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Synthesis - Deconstructivism in Architecture


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A preliminary discussion about Deconstructivist style in Architecture, to support Architectural Thesis " The Forum - Design Museum".
This theory was initiated by French Philosopher Jacques Derrida.

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Synthesis - Deconstructivism in Architecture

  1. 1. A LITTLE CONTRIBUTION…… As Post-Modernism became increasingly commercialized andappropriated by developers in the overheated construction market inEurope and America in the early 1980s, a new architectural average gradebecame increasingly restless, and the public began to expect somethingnew. Post - Modernism fell victim to the consumer mentality it celebrated,only able to manage a lifecycle half as long as that of the modern canon itoriginally sought to displace. It was displaced by Deconstructivism, inwhich the pattern that Post-Modernism had established of using a polemicto explain and promote both built and unbuilt work was repeated with asubtle twist. So, this is my little contribution on understandingcontemporary art, especially architecture and design. It is not written forarchitects and designers (they are supposed to already know that), but fornormal people who want to know something more about whats going onnow in architecture and understand it. So I have to warn experts and"experts" that some simplifications are necessary, but basically the point isthere. Balanced, hierarchical relationship between forms creates anunified whole. Pure forms were used to produce "impure", skewed,geometric compositions placed in conflict to produced an unstable,restless geometry. Similarly, Deconstructivism sought to challenge thevalues of harmony, unity, and stability, and proposed the view that theflaws are intrinsic to the structure. MUKUND D. MUNDHADA
  3. 3. What I feel is if someone wants to think and feel about Deconstructivism, theperson will have to stare at Constructivism. Because, in any ways,Deconstructivism is the forthfollowing stage of Constructivism. So, shall we? . .CONSTRUCTIVISMDEFINITIONConstructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, byreflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of theworld we live in. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mentalmodels,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning,therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models toaccommodate new experiences. There are several guiding principles of constructivism:1.Learning is a search for meaning. Therefore, learning must start with theissues around which people are actively trying to construct meaning.2.Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts. And partsmust be understood in the context of wholes. Therefore, the learningprocess focuses on primary concepts, not isolated facts.3.In order to teach well, we must understand the mental models thatstudents use to perceive the world and the assumptions they make tosupport those models.4.The purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her ownmeaning, not just memorize the “right” answers and regurgitate someoneelse’s meaning. Since education is inherently interdisciplinary, the onlyvaluable way to measure learning is to make the assessment part of thelearning process, ensuring it provides people with information on thequality of their learning.
  4. 4. Constructivism is a psychological theory of knowledge i.e.epistemology which argues that humans generate knowledge andmeaning from their experiences. Constructivism is not a specificpedagogy, although it is often confused with Constructionism, aneducational theory developed by Seymour Papert. Piagets theory ofConstructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theoriesand teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of manyeducation reform movements. Research support for constructivistteaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supportingthese techniques and other research contradicting those results.HOW CONSTRUCTIVISM IMPACTS LEARNING? Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardizedcurriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to thestudents’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on makingconnections between facts and fostering new understanding in students.Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses andencourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information.Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promoteextensive dialogue among students.Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing.Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so thatstudents play a larger role in judging their own progress.
  5. 5. There are many Architects who are working in the context ofDeconstructivism all over the world. It started from French philosopherJacques Derrida…..INTRODUCTIONDerrida began speaking and writing publicly at a time when the Frenchintellectual scene was experiencing an increasing rift between what couldbroadly speaking be called "phenomenological" and "structural" approachesto understanding individual and collective life. For those with a morephenomenological bent, the goal was to understand experience bycomprehending and describing its genesis, the process of its emergencefrom an origin or event. For the structuralists, this was precisely the falseproblem, and the "depth" of experience could in fact only be an effect ofstructures which are not themselves experiential. It is in this context that in1959 Derrida asks the question: must not structure have a genesis, and mustnot the origin, the point of genesis, be already structured, in order to be thegenesis of something?In other words, every structural or "synchronic" phenomenon has a history,and the structure cannot be understood without understanding its genesis.At the same time, in order that there be movement, or potential, the origincannot be some pure unity or simplicity, but must already be articulated—complex—such that from it a "diachronic" process can emerge. Thisoriginary complexity must not be understood as an original positing, butmore like a default of origin, which Derrida refers to as iterability, inscription,or textuality. It is this thought of originary complexity, rather than originalpurity, which destabilises the thought of both genesis and structure, thatsets Derridas work in motion, and from which derive all of its terms,including deconstruction…..
