DRM and future of the libraries ahead


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DRM and future of the libraries ahead

  1. 1. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 1 DRM and Future of theDRM and Future of the Libraries AheadLibraries Ahead Dr. Sabuj Kumar ChaudhuriDr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri LibrarianLibrarian Basanti Devi College (Govt. sponsored)Basanti Devi College (Govt. sponsored) 147B, Rash Behari Avenue147B, Rash Behari Avenue Kolkata-700 029Kolkata-700 029 e-mail-sabooj_c@yahoo.co.ine-mail-sabooj_c@yahoo.co.in
  2. 2. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 2 Definition of RelatedDefinition of Related ConceptsConcepts • Intellectual property (IP) is any ‘intellectual’ material or ‘works of the mind’ belonging to the original creator. • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are the rights awarded by society to individuals or organizations principally over creative works: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.
  3. 3. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 3 IPR Industrial Property Artistic & Literary Rights Patent Industrial Designs Trademarks Copyright
  4. 4. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 4 Copyright Copyright is a right given by the law to creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings. Three conditions must be met before copyright protection: •The work must be original. •The work must be fixed, or presented in a tangible form such as writing, film, or photography. •A qualified person must create the work. A qualified person is one living in a country that is a member of the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) or the Berne Convention.
  5. 5. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 5 Duration of Copyright copyright protection lasts for a finite period, or term. This term varies according to national legislation and the type of material. According to the Indian Copyright Act,1957 Original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works ----Author’s Life + 60 Yrs. Cinematograph films, sound recordings, photographs, posthumous publications, anonymous and pseudonymous publications, works of government and works of international organisations, --- 60-years period from the date of publication.
  6. 6. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 6 Need of Copyright Copyright is concerned with the rights of authors, composers, artists and other creators in their works. Copyright grants them the right, for a limited period of time, to authorise or prohibit certain uses of their works by others. These rights encompass basically two aspects – economic The main aim of copyright is to provide a stimulus for creativity – ensuring economic returns on the creation and protection from violation of the creation. – moral Moral rights generally cover the right of “paternity” by which authors have the right to claim authorship of their works, ensuring that their names are mentioned in connection with them.
  7. 7. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 7 Copyright is in essence a bundle of rights covering the following: Rights for reproduction, i.e. exclusive rights to make copies of the work. Rights for modification/adaptation, i.e. exclusive rights to modify and make adaptations and create derivative works. Rights for distribution, i.e. the rights distribute the work to the public. Rights for public performance, i.e. the right to recite, play, dance, or act with or without the aid of a machine. Rights for public display, i.e. the right to display the work anywhere that is open to the public
  8. 8. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 8 Some Major Concerns for Librarians Section 52 of the Indian Copyright Act 1957 indicates provisions what are not legally infringement Fair use of the work are permitted for • Research • Non-commercial Private study • Criticism, review, reporting of current events in newspapers/ periodicals/ broadcasting • Classroom teaching or examination purpose • reproduction for use of public libraries (not more than 3 copies) • Reproduction of an unpublished work kept in a library subject to certain conditions • Publication in a collection for the use of educational institutions in certain circumstances • In the case of computer programmes ----utilize the computer programme for the purpose for which it was supplied ----to make back up copies purely as temporary protection against loss, destruction or damage
  9. 9. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 9 Copyright Industries/Cultural Industries/Content Industries In simplistic term copyright industries include all those activities which directly or indirectly depend on copyrighted materials for their commercial success. But the range of activities that come under the subject of copyright is so wide that the task of defining the copyright industry becomes difficult. Core Copyright Industries( include newspapers, books and periodicals, motion pictures, recorded music, music publishing, radio and television broadcasting, and business and en-tertainment software) Partial Copyright Industries (include from fabric to jewelry to furniture to toys and games. ) Distribution Copyright Industries (non-dedicated support industries, includes industries that distribute both copyright and non-copy-right protected materials to business and consumers include transportation services, telecommunications and wholesale and retail trade ) Copyright Related Industries (include manufac-turers, wholesalers and retailers of CD players, TV sets, VCRs, personal computers and usage depen- dent products including blank recording material and certain categories of paper )
  10. 10. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 10 Digital Piracy Piracy of copyrighted materials and demand for a stronger intellectual property rights is not a new phenomenon. But digitization has made the piracy much easier Easy reproduction Very less cost of reproduction Easier substitutability of digitized copies Inexpensive dissemination of digital content The most important aspect of digital content is that access to the content is synonymous with control of the content which added with the low cost of content reproduction and dissemination causes virtual loss of ownership in terms of the content’s economic value. This is a major problem for the content owners and content industries. In 2006, Copyright office in India posted proposals to amend the Copyright Act, 1957 on its website. One of the proposed amendments seeks to introduce the Digital Rights Management (DRM) in the Indian copyright law. The purpose for such introduction in the Indian copyright laws has been to “keep pace with national and international developments and advance in technologies.
