Requirements-driven collaboration: A framework and patterns from a case study

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This presentation is a compilation of the main findings of a 4 years long study of requirements-driven collaboration. It was presented in a talk given at the University of Bari in February 2013 for PhD students aiming to introduce the topic. More can be found on the previous presentations posted under my account here.

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Requirements-driven collaboration: A framework and patterns from a case study

  1. 1. Requirements-driven Collaboration A framework and patterns from a case study Sabrina Marczak sabrina.marczak@pucrs.br Daniela Damian danielad@cs.uvic.camercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  2. 2. A bit of background first ...mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  3. 3. Who am I? 3 • Education: • PhD: University of Victoria, Canada (2006-2011) • Master: PUCRS, Brazil (2002-2003) • Bachelor: PUCRS, Brazil (1996-2001) Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  4. 4. Who am I? 4 • Industry: • Dell Brazil: 2001-2005 • Microsoft: 2005-2006 • ISD Brazil: 2005-2006 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  5. 5. Where do I come from? 5 • Porto Alegre: • About 2 million people • Founded by Germans, Italians, and Polish immigrants • Business city • Mercosul Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  6. 6. Where do I come from? 6 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  7. 7. Where do I come from? 7 • PUCRS: • 30 thousand students • 50 undegrad programs • 41 graduate programs Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  8. 8. Where do I come from? 8 • Tecnopuc: Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  9. 9. And the talk itself ...mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  10. 10. Software development 10 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  11. 11. Requirements Engineering 11 Conception Planning R. Analyst P. Manager Design Development Architect Developer Testing Deployment Tester Developer Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  12. 12. Requirements Engineering 11 Conception Planning R. Analyst P. Manager R. Analyst Design Development Requirement Architect Developer Tester Architect Testing Deployment Tester Developer Developer P. Manager Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  13. 13. Collaboration 12 Coordination Communication Awareness Dependency R. Analyst R. Analyst Requirement Requirement Tester Architect Tester Architect Developer P. Manager Developer P. Manager Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  14. 14. Collaboration 12 Coordination Communication Awareness Dependency R. Analyst R. Analyst Requirements-driven Requirement collaborationRequirement Tester Architect Tester Architect Developer P. Manager Developer P. Manager Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  15. 15. Talk outline 13 • Framework to study RDC • RDC patterns from a case study • Implications of this work Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  16. 16. > Framework 14 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  17. 17. Framework 15 R1 R2 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  18. 18. Framework 15 R. Analyst Developer R. Analyst Developer Developer Developer Developer Architect Architect Tester Tester Tester R1 R2 Requirements-centric team Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  19. 19. Framework 15 R. Analyst Developer R. Analyst Developer Developer Developer Developer Architect Architect Tester Tester Tester R1 R2 Requirements-centric social network Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  20. 20. Framework 15 R. Analyst Developer R. Analyst Developer Developer Developer Developer Architect Architect Tester Tester Tester R1 R2 Social network measures: e.g., degree Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  21. 21. Framework 16 Social network measures • Sociogram • Clique • Size • Component • Density • Reachability • Ties statistics • Cutpoint • Centralization • Degree • Core-periphery • Brokerage • Ties reciprocity • Socio-technical congruence Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  22. 22. Framework 17 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  23. 23. > RDC patterns 18 • Case study • Data collected • Patterns Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  24. 24. Case study 19 • APP team • Maintenance of legacy systems • Team distribution (44 members) • Brazil (38), USA (5), India (1) • PM (2), Req Analyst (4), Dev Lead (5), Dev (20), Test Lead (1), Testers (7), Business Partner (5) • New to the product and as a team itself • Reverse engineering activity Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  25. 