  6. 6. DECONSTRUCTIVISM IN ARCHITECTURE It also called as deconstruction, is a development of PostmodernArchitecture that began in the late 1980s. It is characterized by ideas offragmentation, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structures surface orskin, non-rectilinear shapes which serve to distort and dislocate some of theelements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finishedvisual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist"styles" is characterized by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlledchaos. Important events in the history of the deconstructivist movementinclude the 1982 Parc de la Villette architectural design competition(especially the entry from Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman and BernardTschumis winning entry), the Museum of Modern Art’s 1988Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition in New York, organized by PhilipJohnson and Mark Wigley, and the 1989 opening of the Wexner Center forthe Arts in Columbus, designed by Peter Eisenman. The New York exhibitionfeatured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, PeterEisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelb, and Bernard Tschumi. Since theexhibition, many of the architects who were associated withDeconstructivism have distanced themselves from the term. Nonetheless,the term has stuck and has now, in fact, come to embrace a general trendwithin contemporary architecture.
  7. 7. Originally, some of the architects known as Deconstructivists wereinfluenced by the ideas of the FRENCH PHILOSOPHER JACQUES DERRIDA.Eisenman developed a personal relationship with Derrida, but even so hisapproach to architectural design was developed long before he became aDeconstructivist. For him Deconstructivism should be considered anextension of his interest in radical formalism. Some practitioners ofdeconstructivism were also influenced by the formal experimentation andgeometric imbalances of Russian constructivism. There are additionalreferences in deconstructivism to 20th-century movements: themodernism/postmodernism interplay, expressionism, cubism, minimalismand contemporary art. The attempt in deconstructivism throughout is tomove architecture away from what its practitioners see as the constrictingrules of modernism such as "form follows function," "purity of form," and"truth to materials."
  8. 8. JAQUES DERRIDA – THE PIONEER…. Derridas method consisted in demonstrating all the forms and varietiesof this originary complexity, and their multiple consequences in many fields.His way of achieving this was by conducting thorough, careful, sensitive, andyet transformational readings of philosophical and literary texts, with an earto what in those texts runs counter to their Apparent Systematicity (structuralunity) or Intended Sense (authorial genesis). By demonstrating the aporiasand ellipses of thought, Derrida hoped to show the infinitely subtle ways thatthis originary complexity, which by definition cannot ever be completelyknown, works its structuring and destructuring effects. At the very beginning of his philosophical career Derrida was concernedto elaborate a critique of the limits of phenomenology. His first lengthyacademic manuscript, written as a dissertation for his diplôme détudessupérieures and submitted in 1954, concerned the work of Edmund Husserl.In 1962 he published Edmund Husserls Origin of Geometry: An Introduction,which contained his own translation of Husserls essay. Many elements ofDerridas thought were already present in this work. In the interviewscollected in Positions (1972), Derrida said: "In this essay the problematic ofwriting was already in place as such, bound to the irreducible structure ofdeferral in its relationships to consciousness, presence, science, history andthe history of science, the disappearance or delay of the origin, etc. this essaycan be read as the other side (recto or verso, as you wish) of Speech andPhenomena." Derrida first received major attention outside France with his lecture,"Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences“. Theconference at which this paper was delivered was concerned withstructuralism, then at the peak of its influence in France, but only beginningto gain attention in the United States.
  9. 9. Deconstructivism has been the talk of the architecture world forthe last season, the latest trend to excite an increasingly fashion-consciousarchitectural public. To speak the word now is to think less about thearchitecture itself than about the peculiar nature of architectural cultureright now - of late, the word deconstructivism has tended to call to mindtrend and publicity more than any specific buildings. Divorced from all the hoopla, what is deconstructivism itself? It iseasier to say what it is not. It is not post-modernism, which depends heavilyon the re-use of historical elements; neither is it conventional modernism,which aspires toward a cool, ordered rationality. Deconstructivism is highlytheoretical; much of its output exists only in the form of models, and manyof these designs are so self-consciously bizarre that they are not likely everto move into the realm of real buildings. If there is any way to summarizethis new approach, it would be to say that its proponents want to changeour fundamental perceptions of buildings. They do not accept theconventions of architectural culture - floors, walls, windows, doors, andornamentation. Neither are they comfortable with conventionalgeometries, or traditional architectural space. Deconstructivism is not scenographic, or picturesque, or pretty. Tothe contrary, it can be not a little harsh and mean. The style, if it can becalled a style, owes a major debt - and certainly its name - to RussianConstructivism, the approach that reached its height in the 1920s. Itspractitioners attempted to create forms that intensified our perceptions ofbasic geometries and structures.
