a combination of carbonaceous and silicate (Mg2 SiO4 ) dust (Fig. 3; dotted line), although the mass of carbonaceous dust cannot be significantly reduced because amorphous carbon has the highest submillimeter opacity κ among minerologies similar to the interstellar medium, and eliminating it would require dust masses of other compositions larger than the available metal mass (the best fit using pure silicate is 4 M at 21 K). Although these data do not strongly constrain the mass of silicate dust, it is unlikely that only carbon condensed in the SN 1987A, given the presence of large amounts of Mg and Si in the ejecta (0.065±0.1 and 0.19±0.1 M respectively) and the detection of SiO molecules at early epochs (Roche et al. 1991; Wooden et al. 1993). The absence of the 10 µm feature during days 615-775 puts a strong upper limit (15%) on the fraction of dust which is silicates, but does not exclude the presence of some silicate dust during that epoch, since the ejecta could have been optically thick at that wavelength (Ercolano et al. 2007). The silicate mass could be much larger now, similar to the much larger carbon mass. Models and observations show that core collapse supernovae like SN 1987A are highly inhomogeneous, with instabilities and radioactive energy deposition mixing the initially chemically stratified stellar interior into clumps with different compositions, macroscopically mixed throughout the ejecta volume (McCray 1993; Jerkstrand et al. 2011). The distribution of emission from different atoms, molecules, and dust not only reveals the chemistry of their formation, but a snapshot of the early supernova interior. The extent of dust emission corresponds well to line emission from CO 2-1 and SiO 5-4 observed simultaneously with ALMA (Kamenetzky et al. 2013). The 1-2×1017 cm radial extent corresponds to expansion velocities of 750-1400 km s−1 , consistent with the 1250 km s−1 half-width of the CO emission (Kamenetzky et al. 2013), and within the commonly used maximum core expansion velocity of ∼2000 km s−1 (Jerkstrand et al. 2011). SiO is an important precursor to forming dust, so the relative distributions of dust and SiO in SN 1987A that ALMA will be able to measure with higher spatial resolution in the future will constrain formation theories. In the last few years, the inner ejecta have developed a complex morphology in optical and
  • 10. – 10 – infrared emission, including north-south elongation and a “hole” or fainter region in the center. The 450 µm emission peak is coincident with the hole, and although the optical emission is likely limb-brightened due to external X-ray heating (Larsson et al. 2011), the dust we detect does have significant optical opacity. Smooth dust would have τV >1000, and 100 dusty clumps filling 10% of the inner ejecta volume would have τV ∼1.7 (V´rosi & Dwek 1999). (About 100 clumps a were predicted by collapse simulations (Hammer et al. 2010) and fitted to observed optical lines (Jerkstrand et al. 2011)). 5. Conclusions We have used the powerful resolution of ALMA to show clearly that prodigious amounts of dust have formed in the cold inner ejecta of SN 1987A. Our data suggests that nearly all of the carbon has condensed into dust, so condensation must be efficient. A large mass of clumpy dust was tentatively detected at 1.3 mm 4 years after the explosion (Biermann et al. 1992) – if this is the same dust then it formed quite rapidly. If dust production in other supernovae resembles that in SN 1987A, then core-collapse supernovae might contribute as much dust to galaxies as asymptotic giant branch stars. In the absence of grain destruction, dust in high-redshift galaxies can be explained with only 0.1 M produced per type II SN (Dwek et al. 2007). SN 1987A has the largest measured dust mass, but a few other remnants contain almost 0.1 M (Cassiopeia A, Barlow et al. (2010); Crab Nebula, Gomez et al. (2012)). However, dust formed in a supernova must survive passage through the reverse shock to be dispersed into the interstellar medium, and then also survive shock passages once dispersed (Jones & Nuth 2011). The reverse shock in SN 1987A located with spatially resolved Hα spectra (Michael et al. 2003; France et al. 2010) has a minimum radius in the equatorial plane of ∼4×1017 cm, significantly larger than the 450 µm emission (Fig. 4). The new dust has not been significantly processed by the reverse shock. Models of dust destruction predict a wide range of survival fractions (Nozawa et al. 2007). If 0.23 M of dust is typically created in type II supernovae, and 0.1 M passes through the reverse shock into the ISM, then SN II could dominate dust production in galaxies at all redshifts. 6. Acknowledgements This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00273.S (PI Indebetouw). ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. M. Meixner was supported by NASA NAG5-12595 and NASA/ADAP NNX13AE36G.
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