25. Case study 20 • Well-defined team and communication structures • 20 requirements Business Partner Manager • 4 sets of dependencies Business Partner Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Project Manager Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  26. 26. Data collected 21 document contextual inspection information UCInet 6.0 team members SNA requirements measures 2nd 4th time 1st 3rd Knowledge Communication about the Awareness project interviews Questionnaire Observations Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  27. 27. Data collected 22 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  28. 28. Data collected 23 • UCINet https://sites.google.com/site/ucinetsoftware/home Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  29. 29. Patterns 24 • ‘Communication Patterns’ in requirements- driven collaboration • Recurring repetition of the same communication behavior across the social networks of dependent requirements Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  30. 30. Patterns 25 Collaboration driven by interdependent requirements includes significant cross-functional interactions Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  31. 31. Patterns 25 Collaboration driven by interdependent requirements includes significant cross-functional interactions 45  40  40  35  35  30  25  20  Within‐teams  16  17  Cross‐teams  15  11  9  10  7  5  1  0  Requirements  Requirements  Communica8on of  Coordina8on of  Nego8a8on  Clarific8on  Changes  Ac8vi8es  Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  32. 32. Patterns 25 Collaboration driven by interdependent requirements includes significant cross-functional interactions 45  40  40  35  35  30  25  20  Within‐teams  16  17  Cross‐teams  15  11  9  10  7  5  1  0  Requirements  Requirements  Communica8on of  Coordina8on of  Nego8a8on  Clarific8on  Changes  Ac8vi8es  Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  33. 33. Patterns 26 Actual communication structure in the project is very different from the planned communication structure Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  34. 34. Patterns 26 Actual communication structure in the project is very different from the planned communication structure Business • Decentralized networks Partner Manager Business Partner Requirements • Coordination through back Analyst Development channels Test Leader Leader Project Manager Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  35. 35. Patterns 27 Core subgroups of members originally assigned to work on the requirements closely collaborate with each other Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  36. 36. Patterns 27 Core subgroups of members originally assigned to work on the requirements closely collaborate with each other • Formed primarily by Requirements Analyst 3 Requirements Analyst 1 Tester 1 • requirements analysts Requirements Analyst 2 and testers • Test Leader assigned members Developer Tester 2 Dev Leader Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  37. 37. Patterns 28 The absence of members initially assigned to work on interdependent requirements is most likely to disrupt collaboration among these requirements Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  38. 38. Patterns 28 The absence of members initially assigned to work on interdependent requirements is most likely to disrupt collaboration among these requirements • Essential members Developer 1 Developer 2 Dev Leader 1 • knowledge about Requirements Analyst 1 requirements Developer 3 • ability to point out who was Dev Leader 2 Tester 2 working on related tasks Requirements Analyst 3 Tester 1 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  39. 39. Patterns 29 New hires are isolated from the rest in the requirements-driven collaboration Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  40. 40. Patterns 29 New hires are isolated from the rest in the requirements-driven collaboration • Mostly developers Test Leader Requirements Analyst 1 • Corroborates that Tester 1 newcomers have Requirements Analyst 2 Dev Leader Developer 1 difficulties in knowing how and when to ask Developer 2 Tester 2 questions Requirements Analyst 3 Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  41. 41. Patterns 30 • Brokerage A broker is someone who connects those that are otherwise disconnected Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  42. 42. Patterns 30 • Brokerage A broker is someone who connects those that are otherwise disconnected R1 R2 John Kyle Jack Peter Kate Kim Jim Matt David Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  43. 43. Patterns 30 • Brokerage A broker is someone who connects those that are otherwise disconnected R1 R2 R1 R2 John Kyle John Kyle Jack Jack Peter Kate Peter Kate Kim Kim Jim Jim Matt Matt David David Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  44. 44. Patterns 31 Coordinator: b a c a Consultant: b c b Gatekeeper: A c A Representative: c b Liaison: a b c Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  45. 