  10. 10. Deconstructivism, meanwhile, maintains a level of self-criticism, as well asexternal criticism and tends towards maintaining a level of complexity.Some architects identified with the movement, notably Frank Gehry, haveactively rejected the classification of their work as deconstructivist.TheGuggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry on the Nervión River indowntown Bilbao, Spain. Critics of deconstructivism see it as a purely formal exercise withlittle social significance. Kenneth Frampton finds it "elitist and detached.“Other criticisms are similar to those of deconstructivist philosophy—thatsince the act of deconstruction is not an empirical process, it can result inwhatever an architect wishes, and it thus suffers from a lack of consistency.Today there is a sense that the philosophical underpinnings of the beginningof the movement have been lost, and all that is left is the aesthetic ofdeconstruction. Other criticisms reject the premise that architecture is alanguage capable of being the subject of linguistic philosophy, or, if it was alanguage in the past, critics claim it is no longer. Others question thewisdom and impact on future generations of an architecture that rejects thepast and presents no clear values as replacements and which often pursuesstrategies that are intentionally aggressive to human senses. At the end, deconstructivism is more likely to take its place in thehistory of theoretical architecture than in the pantheon of major styles. Itis a correction in the architectural culture, and in some ways a valuableone, given post-modernisms love of what is lush and indulgent. But if theresponse to this is only to be the hermetic approach of deconstructivism,then the movement will be remembered more for its sound and fury thanfor anything else - not as a phenomenon that has enlarged the possibilitiesof architecture, but one that has narrowed them…………
  11. 11. For this reason, there must be a generation style which would helpthe designer to provide the design a better detailed quality. So, there isthe new Generating Profile which, for sure, plays a vital role in designinga complex monument or even structure which results in the uniqueproduct. This method includes various styles which could be used as perthe design asks…. But What method, what system, should an architect use to design abuilding? How are programmatic needs and context – with their degreesof freedom and constraints – translated into architectural design? Regardless of their complexity, the tasks and decisions involved canbe formalized as an algorithm. As such, algorithms provide a frameworkfor articulating and defining both input data and procedures. Thisformalization can promote structure and coherency, while systemicallymaintaining full traceability of all input data. Algorithms’ output can nowbe directly visualized, enabling their use as a generative design tool. Sincealgorithms provide the benefits of scalability and permutability, multiplevariations of a scheme are easily generated. A slight tweaking of inputs orprocess leads to an instant adaptation of output. The question arises towhat extent the codification of a process through an algorithm has theability to influence and alter the process itself. Can the structure,grammar, and logic of the language used to depict the algorithm have arelevance as per the design, and can elements of this logic be embeddedinto the architecture? Can the language itself provide a basis forarchitecture?
  12. 12. The Building Algorithm...
  33. 33. ………STYLES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE During the 1960s modernist architecture was still awidespread and powerful force. Buildings in the modernist stylewere part of the environment of virtually every urban area inAmerica, and new ones were being erected every day. Although itwas becoming increasingly evident that modernism had failed tomeet its idealistic goals of raising the human spirit, it was still abasically good style and method in which to construct buildings.However, by the 1960s the modernist style began to be recognizedas just one of many possible approaches. Throughout the decadearchitects began to branch out in various directions. The Modernist Influence
  37. 37. There are many Architects who are working in the context ofDeconstructivism all over the world. It started from French philosopherJacques Derrida….. ZAHA HADID has undertaken some high-profile interiorwork,too,including the Mind Zone at the Millennium Dome in London.Ongoing projects include: The 20,000-seat Aquatics Centre for London, oneof the new venues being constructed for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Whileshe was previously slated for work in the Docklands area of Melbourne, ithas since been announced that architect Norman Foster will be designing itinstead. The MAXXI (National Museum of the 21st Century Arts) in Rome.The Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Baku, Azerbaijan. —Zaha Hadid. An Iraqi born British citizen has been chosen as the 2004 Laureate of the Pritzker Architecture Prize marking the first time a woman has been named for this 26 year old award. Hadid, who is 53, has completed one project in the United States, the Richard and Lois Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in Cincinnati, Ohio; and is currently developing another to co-exist with a Frank Lloyd Wright structure, the Price Tower Arts Center in Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
  38. 38. ZAHA HADID was born October 31, 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. Shereceived a degree in Mathematics from the American University of Beirutbefore moving to study at the Architectural Association School ofArchitecture in London. After graduating she worked with her formerteachers, Rem Koolhaas and Elia Zenghelis at the Office for MetropolitanArchitecture, becoming a partner in 1977. It was with Koolhaas that she metPeter Rice who gave her support and encouragement early on, at a timewhen her work seemed difficult to build. In 1980 she established her ownLondon-based practice. During the 1980s she also taught at the ArchitecturalAssociation. She has also taught at prestigious institutions around the world;she held the Kenzo Tange Chair at the Graduate School of Design, HarvardUniversity, the Sullivan Chair at the University of Illinois School ofArchitecture in Chicago, guest professorships at the Hochschule für BildendeKünste in Hamburg, the Knolton School of Architecture, at the Ohio StateUniversity, the Masters Studio at Columbia University, New York and the EeroSaarinen Visiting Professor of Architectural Design at Yale University, NewHaven, Connecticut. In addition, she was made Honorary Member of theAmerican Academy of Arts and Letters and Fellow of the American Instituteof Architects. She is currently Professor at the University of Applied ArtsVienna in Austria. Theoretically influential and groundbreaking, a number ofHadids winning designs were initially never built: notably, The Peak Club inHong Kong (1983) and the Cardiff Bay Opera House in Wales (1994). In 2002Hadid won the international design competition to design Singapores one-north masterplan. In 2005, her design won the competition for the new citycasino of Basel, Switzerland. In 2004 Hadid became the first female recipientof the Pritzker Architecture Prize, architectures equivalent of the NobelPrize. Previously, she had been awarded a CBE for services to architecture.
