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An overview of emerging trends in construction technologies

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Awareness in respect of Emerging Trends in Construction technology play a vital role in mitigating impacts of built environment on natural environment. Use of alternative materials and technologies impel towards sustainable development. This is an effort to bridge the gap between Industry and academia.

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An overview of emerging trends in construction technologies

  1. 1. An Overview of Emerging Trends in construction Industry Ajit Sabnis ajitsabnis57@gmail.com 1 The Initial Force
  2. 2. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY MACRO ENTITY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY BUILDING MATERIALS FORMWORK CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING 2 MASONRY PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  3. 3. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY 1.High Strength / High performance Concrete ( HSC/ HPC) 2.Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) 3.Fiber Reinforced concrete (FRC) 4.Polymer Modified Concrete (PMC) 5.High Volume Flyash Concrete (HVFC) 6.Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) 7.Self Healing Concrete / Bacterial Concrete 8.Cement 9.Admixtures 3
  4. 4. HIGH STRENGTH / HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE HSC- is primarily used in critical components. For structures exposed to aggressive environmental conditions, HPC ensuring long term Durability in terms of resistance to weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion etc is important. High fluidity without segregation, Low coefficient of Permeability, High Dimensional Stability are some of the important characteristics of HSC and HPC. Cutting section of real size RC column using 150 MPa concrete. Steel fiber was added in the 150 MPa concrete to prevent early spalling of the cover concrete. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY 4
  5. 5. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) “ A concrete that is capable of self compacting, occupies all the space in the form without any external means like mechanical vibrations etc” The guiding principle behind SCC is that the sedimentation velocity of a particle is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the floating medium in which the particle exists. The Viscosity is greatly influenced by the powder content in the medium. It is common practice to use substantial amount of mineral admixture such as Flyash, GGBS to avoid thermal cracking. The use of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in the precast industry is gaining an increasing amount of attention due to the many benefits that may be gained from its properties. 5
  6. 6. FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE (FRC) FRC- Fiber reinforced concrete is a type of concrete that includes fibrous substance that increases its structural strength, durability and ductility. FRC has minute distinct fibers that are homogeneously dispersed in the concrete matrix and randomly oriented to give it a kind of three dimensional stability. The improvement in concrete properties by including these fibers depend on fiber content, shape of fiber, aspect ratio of Fiber etc. Depending on the type of fibers used, FRC is generally categorized as ; Steel fiber Reinforced Concrete ( SFRC) - Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete ( SNRC) - Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete ( GFRC) Flexural deformation ability of ductile fiber reinforced cementitious composite EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY 6
  7. 7. POLYMER MODIFIED CONCRETE (PMC) In certain cases we use concrete formulations using organic polymers or resins to tackle the limitations offered by the ordinary concrete. PMC is a composite in which 10 to 15% by weight of cement binder is replaced by a synthetic organic binder or a polymer latex. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY AT LEFT, AN UNMODIFIED PATCH IS EASILY DISLODGED DUE TO A LACK OF HYDRATION DURING CURING AND LACK OF ADHESION. AT RIGHT, A MODIFIED PATCH AT 10% POLYMER (PERCENT POLYMER BY WEIGHT TO CEMENT) WOULD NOT BUDGE. POLYMER MODIFIED CEMENT WATER PROOFING 7
  8. 8. HIGH VOLUME FLYASH CONCRETE (HVFA) HVFA has very low water content and at least 50% of the Portland cement mass is replaced by class C or Class F – Flyash. Sometimes due to low WC ratio, use of Super-plasticisers are required to improve workability criteria while placing the concrete. HVFA has excellent workability , low heat of hydration, durability properties. Another important aspect of HVFA is its low electrical conductivity and the consequent ability to resist corrosion. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY Fly ash concrete is used in severe exposure applications such as the decks and piers of a bridge. Ex:Tampa Bay's Sunshine Skyway Bridge. 8
  9. 9. REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE (RPC) RPC- Reactive Powder Concrete is an ultra High strength and high ductility composite material. It is a special concrete with its micro structure optimized by precise gradation of all particles in the mix to yield maximum density. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY RPC beams are similar in size to steel beams. 9