45. Patterns 32 Most of the brokers work on both requirements Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  46. 46. Patterns 32 Most of the brokers work on both requirements R1 R2 John Kyle JANE Peter Kate Kim Jim Matt David Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  47. 47. Patterns 33 Brokerage is predominant in certain types of communication Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  48. 48. Patterns 33 Brokerage is predominant in certain types of communication • Communication of changes • Coordination of activities • Requirements clarification Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  49. 49. Patterns 34 Distance does not matter for brokerage Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  50. 50. Patterns 34 Distance does not matter for brokerage • One person emerged as the most frequent broker: Jane Jane, USA-based Dev Lead Kyle Matt Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  51. 51. Patterns 35 Knowledge and experience are determinants for brokerage Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  52. 52. Patterns 35 Knowledge and experience are determinants for brokerage • Familiarity with the most active broker (Jane) • Knowledge about the project and the company Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  53. 53. Patterns 36 • Socio-technical congruence “Fit” between coordination needs established by technical For each pair of people with a technical dependency in a network dependencies and actual coordination in the project Is there actual communication? Yes No Satisfied Gap coord. need Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  54. 54. Patterns 37 Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  55. 55. Patterns 37 Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader For each pair of people with a technical dependency in a network Developer Tester Are these roles supposed to communicate? Yes No Is there actual Is there actual communication? communication? Yes No Yes No Aligned Backchannel Real gap False gap communication communication Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  56. 56. Coordination needs (CN)Requirements Analyst Patterns RA -- DL D1 D2 TDevelopment Leader -- Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- actual Coordination (AC) RA DL D1 D2 TRequirements Analyst --Development Leader -- Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Tester -- Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  57. 57. Coordination needs (CN)Requirements Analyst Patterns RA -- DL D1 D2 TDevelopment Leader -- Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- actual Coordination (AC) coordination alignment (CA) RA DL D1 D2 T RA DL D1 D2 TRequirements Analyst -- Requirements Analyst -- x xDevelopment Leader -- Development leader x -- x Developer 1 -- Developer 1 x x -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- Tester x x -- Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  58. 58. Coordination needs (CN)Requirements Analyst Patterns RA -- DL D1 D2 T Requirements AnalystDevelopment Leader -- Development Test Leader Leader Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Developer Tester Tester -- actual Coordination (AC) coordination alignment (CA) RA DL D1 D2 T RA DL D1 D2 TRequirements Analyst -- Requirements Analyst -- x xDevelopment Leader -- Development leader x -- x Developer 1 -- Developer 1 x x -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- Tester x x -- Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  59. 59. Coordination needs (CN) role-based calculation (CN’)Requirements Analyst Patterns RA -- DL D1 D2 T Requirements Analyst RA -- DL D1 D2 T DevelopmentDevelopment Leader -- Leader -- Developer 1 -- Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester Tester -- -- actual Coordination (AC) coordination alignment (CA) RA DL D1 D2 T RA DL D1 D2 TRequirements Analyst -- Requirements Analyst -- x xDevelopment Leader -- Development leader x -- x Developer 1 -- Developer 1 x x -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- Tester x x -- Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  60. 60. Coordination needs (CN) role-based calculation (CN’)Requirements Analyst Patterns RA -- DL D1 D2 T Requirements Analyst RA -- DL D1 D2 T DevelopmentDevelopment Leader -- Leader -- Developer 1 -- Developer 1 -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester Tester -- -- actual Coordination (AC) coordination alignment (CA) RA DL D1 D2 T RA DL D1 D2 TRequirements Analyst -- Requirements Analyst -- x xDevelopment Leader -- Development leader x -- x Developer 1 -- Developer 1 x x -- Developer 2 -- Developer 2 -- Tester -- Tester x x -- Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  61. 61. Patterns 39 Testers predominant in initiating backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  62. 62. Patterns 39 Testers predominant in initiating backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  63. 