  40. 40. LILIUM TOWER, WARSAW... The proposed addition to the Warsaw skyline is a light, transparent structure with a strong sense of identity and character. Rising to a height of 240 meters, the tower’s slender form complements the Palace of Culture and other towers in the vicinity, creating its own distinctive profile within an emerging cluster of tall buildings. With a gross area of 101,205m2 the tower comprises of 72,027m2 of leasable area; consisting of luxury residential apartments and an apartment hotel. The scheme also offers positive gains to the public realm by improving the existing public space on the lower ground level. The scheme is notable for its progressive energy strategy. The low-energy services are designed to cope with the extremes of the local climate. The design of the Lilium Tower also reflects the economic importance of structure in relation to a tower of this height. A central core forms the backbone of the structure.
  41. 41. Whilst this arrangement is highly economical it offers uninterrupted views ofWarsaw in all directions. The composition of the Lilium Tower creates aprogressive and prestigious residential building for the 21st century. TheLilium Tower comprises of an apartment hotel, residential apartments, spafacilities, underground retail area with an adjacent exterior mall, restaurant,and underground parking. On the ground floor, four separate lobbies enabledistinct access to the hotel, apartments, restaurant and delivery area.Access and ApproachThe various programmatic elements that make up the new Lilium Towerrequire several access and exit points including, a car drop-off, a dedicatedpedestrian entrance to and from the underground car park and loading bay.Vehicular AccessThe underground car parks for the new Lilium Tower and the existing MarriottTower are separated and accessible via two detached ramps fromNowogrodzkaStreet. The new ramp serving the Lilium Tower car park is located just southof the Marriott podium and in line with the existing Marriot car park ramp. AtJerozolimskie Avenue there will be a drop-off area. The existing Marriott carpark ramp will also be utilized for accessing the loading bay area, which islocated on the lower ground level.Pedestrian AccessThe main access to the tower is on the ground floor level. The lobby is doubleheight with, the reception desk just to the right of the entrance. The schemeproposes to separate entrances for the residential apartment and hotellobbies, as well as the restaurant and delivery area (emergency exit).
  42. 42. THE OPUS BUILDING ,DUBAI …. On 22 May, 2007, Omniyat Properties andZaha Hadid Architects revealed the Opus, amixed-use commercial and retail developmentlocated in the Business Bay district of Dubai. The Opus is a fluid, spatial building that refutes traditional definitions of office functionality. Constructed of three separate towers the building will appear as a singular unified whole, that hovers from the ground, with a distinctive free form void. The interiors of which will be clad with a fully engineered curved glass curtain wall to allow for eye-catching views into the void. Reflexive fritting patterns in the form of pixilated striations will be applied onto the glass facade to provide a degree of reflectivity and materiality to the cube while assisting in the reduction of solar gains inside the building.
  44. 44. 2012 LONDON OLYMPICS -- AQUATICS CENTRE.. On 22 May, 2007, Omniyat Propertiesand Zaha Hadid Architects revealed the Opus,a mixed-use commercial and retaildevelopment located in the Business Baydistrict of Dubai. The Zaha Hadid designed Aquatics Centre is located in the south of the Olympic Park and will be the main ‘Gateway into the Games’, hosting Swimming, Diving, Water polo finals and the swimming discipline of the Modern Pentathlon. The Aquatics Centre will have a capacity of 17,500 during the Games, reducing to a maximum of 2,500, with the ability to add 1000 for major events in legacy, and provide two 50m swimming pools and a diving pool, facilities that London does not have at present. The main pedestrian access to the Olympic Park, construction work will start by the Beijing Games and be complete in 2010
  45. 45. A Balfour Beatty spokesperson said:“Considerable thought was given to developing ODA Aquatics Centre Projectthe materials for the internal ceiling of the venue Sponsor John Nicholson said:during the early design stages and this work isnow benefiting further from the experience of “We are on track to deliverBalfour Beatt. The experienced team has an Aquatics Centre thatengaged with the supply chain to develop the forms a fantastic ‘gateway toconceptual design and utilize their expertise to the Games’ and in legacyprepare construction information.” new community and elite swimming and diving facilities that London currently lacks. The innovative building structure design is finalized and the contractor is on site and ready to start construction ahead of schedule this month. As is standard on any project we are progressing the detailed design development which includes considering a range of materials for particular elements, such as timber cladding. Materials will be thoroughly tested to ensure they work for both the Games and legacy.”
  46. 46. CAGLIARI CONTEMPORARY ARTS CENTRE CAGLIARI, ITALY. The aim of the project was to create a node of cultural exchanges thatsimultaneously will serve as a landmark announcing the arrival to Cagliari fromthe sea, and answer the five challenges proposed by the brief.Through the interconnection of the inner circulation with the public paths andthe alternation of open spaces and cavities, the building shares its publicdimension with the city. Moreover, it geometrically aligns along the axis of thesea, and extends its arms towards the quarter and the stadium of S. Elia,connecting and assimilating itself to the site. At times it assimilates to the ground, creating a new landscape, while at others it acquires a strong mass defining the new skyline.
