Thyroid whole body scan


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A thyroid scan is a nuclear medicine test that uses a radioactive iodine tracer to examine the structure and function of the thyroid gland.

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Thyroid whole body scan

  1. 1. Case Study:Thyroid WholeBody ScanMoayyad AlssabbaghMGQ120003Master of Medical Physics 2012/2013
  2. 2. Thyroid Whole Body ScanIn this Presentation:• What is Thyroid Gland• Diseases Affect the Thyroid• Thyroid Scan. What for?• The Scan Procedure:Patient PreparationThe Iodine -131 PreparationThe Imaging Procedure
  3. 3. Thyroid Whole Body ScanThe thyroid gland is abutterfly- shaped endocrinegland that is normallylocated in the lower front ofthe neck and wraps aroundthe front half of the trachea,having two halves (lobes)joined by a small tissue bar.What is Thyroid gland
  4. 4. Thyroid Whole Body ScanThe thyroid needs iodine to produce the hormones, whichare secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissuein the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy,stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and otherorgans working as they should.Thyroid gland: function and iodine
  5. 5. Thyroid Whole Body Scan• Hypothyroidism:underactive thyroid.• Hyperthyroidism:overactive thyroid.• Goitre: enlarged thyroid.• Thyroid Nodules: lumps in thethyroid gland.• Thyroid Cancer: Malignantthyroid nodules or tissue.• Thyroiditis: inflammation of thethyroid.Diseases affect the Thyroid glandIt can be summarizing the problems that can occur in thethyroid as follows:Goitre
  6. 6. Thyroid Whole Body ScanA thyroid scan is a nuclear medicine test thatuses a radioactive iodine tracer to examinethe structure and function of the thyroidgland.The two radioactive isotopes commonly usedare I-125 (35 keV-T1/2=59d) and I-131(=365keV,=606keV. T1/2=8d . If it used therapeutically).In general the thyroid scan is done to:– Check for thyroid cancer– Evaluate thyroid nodules or Goiter– Find the cause of an overactive/underactivethyroid glandWhat for?Dual head Gamma camera(UMMC)
  7. 7. Thyroid Whole Body ScanSufficient clarification must be given to the patient beforeand after starting the procedure, such as:1. Stop any thyroid medication and food containingiodine before imaging.2. Pregnancy and breast feedingconsiderations.3. Avoiding (children, public, family,transport ...etc) for …… days.Thyroid whole body Scan1. Patient Preparation
  8. 8. Thyroid Whole Body Scan
  9. 9. Thyroid Whole Body Scan• Usually I-131 of activity of 5 mCi preparedmixed with 10 ml of normal-saline for thepatients of thyroid whole body scan.• The physicist gives the dose orally topatient in a special place designated forthis purpose.• The patient asked to leave and a fullinstruction given to him as demonstrated inprevious stage.2. The Iodine -131 PreparationI-131 vials in shielding containerThe givendose’splaceFume hood
  10. 10. Thyroid Whole Body Scan• The patient lied down on a moveable examination table withhis head tipped backward and neck extended.• The gamma camera starting capturing images of the thyroidgland from Anterior and posterior (Dual head)• Three stages were perfumed :• Total Body scan• Static scan• Marker scanThe time required for each stage determined by the computeraccording to the total counts that set by the radiographer andthe distance that the gamma camera traverse of the scannedarea.3. The Imaging Procedure
  11. 11. Thyroid Whole Body ScanA. Total Body scan:• The peak level of 364KeV andwindow size (20%) fixed atfor optimal quality image.• Total body scan giveindication of cancer spread toother parts of the body.• Ant. & Post.3. The Imaging Procedure (Cont.)
  12. 12. Thyroid Whole Body ScanB. Static scan:• Same effective energy peakand window size.• Only the neck area wasscanned.• Ant. & Post.3. The Imaging Procedure (Cont.)
  13. 13. Thyroid Whole Body ScanC. Marker scan:• to mark the location of neck to locate the thyroid place accurately.(Ant.)3. The Imaging Procedure (Cont.)No spread of cancerous cells have found in this patient
  14. 14. Thyroid Whole Body Scan• The thyroid gland control many functions: heart rate, blood pressure,and body temperature, growth and development.• The patient removed thyroid due to cancer and I-131 was used todiagnose the remaining thyroid and cancer spread to other parts.• Important instructions and recommendation must be explained andgiven to the patient before and after the procedure.• Radiation protection considerations of I-131 preparation:– Special separated place– Volatile solution  Fume hood– Long half-life  Radioactive waste– …Conclusion
  15. 15. Thyroid Whole Body ScanThank You !QuestionsReferences:UMMC, Nuclear medicine department. Dual head gamma camera room.American Thyroid Association (ATA). (2012, June). Radioactive Iodine. Retrieved June 2013, fromAmerican Thyroid Association:, M. (2011). Thyroid Disease. Retrieved 2013, from About:, S., & Zieve, D. (2012, June). Thyroid scan. Retrieved June 2013, from MedlinePlus : (2010). Thyroid Conditions. Retrieved 2013, from WebMD: