07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 1
DRM and Future of theDRM and Future of the
Libraries AheadLibraries Ahead
Dr. Sabuj Kumar ChaudhuriDr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri
Basanti Devi College (Govt. sponsored)Basanti Devi College (Govt. sponsored)
147B, Rash Behari Avenue147B, Rash Behari Avenue
Kolkata-700 029Kolkata-700 029
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 2
Definition of RelatedDefinition of Related
• Intellectual property (IP) is any ‘intellectual’
material or ‘works of the mind’ belonging to
the original creator.
• Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are the
rights awarded by society to individuals or
organizations principally over creative works:
inventions, literary and artistic works, and
symbols, names, images, and designs used
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 3
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 4
Copyright is a right given by the law to creators of literary,
dramatic, musical and artistic works and producers of
cinematograph films and sound recordings.
Three conditions must be met before copyright protection:
•The work must be original.
•The work must be fixed, or presented in a tangible form such
as writing, film, or photography.
•A qualified person must create the work. A qualified person
is one living in a country that is a member of the Universal
Copyright Convention (UCC) or the Berne Convention.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 5
Duration of Copyright
copyright protection lasts for a finite period, or term. This term
varies according to national legislation and the type of material.
According to the Indian Copyright Act,1957
Original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works
----Author’s Life + 60 Yrs.
Cinematograph films, sound recordings, photographs,
posthumous publications, anonymous and pseudonymous
publications, works of government and works of
international organisations, --- 60-years period from the date
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 6
Need of Copyright
Copyright is concerned with the rights of authors, composers, artists and other
creators in their works. Copyright grants them the right, for a limited period of
time, to authorise or prohibit certain uses of their works by others. These rights
encompass basically two aspects
The main aim of copyright is to provide a stimulus for creativity – ensuring
economic returns on the creation and protection from violation of the creation.
Moral rights generally cover the right of “paternity” by which authors
have the right to claim authorship of their works, ensuring that their names are
mentioned in connection with them.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 7
Copyright is in essence a bundle of rights covering the following:
Rights for reproduction, i.e. exclusive rights to make copies of the
Rights for modification/adaptation, i.e. exclusive rights to modify
and make adaptations and create derivative works.
Rights for distribution, i.e. the rights distribute the work to the
Rights for public performance, i.e. the right to recite, play, dance,
or act with or without the aid of a machine.
Rights for public display, i.e. the right to display the work anywhere
that is open to the public
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 8
Some Major Concerns for Librarians
Section 52 of the Indian Copyright Act 1957 indicates provisions what are not
Fair use of the work are permitted for
• Non-commercial Private study
• Criticism, review, reporting of current events in newspapers/ periodicals/
• Classroom teaching or examination purpose
• reproduction for use of public libraries (not more than 3 copies)
• Reproduction of an unpublished work kept in a library subject to certain conditions
• Publication in a collection for the use of educational institutions in certain
• In the case of computer programmes
----utilize the computer programme for the purpose for which it was supplied
----to make back up copies purely as temporary protection against loss, destruction or
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 9
In simplistic term copyright industries include all those activities which directly or
indirectly depend on copyrighted materials for their commercial success. But the
range of activities that come under the subject of copyright is so wide that the task
of defining the copyright industry becomes difficult.
Core Copyright Industries( include newspapers, books and periodicals, motion
pictures, recorded music, music publishing, radio and television broadcasting, and
business and en-tertainment software)
Partial Copyright Industries (include from fabric to jewelry to furniture to toys
and games. )
Distribution Copyright Industries (non-dedicated support industries, includes
industries that distribute both copyright and non-copy-right protected materials to
business and consumers include transportation services, telecommunications and
wholesale and retail trade )
Copyright Related Industries (include manufac-turers, wholesalers and
retailers of CD players, TV sets, VCRs, personal computers and usage depen-
dent products including blank recording material and certain categories of paper )
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 10
Piracy of copyrighted materials and demand for a stronger intellectual property
rights is not a new phenomenon. But digitization has made the piracy much
Very less cost of reproduction
Easier substitutability of digitized copies
Inexpensive dissemination of digital content
The most important aspect of digital content is that access to the content is
synonymous with control of the content which added with the low cost of
content reproduction and dissemination causes virtual loss of ownership in
terms of the content’s economic value. This is a major problem for the content
owners and content industries.
In 2006, Copyright office in India posted proposals to amend the Copyright Act,
1957 on its website. One of the proposed amendments seeks to introduce the
Digital Rights Management (DRM) in the Indian copyright law. The purpose for
such introduction in the Indian copyright laws has been to “keep pace with
national and international developments and advance in technologies.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 11
With advent of ICT we are moving towards thick copyright Where content
industries are adopting copyright management technology measures for
the protection of intellectual property of digital works-like ebooks,
ejournals, databases, computer programs,movies,music etc. This is
referred to as Digital Rights Management, or DRM.
What is DRM ?
Digital Rights Management is a collective name for technologies or a
range of techniques that prevent one from using a copyrighted digital
work beyond the degree to which the copyright owner (or a publisher
who may not actually hold a copyright) wishes to allow one to use it . It is
actually a range of techniques that use information about rights and
rightsholders to manage copyright material and the terms and conditions
on which it is made available to users.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 12
Management of digital rights
Digital management of rights
Management of Digital Rights: The responsibility of expressing and
managing the rights to content in electronic or digital form, as a corollary to
content in print.
Digital management of rights: The ability to physically manage intellectual
property and proprietary rights in content by way of an electronic system or
process, associated with copyright management systems.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 13
DRM may therefore refer to the technologies and/or processes that are
applied to digital content to describe and identify it and /or to define, apply
and enforce usage rules in a secure manner.
