DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNSARTICLES.ARTICLESIndefinite article: a / an*+ singular countable nouns*We use an before a word beginning witha vowel or mute h: I’ve got an uncle whoworks in a factory.When it is mentioned for the first time:I’ve bought a new mobile phone.With general descriptions: A footballer isa person who plays football.With a person’s job or character: Mary isan engineer.Peter is a fool!Definite article: the+ singular / plural nouns- With unique objects and knownreferences: The war lasted for sixyears. (we know which war)- Before a noun made definite by theaddition of a phrase or clause: The boythat I met is really nice.With nationalities and other groups ofpeople: The Spanish love dancing.With adjectives to describe groups ofpeople: The rich usually live in bighouses.With collective nouns: The government isvery unpopular.With geographical features (rivers,oceans, deserts, etc.): The Sahara.With musical instruments: Do you playthe guitar?
Zero article (no article)+ plural / uncountable nouns- When we are talking generally: War isa terrible thing.Dogs are not allowed in this shop.With most countries, states and cities:Marie comes from France.* but countries which are plural or agroup use the: We left the UnitedKingdom and crossed to theNetherlands.- With regions, lakes, mountains andislands: Diana climbed Mont Blanc inrecord time.- With most streets: I bought this dressfrom a shop in Bond Street.- With general historical references:Ancient Rome is a fascinating period ofhistory.- With by for general forms of transport:We went there by train.- With certain buildings, where thepurpose of the building is moreimportant than the place itself: Jill is inprison/hospital/bed, etc. (which prison/hospital/bed is not important)
OTHER DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS.all (of the) +plural / uncountable nounsAll people have to eat in order to live. (=All people in general)All of the people in the room are students.(= all the people who are in the room)I’ve drunk all (of) the milk.every / each (of)+ singular countable nounsThe police want to interview every memberabout the theft. (= all the members)Each man had a weapon. (= all of themen)Each of the members has one vote.little+ uncountable nounsLittle is known about the side-effects of thisdrug. ( = hardly anything)This sauce needs a little salt. (= a smallamount of salt)few+ plural nounsFew towns have such splendid trees. (=not many)We’ve been having a few problems withthe new computer. (= some)most (of the)+ plural / uncountable nounsMost people like meat. (= people ingeneral)Most of the students in my class like meat.(= those students in particular)some+ plural / uncountable nounsIn affirmative sentences: There are someflowers in the garden.In offers and requests: Would you likesome cake?any+ plural / uncountable nounsIn interrogative and negative sentences:Has he got any brothers or sisters?There isn’t any sugar left.much+ uncountable nounsUsually in negative sentences:I haven’t much time to do my homework.many+ plural nouns.Usually in negative sentences:He didn’t make many mistakes.a lot of / lots of+ plural / uncountable nounsUsually in affirmative sentences:He’s lost a lot of weight.I saw lots of seabirds.
no+ plural / singular nounsThere’s no train until tomorrow. (=Thereisn’t a train until tomorrow.)She gave me no help at all. (=She didn’tgive me any help at all.)No answers could be found.none (of)+ plural / uncountable nouns.He had none of the usual symptoms. (=He didn’t have any of the usualsymptoms.)None of the tourists wanted to climb themountain.We expected letters, but none came.someone / somebodysomethingsomewhereSomeone / Somebody wants to speak toyou on the phone. (they refer to people)There’s something on the table. (it refersto objects, events)I’ve seen that man somewhere. (it refers toplaces)anyone /anybodyanythinganywhereMainly in interrogative and negativesentences:Would anyone / anybody like a drink?Do you want anything from the chemist?Are you going anywhere?everyone/everybodyeverythingeverywhereEveryone / Everybody needs to bringsomething to eat.Have you got everything you need?I’ve looked everywhere for it.no one / nobodynothingnowhereAt first I thought there was no one /nobody in the room.I have nothing new to tell you.Young people have nowhere to go.
Choose the correct alternatives.A: I like the Italian / Italian food.B: Yeah, but I don’t like the food / food at that new Italian restaurant.A: Yes. And waiters / the waiters there aren’t very friendly neither.B: I agree.A: Restaurants / The restaurants should be relaxing places.B: But music / the music in that Italian place is always too loud.A: Well, they say that patience / the patience is a virtue.B: But pizzas / the pizzas arrived an hour late.2. Complete the text with articles where they are necessary.‘Ageism’ is often described as discrimination against ______ older people. ______ oldergeneration in our society is often forgotten or ignored. For example, it can be difficult for_____ people over the age of 50 to find a job. ______ reason for this is that ______companies often think that ______ younger people will work harder. However, they forgetthat ______ experience of an older person can be very valuable.A good organization should combine _______ energetic ideas of ______ youngergeneration with ______ knowledge and wisdom of the more mature member of our society.3. Complete the text with the articles a /an or the where they are necessary.It has been announced that for _______ third consecutive month there has been ________rise in _______ number of ________ people unemployed, rather than ________ fall thathad been predicted. _________ rise was blamed on ________ continuing uncertainty over________ government economic policy, and couldn’t come at ________ worst time for_________ Prime Minister, who is facing __________ growing criticism over _________way ________ present crisis is being handled. _________ MPs are increasingly voicing_________ fears that despite _________ recent devaluation of _________ pound and cutsin ________ interest rates, ________ government still expects ________ recovery of theeconomy to take three or even four years. To make ________ matters worse, ________number of small business going into ________ liquidation is still at _________ recordlevel, and ________ housing market is showing signs of recovery. Some backbenchersexpect ________ general election before _______ end of _______ winter unless there is_________ rapid change of ________ fortune.