  11. 11. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 11 With advent of ICT we are moving towards thick copyright Where content industries are adopting copyright management technology measures for the protection of intellectual property of digital works-like ebooks, ejournals, databases, computer programs,movies,music etc. This is referred to as Digital Rights Management, or DRM. What is DRM ? Digital Rights Management is a collective name for technologies or a range of techniques that prevent one from using a copyrighted digital work beyond the degree to which the copyright owner (or a publisher who may not actually hold a copyright) wishes to allow one to use it . It is actually a range of techniques that use information about rights and rightsholders to manage copyright material and the terms and conditions on which it is made available to users.
  12. 12. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 12 DRM Management of digital rights Digital management of rights Management of Digital Rights: The responsibility of expressing and managing the rights to content in electronic or digital form, as a corollary to content in print. Digital management of rights: The ability to physically manage intellectual property and proprietary rights in content by way of an electronic system or process, associated with copyright management systems.
  13. 13. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 13 DRM may therefore refer to the technologies and/or processes that are applied to digital content to describe and identify it and /or to define, apply and enforce usage rules in a secure manner. The Open eBook Forum, a leading ebook standards organization, suggests that DRM should be viewed from three perspectives: technical, social and legal. Legal Social Technical
  14. 14. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 14 Benefits of DRM • Secure ebook distribution • Content authenticity • Transaction non-repudiation • Market participant identification • Protection of digital content Components of DRM the content provider the distributor, the clearinghouse the consumer. Usually a DRM system is integrated with an e-commerce system that handles financial payments and triggers the function of the clearinghouse.
  15. 15. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 15 Various Components of DRM Content Provider Distributor Consumer Clearing House Royalty
  16. 16. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 16 DRM Technology DRM systems are based on systematic identification and recording of information about the legal rightsholders (copyright owners) and about the legal rights associated with the content. Every DRM system requires persistent content protection, meaning that protection has to stay with the content. In order to manage and protect intellectual property, it is essential to have adequate identification and description pertaining to content available (i.e., metadata). One such persistent identifier is Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This is often managed through the use of metadata and Rights Management Information (RMI) or Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The DOI system is comparable to the bar code system adopted to identify items in the physical world. Each bit or byte of content – the digital object – is allocated a number through a registration agency and metadata describing the digital object is recorded.
  17. 17. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 17 Security Features and Copyright Protection There are numerous techniques that can be used to reduce the likelihood of infringement of Intellectual Property through the application of DRM systems. While no technological system is 100 per cent secure, DRM can provide relatively high levels of protection for copyright materials. The most common protection techniques are encryption and digital watermarking. Encryption This scrambles the information embedded within a digital object so that it cannot be used without a password. Software is often protected this way. The basic approach for encryption is to encrypt the digital content so that only a player with both the decryption device or software and the proper key can play the content. The content owner can broadcast the content to everyone but unless the recipient has valid decryption keys he or she cannot play the content. Scrambling is a similar copy-protection approach, but without a user applied key; instead, the key that includes the unscrambling algorithm resides in the player device (which may be hardware, or software, or both).
