Cc rfinal


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Cc rfinal

  1. 1. Educational Research: Causal-Comparative Study  At least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable or measure of performance (called the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the “cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated.  Dependent variable-the change or difference occurring as a result of the independent variable.  Independent variable- an activity of characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior.
  2. 2. Purpose of causal comparative research  The researcher attempts to determine the cause, or reason, for pre existing differences in groups of individuals.  Attempts to identify cause and effect relationships.  Involve two or more group variables.  Involve making comparison.  Individuals are not randomly selected and assigned to two or more groups.  Cannot manipulate the independent variable  Less costly and time consuming
  3. 3. Causal Comparative Research STEPS Taken 1. Problem 2. Sample 3. Design and Procedure 4. Data Analysis
  4. 4.  Example: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job Satisfaction  Causal Comparative Design  Hypotheses • Alternative- Teachers with a high level of experience will be more satisfied with their jobs than teachers with low levels of experience. • Null- Teachers with a high level of experience will be equally satisfied with their jobs when compared to teachers with low levels of experience.  Variables • Dependent- Job satisfaction • Independent- Years of experience • Two levels (high & low) • Exists naturally in the population of teachers at the start of study.
  5. 5.  Sample  Two groups sampled, one for each level of the independent variable: • High Experience • Low Experience  Select two groups that differ on some independent variable • One group possesses some characteristic that the other does not • Each group possesses the characteristic but in differing amount • The independent variable must be clearly operationally defined • * Randomly sample subjects from each of the two groups • Collect background information on subjects to determine the equality of the groups • Compare groups on the dependent variable
  6. 6. Control of Extraneous variable  What other variable besides years of experience could explain job satisfaction among teachers?  Matching: Each subject in the high experience group is matched with a subject with a low experience group along the variable of class size.  Each high experience teacher who teachers a large class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a large class.  Each high experience teacher who teaches a small class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a small class.
  7. 7. Data Analysis • Mean - job satisfaction ratings for High Experience and Low Experience subjects are compared using t-test, ANOVA or other appropriate statistical test. • Rejection of the null hypothesis supports the alternative hypothesis that years of experience result in increased job satisfaction.
  8. 8. Example of Research Objectives  To identify the purpose of of Causal Comparative Research?  To Identify the meaning of Causal Comparative Research topics and describe the basic design?  To examine the type of Causal Comparative Research?
  9. 9. Example of Research Questions : 1. What are the strengths of the study?  Groups are comparable to one another.  Contrasted statistical with practical significance.  Large sample size.  Multiple “replications” of treatment effect. 2. What are the weaknesses of the study?  Lack of random assignment.  Focus on standardized test performance.