  10. 10. CEMENT EMERGING TRENDS IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY NANO CEMENT Nano Cements are being developed as cements containing well dispersed nano particles of cement and mineral admixtures. These nano particles would be evenly distributed among the larger particles of mineral admixtures and with such fine dispersion, even a lower content of cement should be able to provide us the desired binding of aggregates and admixture particles. ENGINEERED CEMENT Engineered Cement can be equated to Engineering the performance of cement by tailoring the chemical composition and by controlling the particle size distribution. Further by the incorporation of mineral admixtures such as Fly ash or GGBS in binary blends with OPC offer significant improvements in durability properties. Ternary blends with Silica fume alter the microstructure and density and strengthen the weak aggregate-mortar interface zone. 10
  11. 11. With the explosive growth in high-rise residential construction, the Load-Bearing Wall (LBW) system is gaining recognition. The walls and slab are poured simultaneously when using the innovative tunnel form construction method. Since the forms are stripped in 24 hours, the daily cycle meets the demand of fast-track construction for repetitive cell layouts, synonymous with many hotel and condominium projects. EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK (1) 11
  12. 12. Extruded aluminum forms Plastic Forms Fiber forms Fabric forms Form liners Com Shells Inflated Forms Or In combination of above Note : Form-liners are normally made of Rubber / silicone / Thermoplastic or Polystyrene to impart intricate designs surface finishes. NEW FORM MATERIALS (2) EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK 12
  13. 13. FLY FORMS GANG FORMS SLIP FORMS SUSPENDED SLAB FORMS BEAM FORMS JUMP FORMS SINGLE-SIDED FORMS CANTILEVER FORMS ARCH FORMS WALL AND COLUMN FORMS TUNNEL FORMS BRIDGE DECK FORMS SHAFT-LINING FORMS NEW FORM TYPES (3) EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK 13
  14. 14. TYPICAL FINISH WITH FORM LINER TYPICAL CIRCULAR COLUMN FORM TYPICAL WALL FORM EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK TYPICAL FORM SAMPLES (4) Some times Form liners are also referred as Stay-in-Place Formwork. 14
  15. 15. EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK TYPICAL FORM SAMPLES (5) TYPICAL ALUMINUM SLAB FORM WITH ADJUSTABLE PROPS TYPICAL ALUMINUM TABLE FORM WITH ADJUSTABLE PROPS 15
  16. 16. EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK TYPICAL FORM SAMPLES (5) TYPICAL ADJUSTABLE TUNNEL FORMS TYPICAL ADJUSTABLE CURVED TUNNEL FORMS 16
  17. 17. EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK THE ALUMINUM WALL FORMS. The benefits of using aluminum forms are superior to the old method of plywood forming for formed cast-in-place concrete. Apart from the dimensional stability of the forms, the overall quality of the pour seems much better with tighter tolerances. TYPICAL FORM SAMPLES (6) 17
  18. 18. INSULATING CONCRETE FORMS Homes built using an Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) system literally have the insulation built into the walls as part of the structure. This system creates walls that have a high thermal resistance, with R- values typically above R-17. Even though ICF homes are constructed using concrete, they look just like traditional stick-built homes. OTHER FORM SAMPLES (7) EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK 18
  19. 19. SLIP FORM SAMPLES (8) EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK SLIP FORM – PLACER BOOM MOUNTED ON TOP 19
  20. 20. EMERGING TRENDS IN FORMWORK TYPICAL INFLATED FORM TYPICAL FABRIC FORM COMSHELL FORM OTHER FORM SAMPLES (9) 20
  21. 21. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 1.Pre Engineered Buildings 2.Pre-Cast Buildings 3.Construction Equipment 4.Fast Track Construction 5.Tilt-up Construction 6.Ground Freezing 7.High Rise Buildings 8.Soundless demolition Systems 21
  22. 22. SCC and computerized precision color control are revolutionizing the Precast Industry. Ultralite panels are being manufactured with Carbon Cast, a grid of carbon fiber reinforcing. The resulting weight reduction generates savings in transportation, erection, and substructure costs. The new POST- Prestressed Open Space Truss provides a solution for long-spans, while maintaining the shallow floor depth of a flat plate system. This system works well for parking spaces in the lower levels. Hybrid construction marries the benefits of PC and CIP (Cast in Place) for a desired result, such as seismic performance, cost savings or schedule implications. PRECAST CONSTRUCTION EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 22
  23. 23. PRECAST CONSTRUCTION EASI PANELS PVT LTD- MYSORE EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PRECAST HOLLOW CAVITY RETAINING WALL HOLLOW CAVITY WALL - EXTERNAL GRADE OF WALLING PANEL (NON LOAD BEARING). PRECAST WALL 100 MM THICK. INSTALLED AT ONE OF THE FACTORY IN MYSORE. 23
  24. 24. TILT-UP CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY The Tilt Up industry is reaching new heights with the record lift nearing 100 feet. Production is streamlined with embedded facers cast integrally with wall panel to greatly reduce labor requirements with conventional brick and mortar veneer. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 24