63. Patterns 39 Testers predominant in initiating backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  64. 64. Patterns 40 Requirements clarification and communication of changes predominate in backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  65. 65. Patterns 40 Requirements clarification and communication of changes predominate in backchannel communication Requirements Communication of changes Analyst Communication of changes Development Test Leader Leader Requirements clarification Developer Tester Requirements clarification Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  66. 66. Patterns 41 Physical separation did not stop backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  67. 67. Patterns 41 Physical separation did not stop backchannel communication Requirements Analyst Development Test Leader Leader Building 1 Building 2 Developer Tester Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  68. 68. Patterns 42 • More-detailed measure to identify coordination congruence • Backchannel communication • False gaps • Alignment of actual coordination behavior with organization structure Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  69. 69. > Implications 43 • Researchers: mechanism to investigate RDC at a fine-grained level • Tool designers: develop tools to support RDC Expertise seeking, emergent members, coordination diagnose • Practitioners: gain insights about current processes and conditions Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  70. 70. Implications 44 Our framework can help people design improved - RE processes, - collaborative tool support, and - communication infrastructure in organizations to enable effective coordination in software projects Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  71. 71. Replication 45 • Agile team • Requirements are volatile per nature • Collaboration is constant • Communication happens F2F • Small teams Irum Inayat, PhD candidate Siti Salwa Salim, Dr. Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  72. 72. > More about RDC at 46 • RE ’07: Preliminary patterns • RE ’08: Brokerage • Book Ch. ’10: RDC framework • RE ’11: Roles and communication • ICSE ’13: Domain knowledge Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  73. 73. More about RDC at 47 • RE ’07: Collaboration patterns and impact of distance on awareness Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  74. 74. More about RDC at 48 • RE ’08: Brokerage Brokerage predominant in certain types of communication Distance didn’t matter Knowledge and experience as determinants for brokerage Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  75. 75. More about RDC at 49 • Book ch. ’10: RDC framework Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  76. 76. More about RDC at 50 • RE ’11: Roles and communication structures Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  77. 77. More about RDC at 51 • ICSE ’13: Domain knowledge and hierarchical control structures in coordination Communication ties that do not follow task assignments but are according to hierarchical structure Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  78. 78. > References 52 [RE ‘07] Daniela Damian, Sabrina Marczak, and Irwin Kwan, “Collaboration Patterns and the Impact of Distance on Awareness in Requirements-Centred Social Networks”, In: IEEE Proc. International Requirements Engineering Conference, New Delhi, India, 59-68, 2007. [RE ‘08] Sabrina Marczak, Daniela Damian, Ulrike Stege, and Adrian Schroeter, “Information Brokers in Requirements-Dependency Social Networks”, In: IEEE Proc. International Requirements Engineering Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 53-62, September 2008. [Book ch. ‘10] Daniela Damian, Irwin Kwan, and Sabrina Marczak, Requirements-Driven Collaboration: Leveraging the Invisible Relationships between Requirements and People, Collaborative Software Engineering, Mistrik, I., Grundy, J., van der Hoek, A, Whitehead, J. (Eds.), Chapter 3, pages 57-76, Springer-Verlag, London, England, March 2010. [RE ‘11] Sabrina Marczak and Daniela Damian, “How Interaction Between Roles Shapes the Communication Structure in Requirements-Driven Collaboration”, In: IEEE Proc. International Requirements Engineering Conference, Trento, Italy, 47-56, 2011. [ICSE ’13] Daniela Damian, Remko Helms, Irwin Kwan, Sabrina Marczak, and Benjamin Koelewijn, “The Role of Domain Knowledge and Hierarchical Control Structures in Socio- Technical Coordination”, In: IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, San Francisco, USA, May 2013 (To appear). Research visit to Collab group - UniBA Sabrina Marczak - February 2013mercoledì 6 febbraio 13
  79. 79. Thanks for your attention! Questions? Comments? Presented by Sabrina Marczak sabrina.marczak@pucrs.br http://www.inf.pucrs.br/sabrina.marczak/mercoledì 6 febbraio 13

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