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# Measuring instruments

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### Measuring instruments

1. 1. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS What is meant by measurement? • Types of instruments 1. Absolute instruments 2. Secondary instruments indicating integrating recording
2. 2. • Absolute instrument:
3. 3. • Indicationg instruments: Indicating instruments indicate the value of the electrical quantity to be measured generally by the deflection of the pointer on the calibrated scale. e.g.- voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter • Essential system of Indicating Instruments: 1. A deflection system 2. A controlling system 3. A damping system
4. 4. Deflection system: It is that part of the instrument mechanism which utilize some physical effect of electric current or voltage to produce a mechanical force. This deflection or force causes the system along with the pointer attached to it to move from it’s zero position. The magnetude of the deflection force(deflection of pointer) depents on the value of electrical quantity to be measured.
5. 5. Control systems: It is that part of the instrument which brings into play a force called controlling force. This force opposes the deflection force and increases with the increase in the deflection of the moving system, to limit its movement. The pointer is brought to rest at a position where the two opposing forces i.e. deflection and controlling forces are equal. Types of control system: 1. Spring control 2. Gravity control
6. 6. Spring control (diagram):
7. 7. Spring control: It utilizes two spiral hairsprings of non magnetic alloy such as phosphorousbronze or beryllium-copper. The springs are oppositly wound so when the moving system deflects, one spring winds up while the outer unwind thus the controlling torque is produce by the combined torsion of spring, since the torsional torque is praportional to the angle of twist, the controlling torque is directly praportional to the angular deflection of pointer. Scale of spring control type instruments is uniform. Td α I, Also Tc α Ɵ At final deflection or steady state position: Tc = Td Therefore Ɵ α I
8. 8. Gravity Control (Diagram):
9. 9. Gravity control: In this a small adjustable weight is attached to the moving system(pointer) in such a way that in deflection condition it produces a restoring or controlling torque. Weight W1 provides the controlling torque, W2 is for balancing the weight of the pointer. Tc = W1 sinƟ x L =W1L sinƟ Thus Tc α sinƟ As Td α I Tc α sinƟ At steady state position deflection torque=controlling torque Thus Iα sinƟ Thus the scale of the gravity control type instrunts is nonuniform
10. 10. Damping system: It is that part of the instrument which provides damping force to damp the oscillations of the pointer before come to a rest. Because of the inertia, the pointer of the instrument oscillate about its final deflected position for some time before coming to rest. This causes the waste of time in taking reading, thus damping force act as a brake to prevent the oscillations of the moving system and brings the pointer to it’s final deflected position quickly. There are three types of damping instruments: 1.Critical damp- Pointer rises quickly to its final position without oscillation.
11. 11. 2.Under damp- oscillations of the system will not be completely preventated. 3.Over damp: In this the response of the system is slow and lethargic. Damping curves:
12. 12. Methods of damping: 1. Air friction or pneumatic damping 2. Eddy current or electromagnetic damping 3. Fluid friction damping • Air friction or pneumatic damping:
13. 13. Air Friction or Pneumatic Damping: • In this system a light aluminium piston is attached to the spindle of the instrument and is arranged to move in a fix air chamber closed at one end. The cross section of the chamber may be either circular or rectangular and the clearance between the piston and the side of the chamber is small and uniform. Compression and suction action of the piston on the air in the chamber damp the possible oscillations of moving system, because the motion of the piston in either direction is oppose by the air. • In second case a thin aluminium vane, mounted on the spindle, moves with very small clearance in a sector shaped box. Any tendency of the moving system to oscillate is damped by the action of the air on vane.
14. 14. Eddy current damping:
15. 15. Eddy current damping: • It is the most efficient type of the damping • In this a thin disc usually of copper or aluminium is mounted on the spindle. When this disc moves in the magnetic field of permanent magnet, line of force are cut and eddy current are set up in it. • The force that exists between these current and magnetic field is always in the direction opposing the motion and therefore, provide necessary damping. • The magnitude of the induce current and therefore of the damping force which is dependent on it, is directly proportional to the velocity of moving system.
16. 16. Fluid friction damping:
17. 17. Fluid friction damping: • In this method of damping, a light disc is attached to the spindle of the moving system and completely submerge in the damping oil in a pot. • The motion of the disc is always opposed by a frictional drag on the disc. This frictional drag is zero when the disc is stationary and increases with the speed of the rotation of the disc. • For increase damping, vanes in a vertical planes, carried on a spindle and immersed in oil are used. • Fluid friction damping can only be used in the instruments which are use in the vertical position.
18. 18. Ammeter and voltmeter Types of ammeter and voltmeter 1. Permanent magnet moving coil type (P.M.M.C.) 2. Moving iron (M.I.) Attraction type Repulsion type
19. 19. Permanent magnet moving coil ammeter and voltmeter
20. 20. PMMC…………. • Principle of Operation: When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force and tends to move in the direction as per Fleming’s left hand rule. Fleming left hand rule: If the first and the second finger and the thumb of the left hand are held so that they are at right angle to each other, then the thumb shows the direction of the force on the conductor, the first finger points towards the direction of the magnetic field and the second finger shows the direction of the current in the wire.
21. 21. Construction: • A coil of thin wire is mounted on an aluminum frame (spindle) positioned between the poles of a U shaped permanent magnet which is made up of magnetic alloys like alnico. • The coil is pivoted on the jewelled bearing and thus the coil is free to rotate. The current is fed to the coil through spiral springs which are two in numbers. The coil which carries a current, which is to be measured, moves in a strong magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and a pointer is attached to the spindle which shows the measured value.