  25. 25. ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL X COLUMNS AT JNS DELHI- COMMON WEALTH GAMES-2010 EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Floodlights & PA System Membran e Roof New Ramp System Primary Roof Structure Existing stadia bowl •Largest roof over seating area in India and among the top 5 largest in the world. •70 m cantilever; 40 m height from the ground. •First Cable Fabric Roof in India •10,000 MT of Structural Steel. •500 MT of cable structure holding the fabric – Imported from Germany. • 55,000 Sqm Special Glass Fabric (PTFE) Roof – Imported from USA. 25
  26. 26. ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL X COLUMNS AT JNS DELHI- COMMON WEALTH GAMES-2010 EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY The entire construction process of the stadium was a state of art construction. Be it erection of V & X- shape structural columns OR……… 26
  27. 27. ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL X COLUMNS AT JNS DELHI- COMMON WEALTH GAMES-2010 EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY …..Cable Net Stressing or be it the erection of Geo fabric Membrane with Roof Manholes and Maintenance Catwalks. 27
  28. 28. ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL X COLUMNS AT JNS DELHI- COMMON WEALTH GAMES-2010 EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 28
  29. 29. 29 EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY The "Super Flex Wall" is a structural frame method newly developed by the Takenaka Corporation, used in combination with a core wall (the earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete wall penetrating through the center of the building from the lower part to the top floor) and a structural control method or with a base-isolation method. Part of the structure is cantilevered from the central core along the periphery of the building. HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
  30. 30. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGYGROUND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY Ground freezing technology makes use of the properties of artificially frozen ground. To achieve this, freeze pipes are bored or driven into the ground in specified intervals. A refrigerant is passed through the freeze pipes absorbing the heat of the surrounding ground as it circulates. Ground freezing technology can be applied in the following areas: ■ Tunnel construction ■ Deep Excavations in loose soil. ■ Extraction of undisturbed soil samples ■ Forcing through railway underpasses ■ Soil remediation 30
  31. 31. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY SOUNDLESS DEMOLITION SYSTEMS The traditional approach to demolishing concrete structures or reducing the size of large rocks or boulders has typically included the use of explosives. The resulting explosions are associated with the obvious risks posed by shock waves and fly rock. These problems, along with other detrimental side effects of using explosives, have increased an interest in the use of alternative methods to demolish rock and concrete structures. 31
  32. 32. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY The emergence of electronics in construction machines presents the opportunity to re-engineer and simplify the operator interface of the machine. By using electronic and electro-hydraulic control systems, intelligent machine functionality will dramatically improve operator ease of use. This change in turn will enhance machine productivity and the comfort and safety of the operator. EQUIPMENT 32
  33. 33. REINFORCEMENT Fabrication and corrosion are the crux of most Rebar issues. “Reinforcement Carpet” gives a unique solution to reduce shipping and erection costs. With little waste, this innovative tool may greatly change the speed and precision of concrete mat construction. Galvanized and stainless clad rebar offer less expensive, but corrosion-resistant alternatives to stainless steel rebar. The latest technology of MMFX micro-composite steel gives a high-strength, corrosion-resistant product with a cost-effective price. EMERGING TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 33
  34. 34. EMERGING TRENDS IN BUILDING MATERIALS • BENDABLE CONCRETE • SELF HEALING CONCRETE • TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE • ELECTRIFIED WOOD • BIO ENGINEERED BRICKS • SENSITILES • ELECTROCHROMIC GLASS • LIQUID GRANITE • CARBON FIBERS • BIOMIMICRY SURFACES • COMPOSITES • ECO BRICKS • BASALT RODS • CONCRETE LUMBERS • INTELLIGENT FIXTURES • FACADES AND PANELS. 34
  35. 35. EMERGING TRENDS IN BUILDING MATERIALSLIQUID GRANITE BENDABLE CONCRETE TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE SENSITILES 35
  36. 36. EMERGING TRENDS IN BUILDING MATERIALS ELECTRIFIED WOOD FLYASH UNFIRED -ECO BRICKS BARK SIDINGS AND SHINGLES 36
  37. 37. EMERGING TRENDS IN BUILDING MATERIALS BIO ENGINEERED BRICKS Flip A Switch And An ELECTROCHROMIC Window Can Change From Clear To Fully Darkened Or Any Level Of Tint In-between. 37 SAND AND BACTERIA FOR HARDENING
