Fixed wing aircrafts power point presentation


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Fixed wing aircrafts power point presentation

  1. 1. AIRCRAFTS  An aircraft is a machine which can derive it’s support in the atmosphere from the reaction of air against earth surface, either heavier or lighter than air which includes balloons (fixed or free), airships, kites, gliders and other flying machines.
  2. 2. AIRCRAFTS Aerostates Aerodynes Lighter than air. Aerostat is a craft that remains aloft primarily through the use of buoyant lighter than air gases, which impart lift to a vehicle with nearly the same overall density as air hot air balloons. Heavier than air. Any heavier-than-air craft that derives its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces, such as the conventional airplane, glider, or helicopter. e. g.- airships.
  3. 3. AERODYNES Fixed dynes Rotor dynes The wings are fixed and hence called FIXED WING AIRCRAFTS. The wings are rotary and hence called ROTOR WING AIRCRAFTS.
  4. 4. FIXED WING AIRCRAFTS Powered aircrafts Unpowered aircrafts Unpowered aircraft are a group of aerial vehicles that can fly without onboard propulsion. They can be classified as gliders, balloons and kites. A powered aircraft is an aircraft that uses onboard propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine of some kind. Aircraft propulsion nearly always uses either a type of propeller, or a form of jet propulsion. Other potential propulsion techniques such as ornithopters are very rarely used.
  5. 5. Fixed wing aircrafts A fixed wing aircraft, typically called an aeroplane, airplane or simply plane, is an aircraft, capable of flight using forward motion that generates lift as the wing moves through the air.  Most fixed wing aircrafts are flown by a pilot or board the aircraft, but some are designed to be designed remotely or computer controlled.
  6. 6. Fixed wing aircrafts based on sets of wing According to sets of wing, fixed aircrafts are of three types. a) Monoplane b) Biplane c) Tri plane
  7. 7. MONOPLANE o A monoplane is a fixed wing aircraft of one main set of wing surface.
  8. 8. BIPLANE  A biplane is a fixed wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above other.
  9. 9. Triplane  A tri plane is a fixed wing aircraft equipped with three vertical stacked wing surfaces.
  10. 10. Types of fixed wing aircrafts based on position of wing According to position of wing fixed wing aircrafts are of three types. a) Low wing aircrafts b) Mid wing aircrafts c) High wing aircrafts
  11. 11. Low wing aircraft o This category is for aircrafts with the wings mounted at the bottom or below the fuselage. • Dihedral wing at the lower position gives the aircraft more stability.
  12. 12. Mid wing aircrafts This category is for aircrafts with the wings mounted at the mid point of the fuselage.
  13. 13. High wing aircrafts This category is for the aircrafts with the wings mounted above the fuselage. • Anhedral wings gives the aircraft less stability.
  14. 14. Aircrafts based on types of wing I. Straight wing II. Tapered wing III. Elliptical wing IV. Sweep back wing V. Sweep forward wing VI. Delta wing( triangular or arrow )
  15. 15. Aircrafts based on tail configuration a) T- tail b) H-tail c) V-tail d) Canard design (horizontal tail plane is ahead of main plane.) e) No tail( fly wing or delta wing. )
  16. 16. Motion of aircraft  The aircraft has three axes such as A. Longitudinal axis B. Lateral axis C. Normal axis or transverse axis  about these three axes it has six degrees of freedom.
  17. 17. PITCHING MOTION  Nose up or nose down movement of the aircraft is called pitching. It is a rotational motion of aircraft about it’s lateral axis. The pitching motion is controlled by the elevator. For operating the elevator there is a control stick provided at the cockpit.  Pitching is positive when nose up & tail down and vice versa.
  18. 18. ROLLING MOTION  It is a rotational motion of aircraft about it’s longitudinal axis. During rolling ,one wing goes up and other goes down. It is controlled by aileron.  Rolling is positive when it is clockwise negative when it is anti clock wise.( towards left )
  19. 19. YAWING MOTION  It is a rotational motion of aircraft about the normal axis. The movement of aircraft towards right or left is called yawing. It is controlled by rudder.  Rudder deflects to right , nose moves to left and tail moves to right.
  20. 20. AERODYNAMIC FORCES 1) WAIGHT- It is the force caused by the gravitational attraction of earth. 2) LIFT- It is a mechanical force generated by a solid object moving through a fluid. 3) DRAG- It is the component of a resultant aerodynamic force which is parallel to the motion of aircraft and act in the direction of relative wind or opposite to the direction of motion of the aircraft. 4) THRUST- It is a propulsive force which is generated to make the aircraft moving forward.