  47. 47. The open and dynamic quality of the shape is also pursued inside the building,where the circulation of the visitors through the exhibition, information andcommercial paths determine the geometry of the spaces.The erosion that forms a great cavity inside the building articulates the volume ina succession of open spaces for exhibition, places of aggregation and occasionsfor installation of contemporary art.Such spaces, visible from a variety of viewpoints, satisfy the perceptive and theaesthetic dialogue between the contemporary and the Neuralgic art. The inner cavityallows the genesis of two continuous skins, one contained within the other. Themuseum program is placed between the “external skin” of the facade system, and the“inner skin”, equipped with a flexible serial system of anchorage and electrification,that allows multiple uses of surfaces/ walls for installations or video projections.The communication, contemporary and Neuralgic exhibitions, and the public pathscrossing the building and intercepting each other, create the fluid structure of thebuilding, allowing a variety of uses and configurations. The vertical and obliqueelements of circulation create zones of interference and turbulence creating a visualcontinuity between the different parts of the building.
  48. 48. The vital metaphor governing the museum becomes clearwithin the phasing plans: as with living organisms, the growthof the museum will be self-regulated. It will happen naturallywhen the conditions of a mature balance between theeconomic atmosphere and philanthropic and culturalenvironment are reached……
  49. 49. SHEIKH ZAYED BRIDGE ABU DHABI. . . . There is a highly mobile society, which requires a new route aroundthe Gulf south shore, connecting the three Emirates together. In 1967 asteel arch bridge was built to connect the fledgling city of Abu Dhabiisland to the mainland, followed by a second bridge built in the seventies,connecting downstream at the south side of Abu Dhabi Island. Thelocation of the new Gateway Crossing, close to the first bridge, is criticalin the development and completion of the highway system. Conceived inan open setting, the bridge has the prospect of becoming a destination initself and potential catalyst in the future urban growth of Abu Dhabi. Acollection, or strands of structures, gathered on one shore, are lifted andpropelled over the length of the channel. A sinusoidal waveformprovides the structural silhouette shape across the channel.
  50. 50. The mainland is the launch pad for the bridge structureemerging from the ground and approach road. The Road decksare cantilevered on each side of the spine structure. Steelarches rise and spring from mass concrete piers asymmetrically,in length, between the road decks to mark the mainland andthe navigation channels. The spine splits and splays from oneshore along the central void position, diverging under the roaddecks to the outside of the roadways at the other end of thebridge. The main bridge arch structure rises to a height of 60 mabove water level with the road crowning to a height of 20meters above mean water level.
  51. 51. ANTWERP PORT AUTHORITY, BELGIUM. . . With its unique design, its facade architecture and its height of 46 meters, the new Port Authority will be an iconic building, visible from many different directions. The concept is a free interpretation of a beam-shaped volume raised above the existing fire brigade building and supported on three sculptured concrete pillars housing the stairs and lifts. Two of the pillars are situated on the covered inner courtyard of the firehouse, while the third is located beside an external support point and consists of a panoramic lift shaft. The open plan offices are indeed very open, so that office staff will have a great impression of space with a view along the various outside walls. The concept for the open plan office also allows for small areas in which to hold meetings, along with separate study offices.
  52. 52. The outside walls are made up of glasstriangles, some transparent and somereflecting. These do not all lie in the sameplane but are rotated slightly with respectto one another, creating an attractivereflecting play of incoming light in areference to Antwerp’s diamond industry.The inner courtyard will be roofed over atthe height of the second story so as tocreate an enclosed interior space. Thiscentral entrance hall will be considered asa semi-public space, with various enquirydesks. A sculptural, sloping roof unites anunderground lobby with the covered innercourt. Access to the underground car parkis an important aspect of the overallconcept, with the loading & unloadingbays and the refuse handling facilities alsolocated here.The design of the square can be arrangedso that daylight is allowed to enter. Theabove-ground layout forms part of adesign project that is being carried out inconsultation with the city departmentsresponsible, with the main imperativebeing to “preserve the visual quality of theoutside spaces in the Het Eilandje area.”
  53. 53. ZARAGOZA BRIDGE PAVILLION . . .Zaha Hadid Architects’ proposal for the Bridge Pavilion is organizedaround 4 main sections, or “pods” that perform both as structuralelements and as spatial enclosures. Floors inside them are located at theExpo principal levels: +201.5 (the soffit of the bridge is at +200 m, floodprotection minimum level), +203 m and +206, +207.5 for the upper level.The development of our design for the bridge pavilion stems from theexamination of the potential of a diamond-shaped section.
  54. 54. The diamond section works on several levels:As employed in the case of space-frame structures, itrepresents a rational way of distributing forces along asurface. Underneath this floor plate, a resulting triangularpocket space can be used to run utilities. The diamondsection has been continued along a slightly curved path,and the extrusion of this rhombus section along differentpaths generates four different “pods”.