  38. 38. EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING RCC STRUCTURES DETERIORATE SLOWLY DUE TO: • CYCLIC TEMPERATURE, • VARIATIONS IN LOADING PATTERNS, • PHYSICAL CAUSES AND • CHEMICAL ATTACK DUE TO ENVIRONMENT, ETC. IF NOT PAID PROPER TIMELY ATTENTION, THESE DETERIORATE RAPIDLY AND FAIL TO MEET THE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR ITS DESIGNED SERVICE LIFE. VARIOUS CAUSES OF DETERIORATION LIKE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS, CHLORIDE INDUCED CORROSION, CARBONATION OF CONCRETE, SULPHATE ATTACK, CRACKING DUE TO THERMAL GRADIENT, PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CRACKS AND FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT ETC., ARE TO BE LOOKED INTO, BEFORE ADOPTING ANY STRATEGY. 38
  39. 39. EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING EMERGING TRENDS IN REHABILITATION ENGINEERING ENCOMPASS ALL THE FOLLOWING SPHERES. •DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES FOR DISTRESS ASSESSMENT. •MATERIALS FOR RETROFITTING & REHABILITATION. • IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES •ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASURES. 39
  40. 40. EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING IN THE DOMAIN OF DIAGNOSTIC REPAIRS A Ground Probing Radar Device Thermography Camera Profometer Device for Rebars 40
  41. 41. EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING IN THE DOMAIN OF TECHNIQUES TYPICAL WRAPPING PROCESS Bonded Pre-stressed Laminates 41
  42. 42. EMERGING TRENDS REHABILITATION ENGINEERING WITH THE ADVENT OF NEWER RETROFITTING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES; AND WITH THE BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE BASICS OF RETROFITTING / REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, WE CAN NOW FORESEE STILL BRIGHTER DAYS IN THIS FIELD. -Dr. CSV 42
  43. 43. 43 EMERGING TRENDS IN MASONRY The Mortarless Concrete Block Building System comprises of blocks with six different internal configuration that form three separate air cores when stacked in a single thickness. Blocks are stacked without mortar, and the center core of the stacked blocks is filled with grout to form a solid concrete core that separates the other two air cores. This grout flows around and through each block, bonding it to the surrounding block and forming a grid of columns and beams that tie all of the blocks and walls together without mortar joints.
  44. 44. 44 EMERGING TRENDS IN MASONRYAUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE BLOCKS AAC is well known as an environmentally friendly construction material. In the manufacturing process, no pollutants or toxic by-products are produced. AAC is also completely recyclable. Large, precisely dimensioned elements of AAC allow rapid construction. Their greater dimensional accuracy requires less on-site adjustment. The combination of large size and dimensional accuracy allows greatly increased productivity. Due to the light weight of AAC, reduced equipment demands are realized.
  45. 45. 45 Ready Mix Cement Plasters render high quality finish. It can be used efficiently on brick, block, stone walls as well as concrete surfaces . Benefits: •Smooth plaster and Less curing (pre-wetting compulsory) •Time saving and least rebound •Light colored plaster walls with uniform quality •Ensures Quality Plaster. EMERGING TRENDS IN MASONRY SPRAY PLASTER
  46. 46. 46 WTP 5 MLD STP 15 MLD Elevators 63 Nos Escalators 31 Nos Travellators 5.20 Km Conveyors for baggage 6.4 Km X-Ray machines 41 Nos. Boarding bridges 78 nos. Flight information Displays 729 nos. Number of Documents 735900 nos Mails Exchanged 2485600 Nos PTB- Building Envelope 200000 sqm PTB-Toilet Blocks 145 Nos. PTB- Baggage Handling per Hour 12800 bags PTB-Passenger boarding bridges 78 Nos Apron- India’s longest 640000 Sqm EMERGING TRENDS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) concept involves multiple project participants performing the entire design and construction process including procurement of a variety of critical components and interaction with clients and many other stakeholders simultaneously. The PSRM (Project Scheduling, reporting & Monitoring) system adopted by L&T was extensive. All activities at both macro and micro level were designated with appropriate weightages, S-Curves drawn for easy monitoring. DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
  47. 47. 47 EMERGING TRENDS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING A BIM (Building Information Modeling) is the creation of parametric, or intelligent, 3D models instead of 2D perspective „un-intelligent‟ drawings. A BIM operates on a digital database and any change made to this database is reflected throughout the entire drawing. This allows everyone involved in the building lifecycle – architects, engineers, contractors, developers, and building owners - to sync together allowing them to view the model in different ways and seamlessly share information.
  48. 48. In conclusion, future civil engineers cannot bind themselves just to the knowledge they have accumulated within four walls of a class room. They need to keep learning the Emerging Technologies and apply it on field. This presentation is an humble effort to make you stand face to face with the marvels of Emerging Construction Technologies. 48
  49. 49. 49 THANK YOU ALL

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