22. 22. PMMC instruments internal structure
23. 23. Working: • When a current flow through the coil, it generates a magnetic field which is proportional to the current in case of an ammeter. The deflecting torque is produced by the electromagnetic action of the current in the coil and the magnetic field. • The controlling torque is provided by two phosphorous bronze flat coiled helical springs. These springs serve as a flexible connection to the coil conductors. • Damping is caused by the eddy current set up in the aluminum coil which prevents the oscillation of the coil.
24. 24. Torque Equation
25. 25. Applications: The PMMC has a variety of uses onboard ship. It can be used as: 1) Ammeter: • When PMMC is used as an ammeter, except for a very small current range, the moving coil is connected across a suitable low resistance shunt, so that only small part of the main current flows through the coil. • The shunt consists of a number of thin plates made up of alloy metal, which is usually magnetic and has a low temperature coefficient of resistance, fixed between two massive blocks of copper. A resistor of same alloy is also placed in series with the coil to reduce errors due to temperature variation.
26. 26. ammeter
27. 27. Applications……….. • Voltmeter: When PMMC is used as a voltmeter, the coil is connected in series with high resistance. Rest of the function is same as above. The same moving coil can be used as an ammeter or voltmeter with an interchange of above arrangement
28. 28. Applications……….. • Galvanometer: Galvanometer is used to measure small value of current along with its direction and strength. It is mainly used onboard to detect and compare different circuits in a system
29. 29. Applications………. • Ohm Meter: The ohm meter is used to measure resistance of the electric circuit by applying a voltage to a resistance with the help of battery. A galvanometer is used to determine the flow of current through the resistance. The galvanometer scale is marked in ohms and as the resistance varies, since the voltage is fixed, the current through the meter will also vary.
30. 30. Advantages: • The PMMC consumes less power and has great accuracy. • It has uniformly divided scale and can cover arc of 270 degree. • The PMMC has a high torque to weight ratio. • It can be modified as ammeter or voltmeter with suitable resistance. • It has efficient damping characteristics and is not affected by stray magnetic field. • It produces no losses due to hysteresis.
31. 31. Disadvantage: • The moving coil instrument can only be used on D.C supply as the reversal of current produces reversal of torque on the coil. • It’s very delicate and sometimes uses ac circuit with a rectifier. • It’s costly as compared to moving coil iron instruments. • It may show error due to loss of magnetism of permanent magnet.
32. 32. Moving Iron Instruments – Voltmeter and Ammeter Construction and basic principle operation of moving-iron instruments Moving-iron instruments are generally used to measure alternating voltages and currents. In moving-iron instruments the movable system consists of one or more pieces of specially-shaped soft iron, which are so pivoted as to be acted upon by the magnetic field produced by the current in coil. There are two general types of moving-iron instruments namely: 1. Repulsion (or double iron) type 2. Attraction (or single-iron) type
33. 33. The brief description of different components of a moving-iron instrument is given below: • Moving element: a small piece of soft iron in the form of a vane or rod. • Coil: to produce the magnetic field due to current flowing through it and also to magnetize the iron pieces. • In repulsion type, a fixed vane or rod is also used and magnetized with the same polarity. • Control torque is provided by spring or weight (gravity). • Damping torque is normally pneumatic, the damping device consisting of an air chamber and a moving vane attached to the instrument spindle. • Deflecting torque produces a movement on an aluminum pointer over a graduated scale.
34. 34. Repulsion type:
35. 35. Attraction type:
36. 36. Working: The deflecting torque in any moving-iron instrument is due to forces on a small piece of magnetically ‘soft’ iron that is magnetized by a coil carrying the operating current. In repulsion type moving–iron instrument consists of two cylindrical soft iron vanes mounted within a fixed current- carrying coil. One iron vane is held fixed to the coil frame and other is free to rotate, carrying with it the pointer shaft. Two irons lie in the magnetic field produced by the coil that consists of only few turns if the instrument is an ammeter or of many turns if the instrument is a voltmeter.
37. 37. Working: Current in the coil induces both vanes to become magnetized and repulsion between the similarly magnetized vanes produces a proportional rotation. The deflecting torque is proportional to the square of the current in the coil, making the instrument reading is a true ‘RMS’ quantity Rotation is opposed by a hairspring that produces the restoring torque. Only the fixed coil carries load current, and it is constructed so as to withstand high transient current. Moving iron instruments having scales that are nonlinear and somewhat crowded in the lower range of calibration
38. 38. Application: Measurement of Electric Voltage and Current • Moving iron instruments are used as Voltmeter and Ammeter only. • Both can work on AC as well as on DC. Ammeter: • Instrument used to measure current in the circuit. • Always connected in series with the circuit and carries the current to be measured. • This current flowing through the coil produces the desired deflecting torque. • It should have low resistance as it is to be connected in series.
39. 39. Application: Voltmeter • Instrument used to measure voltage between two points in a circuit. • Always connected in parallel. • Current flowing through the operating coil of the meter produces deflecting torque. • It should have high resistance. Thus a high resistance of order of kilo ohms is connected in series with the coil of the instrument
40. 40. Advantages: • The instruments are suitable for use in AC and DC circuits. • The instruments are robust, owing to the simple construction of the moving parts. • The stationary parts of the instruments are also simple. • Instrument is low cost compared to moving coil instrument. • Torque/weight ratio is high, thus less frictional error.
41. 41. Errors: • Error due to variation in temperature. • Error due to friction is quite small as torque-weight ratio is high in moving coil instruments. • Stray fields cause relatively low values of magnetizing force produced by the coil. Efficient magnetic screening is essential to reduce this effect. • Error due to variation of frequency causes change of reactance of the coil and also changes the eddy currents induced in neighbouring metal. • Deflecting torque is not exactly proportional to the square of the current due to non-linear characteristics of iron material.