1123 report writing


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1123 report writing

  1. 1. Report Writing By: Sy ed Hassan R aza 1
  2. 2. Session objectives At the end of these sessions, participants will have: Acquired report writing skills  Be able to differentiate between different types of reports  Be able to list the characteristics of a good report and the steps to be followed to write a good report  Appreciate the different report structures and agree on a standard structure  Consolidated their data interpretation skills  2
  3. 3. Presentation Outline  Introduction  Definition  Types of Reports  Steps to Follow for a Good and Effective Report  Structure of a Report  Conclusion 3
  4. 4. Introduction  This presentation is intended to equip you with the basic skills of communicating information to others without necessarily the need for meetings.  Effective reports give a professional image and get others to take your work seriously 4
  5. 5. Definition A report is a prepared account of what happened, about a particular event, presented in formal and organized format backed with some evidence. It may be a single report or a series of them. 5
  6. 6. Types of Reports  Academic Report: Academic reports are usually detailed and in most cases targeting academicians. They are of high content and the producer and the reader are at the same level or a little different. 6
  7. 7. Types of Reports continued Professional Report:  Professional reports are for informing and persuading people as well as initiating change  They may be detailed depending on the targeted audience/taste of the sponsor.  In most cases they have a mixed audience of those who may understand the in-depth of the subject content and non technical people like the decision-makers. 7
  8. 8. Good Report The following comments have been made by senior managers about what they look for in a good report. Assess the comments and evaluate them 8
  9. 9. Good Report Continued A report must meet the needs of the readers and answer the questions in their minds  A report must be at the right level for the readers. Some readers have an in-depth knowledge of the subject while others may be decision-makers without specialized, technical knowledge 9
  10. 10. Good Report Continued A report must have a clear, logical structure-with clear signposting to show where the ideas are leading A report must give a good impression.  Presentation is very important first 10
  11. 11. Good Report continued.. A report must not make assumptions about the readers’ understanding.  All writers need to apply the ‘so what’ test  explain why something is a good idea   Reports  must be written in good English using short sentences with correct grammar and spelling  Reports should have a time reference 11
  12. 12. Steps to Follow for a Good and Effective Report 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define your aim Collect your ideas Select the material and decide how to show the significance of your facts Structure your ideas Start on report writing 12
  13. 13. General Structure of the Report Title Introduction Main Body Conclusion and Recommendations 13
  14. 14. Report Editing A checklist to use while editing a report looks at following areas. 1. The purpose Have you clarified your purpose?  Have you identified your readers' needs characteristics?  and 14
  15. 15. Report Editing continued 2. Information Have you included the main points? Are these points supported by evidence? Is the information relevant to the purpose? 15
  16. 16. Report Editing continued 3. Accuracy Are there spelling mistakes? Are the references correct, in the text and at the end? Are abbreviations consistent? 16
  17. 17. Report Editing continued 4. Language  Is it clear, direct, easy to read?  Will the readers understand it?  Will its tone help you achieve the purpose?  Can unnecessary words/phrases be deleted?  Is the grammar/punctuation correct?  Is there any repetition? 17
  18. 18. Newspaper Report To begin with ‘Newspaper reports’ must have a Headline.  Headlines are a kind of summary in note form, leaving out unnecessary words. Their aim is to attract reader interest in the minimum amount of space and indicate the attitude the report will adopt. 18
  19. 19. Headlines tend to be:  consist of a maximum of six words  contain sensational vocabulary (e.g crash, tragic)  use short words (usually no longer than two syllables)  use the shortest synonyms (e.g. weds for marries)  use the present tense for events in the recent past  leave out definite and indefinite articles (i.e. ‘the’ and ‘a’) 19
  20. 20. Examination Tip: Popular newspapers like to use the following devices in their headlines Puns – US Dollar for success Assonance- Hit list twist Alliteration – Fears of free fall Quotations – For richer, for poorer 20
  21. 21. Newspaper reports generally follow this order.  summary of recent event. The first few sentences must answer the question Who? What? When? Where? and How? About the event, followed by Why?  Proceeding paragraph should talk about the background leading to the event  The later part of the report must return to the immediate situation  The closing part should consist some response of those involved in the event.  The report concludes with looking ahead of near future. 21
  22. 22. Difference between other forms of reports with that of newspaper report.  They follow no specific order, newspaper reports follow a chronological order given above  Secondly newspaper reports do not involve any emotional responses or personal views of the reporter, or any direct address to the reader. On the other hand accounts may have personal responses of the viewer. 22
  23. 23.  Do not confuse it with other reports.  Use passive voice and avoid the use of ‘I’ pronoun in newspaper report.  Keep the language simple because remember the newspaper report is read by everyone, it is not restricted to a specific audience. 23