The Open eBook Forum, a leading ebook standards organization, suggests
that DRM should be viewed from three perspectives: technical, social and
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 14
Benefits of DRM
• Secure ebook distribution
• Content authenticity
• Transaction non-repudiation
• Market participant identification
• Protection of digital content
Components of DRM
the content provider
Usually a DRM system is integrated with an e-commerce system that
handles financial payments and triggers the function of the clearinghouse.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 15
Various Components of DRM
Content Provider Distributor
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 16
DRM systems are based on systematic identification and recording of
information about the legal rightsholders (copyright owners) and about the legal
rights associated with the content. Every DRM system requires persistent
content protection, meaning that protection has to stay with the content. In
order to manage and protect intellectual property, it is essential to have
adequate identification and description pertaining to content available (i.e.,
metadata). One such persistent identifier is Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This
is often managed through the use of metadata and Rights Management
Information (RMI) or Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The DOI system is
comparable to the bar code system adopted to identify items in the physical
world. Each bit or byte of content – the digital object – is allocated a number
through a registration agency and metadata describing the digital object is
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 17
Security Features and Copyright Protection
There are numerous techniques that can be used to reduce the likelihood of
infringement of Intellectual Property through the application of DRM systems.
While no technological system is 100 per cent secure, DRM can provide relatively
high levels of protection for copyright materials. The most common protection
techniques are encryption and digital watermarking.
This scrambles the information embedded within a digital object so that it cannot
be used without a password. Software is often protected this way.
The basic approach for encryption is to encrypt the digital content so that only
a player with both the decryption device or software and the proper key can
play the content. The content owner can broadcast the content to everyone
but unless the recipient has valid decryption keys he or she cannot play the
content. Scrambling is a similar copy-protection approach, but without a user
applied key; instead, the key that includes the unscrambling algorithm resides
in the player device (which may be hardware, or software, or both).
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 18
Digital watermarking and signatures
This embeds information (usually about author, publisher, terms, and conditions
of use) into the data. It can be removed but only with severe degradation to the
quality of the data. If it is effective, the watermark will be identifiable even if the
quality of the data deteriorates. Watermarks can be visible or invisible.
Watermarks can be used to personalise a particular instance of a work to a user
to reduce the likelihood of that person passing it on or duplicating it. Some
watermarks can be searched for over the Internet using special ‘spiders’ or web
At least two applications of digital watermarking technology relate to DRM.
The first is content labeling, in which the content owner aims to identify
protected material and specify permissible uses and copying restrictions. The
second is serialization, which aims to mark material with a unique serial
number or message that identifies the authorized end user and thereby
provides evidence of the source of illegal copying.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 19
Softwares of DRM
Deployment of DRM is still at an early stage. There are a number of DRM
solutions on the market. Among these solutions, Microsoft’s Windows Media
Rights Manager (WMRM), IBM’s Electronic Media Management System
(EMMS), InterTrust’s Rights|System, and RealNetworks’s RealSystems Media
Commerce Suite (RMCS) are the most promising ones .
The usability problem in current DRM implementations is caused by the
deployment of non-standardized protection mechanisms. Several organizations
and initiatives are working towards the definition of standards, such as the
Open Digital Rights Language Initiative, World Wide Consortium, Open eBook
Forum, Secure Digital Music Initiative, Internet Digital Rights Management, etc.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 20
Possible Impacts on Libraries
The principal policy issues for libraries are not derived from DRM technology,
itself, but from the business models, the content industry chooses to enforce.
(1) Copyright terms. DRM may be used to prevent copying of works beyond
the terms of their copyrights, or may be used to impose copy protection for
works otherwise in the public domain, or works that have been licensed for
less restricted general uses.
(2) Preservation and archiving. DRM may be used to limit librarians.
ability to preserve or archive a work, e.g., by preventing a work from being
moved from more perishable to more permanent storage media.
(3) Artistic creation. It has long been understood that the creation of new
artistic works may require the excerpting or transformation of older ones;
DRM may be used in ways that prevent such excerpting or transformation
(4) Historiography. Historical research fundamentally depends on being able
to access and quote older documents and other kinds of works -- DRM can
implemented in ways that make historiography far more difficult, if not
impossible, in many contexts.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 21
(5) Fair use. The ability of anyone to make unlicensed use of the
protected works of others -- within limits established by law and
precedent -- can be curtailed by broad implementation of DRM.
(6) The use of shared materials in learning environments. DRM may
makeit more difficult, or even impossible, for works to be used in
otherwise lawful ways in both real classrooms and virtual ones
(e.g., distance learning).
This is not an exhaustive list of the ways in which the use of DRM may
create tensions undercutting the balance of rights created by copyright
These tensions are fundamental and unavoidable ones, although not
everyone acknowledges this. What makes them unavoidable is that DRM
tends to be precise and immutable, while our copyright law policy tends
to be general and dynamic. What makes them fundamental is that
democratic societies need libraries and librarians to support and
promote public access to the broadest range of creative and scholarly
work. In practice, this means that, forthe foreseeable future, there will be
ongoing tensions between libraries (and librarians), on the one hand,
and DRM-using publishers and rights-holders,on the other.
07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 22
Librarians, and citizens at large, should care about DRM because they
have much at stake both in the balances built into our copyright law, and in
the technologies, such as personal computers and the Internet, that might
be restricted or controlled in order to protect copyright interests. The
choices our society makes now about how we may use copyrighted works
and about the technological protections for such works will affect us for a
long time to come. This is why, as we work through our understanding of
DRM, we need to make sure we understand the traditions and principles of
copyright as well.