GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Dr.Khalid Hama
,salih
Pediatrics specialist
M.B.Ch.; D. C.H
F.I.B.M.S.ped
2
Development
•

•

•

The term 'child development' is used to
describe the skill and capacity of function
acquired by child...
By understanding what to expect during each stage of development ,
parents can easily capture the teachable moments in eve...


NB/Chronological age, physical growth and
developmental skills usually evolve hand in
hand. Just as there are normal ra...





When considering developmental milestones:
The median age is the age when half of a standard
population of childre...
There are four fields of
developmental skills to






These are:
A. gross motor
B. vision and fine motor
C. hearing,...


Gross motor skills are the most obvious initial
area of developmental progress. As fine motor
skills require good visio...








gross motor development: an explosion of
skills during the first year of life ,large muscle
vision and fine mo...
PEDIATRIC ASSESSMENT
INSTRUMENTS


DENVER DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING
TEST(DDST)




BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT
DEVELOPMENT(BS...
Birth

•

Gross motor:The newborn's movement are
random, diffuse and uncoordinated. Complete
head lag

•

Visio&Fine motor...


Social:The newborn infant expresses his
emotion just through cry for hunger, pain or
discomfort sensation.
8weeks -6


gross motor :Pelvis flatter

HeadControldeveloping but head noding
Curved back, needs support


vision and f...
months 4




gross motor Lifts head and shoulders with weight on
forearms no head lag when pulled to sitting
position,
v...
months 6
gross motor Arms extended supporting chest off
couchSits with self propping
Stands with support Roles over, creep...
months 9
gross motor: Gets in to sitting position alone,crowl
Pulls to standing and standsholding on
 vision and fine mot...
months 12
gross motor: Stands, and walks with
one handheld
vision and fine motor: Mature pincer graspGives
bricks to exami...
month 15
gross motor Walks independently and
stoops to pick up objects
vision and fine motor: Builds a tower of two
cubes
...
(;years ( 24 mo 2
gross motor: Runs up and down stairs one
step at a time
 vision and fine motor: Scribbles with a pencil...
( ;year’s ( 36 mo 3

gross motor: ; Rides tricycle, stands momentarily on
.one foot
.vision and

fine motor:; copies a cir...
(;years (48 mo 4

gross motor; Hops on one foot, uses scissors to cut out
.pictures
vision and fine motor; Copies circle a...
(;year ( 60 mo 5
.gross motor; Skips

.vision and fine motor; copies a triangle, names heavier of two weig

Hearing&Langua...
Motor Skills-Summary
Age 3-tricycle, copies circle
Age 4-hops, copies square
Age 5-skips, copies triangle
school age
During school age, evidence of developmental
progression is predominantly through
cognitive development, abstra...
Adolescence; is a period of development which involves with in
; it
Puberty; which is a biological process in which a chil...
Biological

Psychological

Social

Early adolescence

Early puberty
Females - breast bud, pubic
hair development, start of...
Gross motor development
Prone position
 Birth
Generally flexed posture
 6 weeks
Pelvis flatter
 4 months
Lifts head and...
Head Control

Newborn

Age 6 months
Sitting Up

Age 2 months

Age 8 months
Ambulation

month old 13
Nine to 12-months
02  -development  By dr.khalid hammasalh
02  -development  By dr.khalid hammasalh
02  -development  By dr.khalid hammasalh
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02 -development By dr.khalid hammasalh

  1. 1. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Dr.Khalid Hama ,salih Pediatrics specialist M.B.Ch.; D. C.H F.I.B.M.S.ped
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Development • • • The term 'child development' is used to describe the skill and capacity of function acquired by children between birth and about 5 years of age It is a qualitative change in the child ’s functioning. It can be measured through observation.
  4. 4. By understanding what to expect during each stage of development , parents can easily capture the teachable moments in everyday life to enhance their child's language development, intellectual growth, social development and motor skills.
  5. 5.  NB/Chronological age, physical growth and developmental skills usually evolve hand in hand. Just as there are normal ranges for changes in body size with age, so there are ranges over which new skills are acquired.
  6. 6.    When considering developmental milestones: The median age is the age when half of a standard population of children achieve that level; it serves as a guide to when stages of development are likely to be reached but does not tell us if the child's skills are outside the normal range. Limit ages are the age by which they should have been achieved. Limit ages are usually 2 standard deviations from the mean. They are more useful as a guide to whether a child's development is normal than the median ages
  7. 7. There are four fields of developmental skills to      These are: A. gross motor B. vision and fine motor C. hearing, speech and language D.social, emotional and behavioural.
  8. 8.  Gross motor skills are the most obvious initial area of developmental progress. As fine motor skills require good vision, these are grouped together; similarly, normal speech and language development depends on reasonable hearing and so these are also considered together. Social, emotional and behavioural skills are a spectrum of psychological development
  9. 9.     gross motor development: an explosion of skills during the first year of life ,large muscle vision and fine motor development: more evident acquisition of skills from 1 year onwards hearing, speech and language: a big expansion of skills from 18 months social, emotional and behavioural development: expansion in skills is most obvious from 2.5 years.
  10. 10. PEDIATRIC ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS  DENVER DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TEST(DDST)   BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT(BSID) PEABODY MOTOR SCALES GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURES (GMFM) 
  11. 11. Birth • Gross motor:The newborn's movement are random, diffuse and uncoordinated. Complete head lag • Visio&Fine motor. Holds hand in fist • Bright lights appear to be unpleasant to newborn infant.Follow objects in line of vision Hearing &speech:The newborn infant responds to sounds with either cry or eye movement, cessation of activity and / or startle reaction. •
  12. 12.  Social:The newborn infant expresses his emotion just through cry for hunger, pain or discomfort sensation.
  13. 13. 8weeks -6  gross motor :Pelvis flatter HeadControldeveloping but head noding Curved back, needs support  vision and fine motor : Follows moving objects 180 degre hearing,& speech :listens to voice and coos  Social: Smiles on social contact
  14. 14. months 4   gross motor Lifts head and shoulders with weight on forearms no head lag when pulled to sitting position, vision and fine motor reaches for and grasps objects andHolds a rattle and shakesPurposefully brings them to mouth  hearing,& speech :Laughs out loud, exited at sight of food, may show displeasure Social : social contact i  
  15. 15. months 6 gross motor Arms extended supporting chest off couchSits with self propping Stands with support Roles over, creep-crawls  vision and fine motor Reaches for and grasps large objects, transfers object from Hand to hand    Hearing,& speech forms polysyllabic vowel sounds Social: Prefers mother, responds to changes in emotional content of social contact
  16. 16. months 9 gross motor: Gets in to sitting position alone,crowl Pulls to standing and standsholding on  vision and fine motor: grasps objects with thumb and forefinger (Immature pincer grasp Hearing,& speech :Double babble: dada mama baba Social :responds to sound of name,waves bye bye
  17. 17. months 12 gross motor: Stands, and walks with one handheld vision and fine motor: Mature pincer graspGives bricks to examiner Hearing,& speech says a few words besides mama and dada Social : plays simple ball games, makes postural  adjustments to dressing 
  18. 18. month 15 gross motor Walks independently and stoops to pick up objects vision and fine motor: Builds a tower of two cubes Hearing,& speech 10 words ;No Ta Teddy Bed Dog, Bottle Social : Drinks from a cup
  19. 19. (;years ( 24 mo 2 gross motor: Runs up and down stairs one step at a time  vision and fine motor: Scribbles with a pencil  Hearing,& speech Linking two words Daddy gone, Teddy's tired Social : Toilet trained by day Spoon-feeding  self 
  20. 20. ( ;year’s ( 36 mo 3 gross motor: ; Rides tricycle, stands momentarily on .one foot .vision and fine motor:; copies a circle imitates a cross .Hearing,& speech knows age and sex, counts three objects correctly Social; plays simple games with other children, washes .Dresses self (except buttons)hands
  21. 21. (;years (48 mo 4 gross motor; Hops on one foot, uses scissors to cut out .pictures vision and fine motor; Copies circle and square, draws a man with 2 to 4 parts .besides head Hearing&Language; counts up to4 accurately, .tells story Social; plays with several children with the beginning ,of role play goes to toilet alone
  22. 22. (;year ( 60 mo 5 .gross motor; Skips .vision and fine motor; copies a triangle, names heavier of two weig Hearing&Languag; Repeats sentences of 10 syllables , counts 10 p .correctly Social; dresses and undresses, asks questions about meaning of .words
  23. 23. Motor Skills-Summary Age 3-tricycle, copies circle Age 4-hops, copies square Age 5-skips, copies triangle
  24. 24. school age During school age, evidence of developmental progression is predominantly through cognitive development, abstract thinking and , skills of conceptualisation 
  25. 25. Adolescence; is a period of development which involves with in ; it Puberty; which is a biological process in which a child becomes .an adult These changes include; development of secondary sexual characteristic, increase to adult size and development of .reproductive capacity .Adolescence has 3 stage; Early, middle, and late ;
  26. 26. Biological Psychological Social Early adolescence Early puberty Females - breast bud, pubic hair development, start of growth spurt Males-testicular enlargement, start of genital growth Concrete thinking but begin to develop moral concepts and awareness of their sexual identity The early emotional separation from parents, start of a strong peer identification, early exploratory behaviours, e.g. may start smoking Mid-adolescence Females - end of growth spurt, menarche, change in body shape Males - sperm production, voice breaks, start of growth spurtAcneBlushing Need for more sleep Abstract thinking, but still seen as 'bulletproof', increasing verbal dexterity, may develop a fervent (ideology (religious, political Continuing emotional separation from parents, heterosexual peer interest, early vocational plans Late adolescence Males - end of puberty, continued growth in height, strength and body hair Complex abstract thinking identification of difference between law and morality, increased impulse control, further development of personal identity, further development or rejection of ideologies Social autonomy, may develop intimate relationships, further education or employment, may begin or develop financial independence
  27. 27. Gross motor development Prone position  Birth Generally flexed posture  6 weeks Pelvis flatter  4 months Lifts head and shoulders with weight on forearms  6 months Arms extended supporting chest off couch  Pull to sit Birth Complete head lag  6 weeks Head control Developing  4 months No head lag 
  28. 28. Head Control Newborn Age 6 months
  29. 29. Sitting Up Age 2 months Age 8 months
  30. 30. Ambulation month old 13 Nine to 12-months

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