  55. 55. Spatial concern is one of the mainaspects driving this project: eachzone within the building has its ownspatial identity, and their interiorsare focused on art-work or are openspaces with strong visual connectionto the Ebro river and the Expo.When designing the Pavilion’s skin, natural surfaces were a majorfeature in our research. Shark scales are fascinating both for theirvisual appearance and for their performance. Their pattern can easilywrap around complex curvatures with a simple system of rectilinearridges. On a building scale, this proves to be effective, visuallyappealing and economically convenient.
  56. 56. REGIUM WATERFRONT, CALABRIA.. . . The project aims to define the city of Reggio Calabria as a Mediterranean cultural capital through the realization of two characteristic buildings: a museum and a multifunctional building for performing arts. The location of the site on the narrow sea strait separating continental Italy from Sicily, offers an opportunity to create two unique buildings visible from the sea and the Sicilian coast: a Museum of the Mediterranean History and a Multifunctional Building.
  57. 57. The form of the museum draws inspiration from the organic shapes of astarfish. The radial symmetry of this shape helps to coordinate thecommunication and circulation between different sections of the museumand its other facilities. The Museum of Mediterranean History will houseexhibition spaces, restoration facilities, an archive, an aquarium andlibrary.The Multifunctional Building is a composition of three separate elementsthat surround a partially covered piazza. The building will house themuseum’s administrative offices, a gym, local craft laboratories, shops anda cinema. Three different auditoriums, which can be converted into onelarge space, are also housed in the Multifunctional Building.The location of the site on the narrow sea strait separating continental Italyfrom Sicily, offers an opportunity to create two unique buildings visible fromthe sea and the Sicilian coast: a Museum of the Mediterranean History and aMultifunctional Building.
  58. 58. The Multifunctional Building is acomposition of three separateelements that surround a partiallycovered piazza. The building willhouse the museum’s administrativeoffices, a gym, local craftlaboratories, shops and a cinema.Three different auditoriums, whichcan be converted into one largespace, are also housed there even.“I am absolutely delighted to beworking in Reggio Calabria. Theproject will be a gathering place forpeople of all ages - presenting theMediterranean’s rich and diversehistory with visual and performingarts to enhance the cultural vitalityof the city; providing an essentialvenue for discussion and discoursewhere the public engages with thespaces and with the exhibitions. Thisconnection between culture andpublic life is critical; as whatdifferentiates museums of the 21stCentury from the previous centuryis that the client is no longer simplyone patron. The client is the public -it’s many people, which makes thisproject really exciting.” states Hadid.
  59. 59. PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE, ABU DHABI.This unique design by Zaha Hadid, has some special importance as permy study topic is concerned . . . So, here I am going to provide each andevery detail of this design and even the concepts behind it… So, I feel youwill love it…!!!
  60. 60. With the help of these views one can feel its hugeness and itsinterconnection with the surrounding . . . some of them are interiors which show how a complex space can be designed sofabulously….
  64. 64. Hadid’s performing arts centre concept, a 62 meter high building isproposing to house five theatres – a music hall, concert hall, operahouse, drama theatre and a flexible theatre with a combined seatingcapacity for 6,300. the centre may also house an academy of performingarts. The Abu Dhabi performing arts centre will be one of five majorcultural institutions on the new 270-hectacre cultural district of Saadiyatisland in Abu Dhabi - developed by the Solomon r. Guggenheimfoundation on behalf of the tourism development and investmentcompany of Abu Dhabi.
  66. 66. This is the phenomenal concept behind this project…. The organicelements, the skeleton. The vegetation and many more… Enormouslyassimilated at on place and produced the unbelievable Abu Dhabi Artscentre which will for sure catch an eye of this design world….With this explanation, I wanted to show off the Strength of futuristicDeconstructivism style because Hadid made such a complex structure sofabulously that even I sat upon the available data, it took 6 months tocome to this conclusion that Now, I can do something in the samecontext..
  67. 67. This is not necessary that the Deconstructivism can only be applied inthe Building design context…. This has been proven by Hadid prettywell.... Because where ever she designing a building, if asked to, Sheeven designs the furniture to be provided in her own context of fluidism! Zaha Hadid’s architecture sees form and space pulled around, out of shape and into breathtaking, fluid spatial progressions. Hugely theatrical and enticingly urbane her buildings have begun to transform notions of what can be achieved in concrete and steel, blending the revolutionary aesthetics of constructivism with the liquid organicism of expressionism. The brief had been a sculptural structure to revivify the 1921 building’s atrium. Zaha’s proposal was an organic set of tentacles which linked spaces and floors across the atrium, defying changing levels and criss-crossing each other in mid-air. The effect was like a huge, sticky chewing gum pulled out of shape across the interior. It is a sci-fi alien piece which transforms the heart of the building, reaching across space. It looks as if the structure was attempting to resolve itself back into a single solid.