  21. 21. FLAP  These are the inward hinged portion of the wing towards the trailing edge. They can only deflects downwards. In some cases, they can be outward and rearward. Flaps are used or deployed only during low speed flight to increase the lifting capacity of the wing. It is a high lift device.
  22. 22. Aileron  An aileron is a flight control surface usually attached to the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll, or movement around the aircraft's longitudinal axis, which normally results in a change in heading due to the tilting of the lift vector is a hinged .
  23. 23. Rudder  A rudder is a device used to steer a aircraft that moves through a medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag.
  24. 24. Elevons  Elevons are aircraft control surfaces that combine the functions of the elevator (used for pitch control) and the aileron (used for roll control), hence the name. They are frequently used on tailless aircraft such as flying wings. An elevon that is not part of the main wing, but instead is a separate tail surface, is a stabilator (but stabilators are also used for pitch control only, with no roll function, as on the Piper Cherokee series of aircraft). The word "elevon" is a portmanteau of elevator and aileron.
  25. 25. Flaperons  A flaperon is a type of aircraft control surface that combines aspects of both flaps and ailerons. In addition to controlling the roll or bank of an aircraft, as do conventional ailerons, both flaperons can be lowered together to function similarly to a dedicated set of flaps. Both ailerons could also be raised, which would give spoilerons.
  26. 26. Ruddervators  In aircraft, a V-tail (sometimes called a Butterfly tail or spelled Vee-tail) is an unconventional arrangement of the tail control surfaces that replaces the traditional fin and horizontal surfaces with two surfaces set in a V-shaped configuration when viewed from the front or rear of the aircraft. The rear of each surface is hinged, and these movable sections, sometimes called ruddervators, combine the tasks of the elevators and rudder.
  27. 27. Aerofoil  An aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section.  An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag.
  28. 28. Types of aerofoil  Semi-symmetrical Airfoil: Most of the full size planes have this type installed. Its thinner than the symmetrical airfoil and has lesser drag. It has a fully curved top and a half curved bottom.  Symmetrical Airfoil: They are curved on both sides, equally. Generate high lifts with change in speed and power. They are generally thick and hence are very strong. The plane maintains its altitude with change in speed.  Flat Bottom Airfoil: Flat bottoms are usually seen in trainer flights. They look extremely thin. Its bottom is flat and top is curved. Flat bottom's are speed sensitive. They are similar to symmetrical airfoils. When power and speed is added it produces great lift  Supersonic Airfoil: A supersonic airfoil is used to generate lift at supersonic speeds. Its need arises when an aircraft is operated consistently in supersonic range.  Supercritical Airfoil: A supercritical is designed to delay the drag in the transonic speed rangeare a few to name. A supercritical is designed to delay the drag in the transonic speed range. They have a flat upper surface, a highly cambered aft and a greater leading edge radius.
  29. 29. Fuselage  A fuselage is a long, thin body, usually with tapered or rounded ends to make its shape aerodynamically smooth. The fuselage may contain the flight crew, passengers, cargo or payload, fuel and engines. The pilots of manned aircraft operate them from a cockpit located at the front or top of the fuselage and equipped with controls and usually windows and instruments. A plane may have more than one fuselage, or it may be fitted with booms with the tail located between the booms to allow the extreme rear of the fuselage to be useful for a variety of purposes.
  30. 30. Structure of fixed wing  Kites and some light weight gliders and aeroplanes have flexible wing surfaces which are stretched across a frame and made rigid by the lift forces exerted by the airflow over them. Larger aircraft have rigid wing surfaces which provide additional strength.  Whether flexible or rigid, most wings, have a strong frame to give them their shape and to transfer lift from the wing surface to the rest of the aircraft. The main structural elements are one or more spars running from root to tip, and many ribs running from the leading (front) to the trailing (rear) edge.  Early aeroplane engines had little power and light weight was very important. Also, early aerofoil sections were very thin, and could not have strong frame installed within. So until the 1930s most wings were too light weight to have enough strength and external bracing struts and wires were added. When the available engine power increased during the 1920s and 1930s, wings could be made heavy and strong enough that bracing was not needed any more. This type of unbraced wing is called a cantilever wing.
  31. 31. Function of fixed wing  A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA). The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed-wing aircraft, which usually "banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight. An aircraft is usually streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to keep the sideslip angle near zero, though there are instances when an aircraft may be deliberately "sides lipped" for example a slip in a fixed- wing aircraft .Fixed-wing transport aircraft are defined in terms of their range capability as strategic airlift or tactical airlift to reflect the needs of the land forces which they most often support. These roughly correspond to the commercial flight length distinctions needed.
  32. 32. THANK YOU