4. Complete the text with the articles a /an or the where they are necessary.1. I’m going to stand for Parliament at ________ next election.2. When I left _______ station, I had to stand in ________ queue for _______ taxi for_______ long time.3. We took _______ trip around London and saw _______ Tower Bridge.4. _______ happiness of the majority depends on ________ hard work for everyone.5. _______ most main roads in this part of ________ country follow ______ line of_______ roads built by _________ Romans.6. Have you got _________ latest record by _________ Gipsy Kings?7. If I had ________ time, I would like to take up ________ archery.8. We spent ________ pleasant evening having _________ drinks at _________ RobinHood.9. ________ Nile flows right trough _________ city.10. ________ I spent in _______ USA was one of ________ best in my life.11. She was ________ first woman to cross ________ Atlantic in ________ canoe.12. Go down ________ Godwin Street and turn right into ________ Mill Road.13. Please, let me carry _______ shopping. It’s _______ least I can do.14. I don’t like _______ milk in ______ coffee.15. At _______ end of _______ busy day, ________ sleep is ________ best tonic.16. ________ James Joyce I knew wasn’t _________ novelist and wasn’t ________ Irisheither.5. Complete the sentences with of where necessary.1. Can ______ birds fly?2. Some ______ people like horror films.3. Most _______ her family live in London.4. Most _______ jokes don’t make me laugh.5. None _______ these clothes fit me.6. One _______ your friends called last night.7. Few ______ people understand her situation.8. All ______ you need to come with me.
6. Rewrite the sentences using the pronouns.1. There’s one thing that you should know. (something)_______________________________________________________________________________________2. We all know the answer. (everybody)________________________________________________________________________________________3. The bag was empty. (nothing)________________________________________________________________________________________4. I saw a person who looked similar to you. (somebody)________________________________________________________________________________________5. There were no people there. (anybody)________________________________________________________________________________________6. Not one person said hello. (nobody)________________________________________________________________________________________7. Give me whatever you can – It doesn’t matter what it is. (anything)________________________________________________________________________________________8. We will record all that you say. (everything)________________________________________________________________________________________7. Complete the sentences with a suitable pronoun.1. I’ve had a bad day. _____________ has gone wrong.2. There’s _____________ more relaxing than lying on the beach.3. I often think that _____________ loves me.4. The other day I met _______________ who knows you.5. We should go and see it. ________________ says it’s fantastic.6. It’s really boring here. There isn’t ______________ to do.7. I’m worried. Miriam hasn’t phoned. Perhaps ________________ has happened to her.8. Do you know _______________ who’s got a tent? We want to go camping.
8. Choose the correct alternatives.Internet / The internet is for everybody, except, it seems, for the millions of blind peoplewho can’t use it. Most / the most of websites are designed for anybody / nobody whocan use a mouse. Some / some of them can be used by disabled people who can’t use amouse, but few / few of websites are accessible to blind / the blind people. This is a pitybecause we already have technology / the technology to adapt websites for blind people.Programs can translate contents / the contents of webpages into a form that blind peoplecan use. Part of the reason that more websites aren’t adapted for the blind is ignorance /the ignorance. The majority / The majority of designers don’t even know that theseprograms exist.9. Choose the correct option.1. I’ll be with you in________________.A. one quarter of an hour. B. a quarter of an hour. C. a quarter of one hour.D. a quarter of hour.2. Look at ________________. It’s very bright tonight.A. the moons. B. moon C. the moon D. a moon.3. Sydney is ____________________.A. a beautiful city. B. beautiful city C. the beautiful city D. the beautifulcities.4. _______________________ of the present continuous tense on page 32.A. There are example B. There are examplesC. There are the examples D . Th er e isexample5. __________________ is one of the many factors involved in changing farmingmethods.A. Climate B. A climate C. Climates D. The climate6. Against her parents’ wishes, she wants to be _________________.A. the journalist B. journalist C. a journalist D. journalists7. ‘You look upset’. ‘Yes, I’ve had _______________.’A. the terrible morning. B. terrible morning. C. some terrible morning D . aterrible morning8. I haven’t been here for ________________.A. some years B. any years C. years D. the years
9. We haven’t got _____________ left.A. a butter B. any butter C. the butter D. some butter10. ‘Where were you last week?’ ‘I was visiting _________________.’A. any friends B. friends C. some friends D. the friends11. ________________ of my jewellery is missing.A. Some of B. Any of C. Some D. Any12. _____________ the furniture _________________ arrived yet.A. None …has B. None …have C. None of …has D. None of…have13. I phoned Sarah at home, but _________________A. there were no answers B. There were no answer C. There was no answersD. There was no answer.14. There isn’t _______________ traffic along the street where I live.A. many B. much C. much of D. many of15. ______________ the food was inedible.A. A large amount of B. Many of C. Much of D. A large number of16. ____________ waiting to hear the results.A. Everyone was B. All was C. Everyone were D. All were17. Following the flood, ___________ in the area __________ major repair workA. each of building …need B. every building…needs C. every building…needD. Each buildings…need18. There is _______________ evidence to support his claim.A. little of B. few C. a few D. little