  68. 68. The combination of carbon fiber technology with a morphology of organiccomplexity allows us to achieve a super-thin, super-light, and super-robustcreatures. The large hovering plane seems to slice through the space like a wing.The original idea for both the table and the desk is the generative principle ofdeveloping the legs from the table surface through a cut and fold technique.This technique leaves a hole in the table top surface which reveals thegenerative move and allows the eye to trace the legs’ trajectory. The legs areinvoluting from within the inner depth of the table surface, thus projectingthe table edge as a tapering cantilever….
  69. 69. Z-Scape is a compact ensemble of lounging furniture for public and privateliving rooms. The formal concept is derived from dynamic landscapeformations like glaciers and erosions. The different pieces are constituted asfragments determined by the overall mass and its diagonal veins. Along theseveins the block splits offering large splinters for further erosive sculpting.The pieces thus derived are shaped further- if rather loosely - by typological,functional and ergonomic considerations. Four pieces have emerged so far:stalactite, stalagmite, glacier, and moraine.
  70. 70. The Z.CAR-II is a compact 4-wheeled 4-seater city-car that is based on its go3-wheeled predecessor, the Z.CAR. It is an emission-free vehicle that ispowered by rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. To save space and increaseperformance the car is fitted with 4 electric in-wheel motors that make itvery quiet. The large sliding passenger doors give easy access. The compactdesign is taking advantage a high degree of weight and space distribution forall the mechanical and electrical components.The inclination of the passenger pod is speed adjusted. At low speeds it is inthe upper position and gives the driver a better street vision. A shortenedwheelbase then also requires less parking-space.
  71. 71. The drawing is a lens that reveals otherwise imperceptibleaspects; its a method for understanding how things can changeand evolve and serve, not for crystallizing a form in a definitiveway but to demonstrate the possibilities of what it can become.—Zaha Hadid
  72. 72. BETWEEN THE LINES......The Research......
  73. 73. Instead of coming to a concluding stage, I will be happy to produceanother Theoretical Research of the Living Legend monument which iscalled as The Jewish Museum designed by DANIEL LIBESKIND……This monument has got a great background, a phenomenal emotion andeven Architect’s own style of story telling…… The museum is situated inBerlin, which is actually an extension of existing old one. The Jewish Museum Berlin was originally founded on Oranienburger Strabe in 1933. It was closed in 1938 by the Nazi regime. The idea to revive the museum was first voiced in 1971, and an “Association for a Jewish Museum” was founded in 1975……
  74. 74. Post memory and the Jewish Museum, Berlin. The Jewish Museum, Berlins is a unique project architecturally,museologically and particularly in reference to the discourse on collectivememory. Ever since its architect Daniel Libeskind won the competition for themuseum building in 1989,the museum’s deconstructivist design has beensubjected to a lot of discussion in the form of curious inspection, speculation,analysis, criticism and but not least ;a lot of acclaim. The building has beenhailed as the “last architectural masterpiece in the twentieth-century Berlinand its foremost building for the twenty first. “ The architect who was hitherto lesser known and noted only forhis poetic, theoretical or philosophical approach has come to be recognized asa successful, preeminent practitioner after this project was completed. Whilethe project was being marveled at architecturally, it also alerted themuseological field to the extent to which the architecture of a museum canhave an impact on the achievement of the mission and purpose of museums.The museum community voiced concerns over the limitations that the difficultarchitecture of the building would impose on the nature of exhibitions andtheir mounting in the building. However, when the museum finally openedwith its exhibits in place, some synergy between the architecture of themuseum and its exhibitions had been achieved.” The museums architecture continues to dominate the discourseon collective memory. It is held remarkable that in his approach to designingthe building, Libeskind chose to shroud the links between the past and thepresent in subterranean parts of his building, and instead chose the mostcomplex part of historical discourse by articulating and exposing in his spatialscheme the void of wiped out Jewish memory from the history of Berlin.
  75. 75. In making visible the void, he offers a tribute to the past in whichunparallel amalgamation was achieved, while also lays bare, in the very samevoid, the trouble collective memory of the Jewish population that survived theHolocaust. In doing so the museum takes on the role of commemorativeagency, a role hitherto assigned exclusively to memories. Thus, together thearchitecture, museological and discursive aspects of the museum - itsuniqueness as a museum building, its exemplary role in continuing thearchitecture - exhibition dialectic and triumph in empathically evoking acollective and commemorative cause - are the three salient and widely knownaspects of this museum project. However, these are not the only reasons why the museum building issignificant to the current discussion. A hitherto less probed - personal aspectshall be pivoted to our discussion in keeping with the theme of postmemory. Inthis discussion, I would focus on how the so called jagged’ familial history ofthe architect comes into play in his radical design for his first evercommissioned work. I will briefly review an important step of Libeskindsdesign artistic process, and compare it with the artistic production of Mans, tounderstand the core similarities that connect both these commemorativeexercises. But, in order to do this, we must understand the socio-cultural historyof Berlin and the context that led to the formulation of this institution and itsnew premises. This discussion would also useful in providing a pretext forLibeskind’s design. The association of the Jewish population with the city of Berlin datesback to the thirteen century. However, out of the seven centuries ofassociation, the fragment of larger history that is particularly relevant to thehistory of this institution and to Libeskinds design start approximately in thelast quarter of the seventeenth century….