  18. 18. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 18 Digital watermarking and signatures This embeds information (usually about author, publisher, terms, and conditions of use) into the data. It can be removed but only with severe degradation to the quality of the data. If it is effective, the watermark will be identifiable even if the quality of the data deteriorates. Watermarks can be visible or invisible. Watermarks can be used to personalise a particular instance of a work to a user to reduce the likelihood of that person passing it on or duplicating it. Some watermarks can be searched for over the Internet using special ‘spiders’ or web crawlers. At least two applications of digital watermarking technology relate to DRM. The first is content labeling, in which the content owner aims to identify protected material and specify permissible uses and copying restrictions. The second is serialization, which aims to mark material with a unique serial number or message that identifies the authorized end user and thereby provides evidence of the source of illegal copying.
  19. 19. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 19 Softwares of DRM Deployment of DRM is still at an early stage. There are a number of DRM solutions on the market. Among these solutions, Microsoft’s Windows Media Rights Manager (WMRM), IBM’s Electronic Media Management System (EMMS), InterTrust’s Rights|System, and RealNetworks’s RealSystems Media Commerce Suite (RMCS) are the most promising ones . Standards The usability problem in current DRM implementations is caused by the deployment of non-standardized protection mechanisms. Several organizations and initiatives are working towards the definition of standards, such as the Open Digital Rights Language Initiative, World Wide Consortium, Open eBook Forum, Secure Digital Music Initiative, Internet Digital Rights Management, etc.
  20. 20. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 20 Possible Impacts on Libraries The principal policy issues for libraries are not derived from DRM technology, itself, but from the business models, the content industry chooses to enforce. (1) Copyright terms. DRM may be used to prevent copying of works beyond the terms of their copyrights, or may be used to impose copy protection for works otherwise in the public domain, or works that have been licensed for less restricted general uses. (2) Preservation and archiving. DRM may be used to limit librarians. ability to preserve or archive a work, e.g., by preventing a work from being moved from more perishable to more permanent storage media. (3) Artistic creation. It has long been understood that the creation of new artistic works may require the excerpting or transformation of older ones; DRM may be used in ways that prevent such excerpting or transformation from happening. (4) Historiography. Historical research fundamentally depends on being able to access and quote older documents and other kinds of works -- DRM can be implemented in ways that make historiography far more difficult, if not impossible, in many contexts.
  21. 21. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 21 (5) Fair use. The ability of anyone to make unlicensed use of the protected works of others -- within limits established by law and precedent -- can be curtailed by broad implementation of DRM. (6) The use of shared materials in learning environments. DRM may makeit more difficult, or even impossible, for works to be used in otherwise lawful ways in both real classrooms and virtual ones (e.g., distance learning). This is not an exhaustive list of the ways in which the use of DRM may create tensions undercutting the balance of rights created by copyright law. These tensions are fundamental and unavoidable ones, although not everyone acknowledges this. What makes them unavoidable is that DRM tends to be precise and immutable, while our copyright law policy tends to be general and dynamic. What makes them fundamental is that democratic societies need libraries and librarians to support and promote public access to the broadest range of creative and scholarly work. In practice, this means that, forthe foreseeable future, there will be ongoing tensions between libraries (and librarians), on the one hand, and DRM-using publishers and rights-holders,on the other.
  22. 22. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 22 Librarians, and citizens at large, should care about DRM because they have much at stake both in the balances built into our copyright law, and in the technologies, such as personal computers and the Internet, that might be restricted or controlled in order to protect copyright interests. The choices our society makes now about how we may use copyrighted works and about the technological protections for such works will affect us for a long time to come. This is why, as we work through our understanding of DRM, we need to make sure we understand the traditions and principles of copyright as well.
  23. 23. 07/14/13 16:17 Dr. Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri 23