  76. 76. It was only in 1714 , that the first synagogue, that later came to beknown as the Old Synagogue was established. By the middle of the eighteenthcentury the Jewish population in Berlin totaled around two thousand peoplehis period was followed by a period of self reflection and in introspection,leading to many Reforms in the orthodox Judaic traditions. This period is alsoknown as Haskalah or the Jewish Renaissance. The idea of Jewish renaissanceis attributed to philosopher and scholar Mosses Mendelssohn, who arrived inBerlin in 1743 and advocated Jewish equality and secularism. He stood toestablish Judaism as a non-dogmatic, rational faith, open to modernity andchange. He called for secular education and propagated the message fortolerance and humanity amongst Christianity and Judaism. In this period, theinternal communal authority was undermined in favor of liberal thinking. Forthose who followed this progressive thought, it allowed them to abandon theirexclusiveness and to acquire the knowledge, manners, and aspirations of thenations amongst whom they dwelt. In the late eighteenth century, Europe was swept by a group ofintellectual, social and optical movements collectively known as theEnlightenment. During this period, not only Berlin but also the rest of thecountry experienced something of a highpoint of religious tolerance promotedreformative thoughts that extolled the virtues of secular education, socialequality, and the universal rights of man. One of the reformative effects of theenlightenment was that it leads to reduction in the prohibitory laws againstJews. Together, the internal reforms as sought by the Haskalah and the legalemancipation brought about by the Enlightenment led to gradual mingling oftradition and culture or acculturation. The process of acculturation summarizesJoachim Whaley, started with the systematic adoption of the German languageand of German culture. “However, the progress of these changes was neitheruniform nor unchallenged from within as well as from outside.
  77. 77. The early reformers were soon confronted by conservation and bythe neo Orthodox movement, just as they received resistance from the elite.Even then, the transformation and gradual assimilation continued, so much sothat the contribution that individual Jews made to German culture “symbolizedthe emergence of the German Jews. The Weimar years alter the first Worldart. proved to be a period consolidation for the Berlins German JewryAmongst those German Jews who rose to eminence were playwright MaxReinhart. Composers Arnold Schoenberg and Kurt Well. Artists MaxLiebermann and Lesser Uri, and popular writers such as Vicki Baum. Thepopulation grew as well. At the same time, however, anti-Semitism was on the rise and inthe years leading up Nazis ascendance to power in 1933. discrimination andprosecution against Jews increase. As if by a stroke of irony, the first everJewish Museum opened in Berlin one week before Adolph Hitler was sworn inas the chancellor of Germany. Although this museum is institutionallyunrelated to the present museum, it sets a precedent to the discussion onLibeskind museum building, while also exemplifying the epitome of GermanJewish cultural amalgam. The museum opened with an art exhibition of the works of theGerman Jewish artist Liebermann who had founded the group Berlinsecessionists. Amidst critical and political opposition, the museum went on tomount several more. Exhibitions of German Jewish artist and their milieu.However, when the Nuremberg laws. Strictly enforced a discrimination againstJews on racial ground, the Nazis forbade all but Jews to visit the museum andall but Jewish artist to exhibit there, thus causing a rift in the German Jewishcultural bonding that had been formulated in the previous two centuries.
  78. 78. It would not be until thirty-three years later i.e. in 1971- the yearthat marked three hundred years of Jewish presence in Berlin - that a museumexhibition focusing on Jewish theme would open again in the city, as if toeloquently revive an older tradition. The exhibition was the first step towardsrealizing the idea and need for institutionalizing the Jewish history andmemory in the city. The proponent of these ideas was the head of the Jewishcommunity of West Berlin -Heinz Galinski. In the aspirations Galinski outlinedfor institutionalizing the representation of Jewish history in Berlin, it wasstressed that such a representation must approach the history the Jewishpopulation in harmony with the history of the city, and carefully avoid aseceded ghetto like - representation "at the higher level of a culturalinstitution.” Though the following three decades - the seventies, eighties andnineties - steady efforts were made realize the dream of representing thedistinct yet integrated heritage of the Jewish population o the city of Berlin. Such efforts are inextricably linked with the efforts of the westernpart of the divided city to first have access to its local history museum. Thebuilding of the Berlin wall in 1961 had made former local history museum, theMariachis Museum reaction of the building of the wall and to compensate forthe loss of a shared institutions, the Berlin Museum was founded m 1962,specifically for the population of west Berlin .Subsequent to its formation andfollowing Galinski plea for representation of Jewish history for what was tobecome an autonomous Jewish department within the museum. In 1971,theseefforts culminated in the first exhibition devoted to the Jewish late in Berlin, ashow tilled: contribution and fate 3 00 years of the Jewish community, 1671-1971. Following the success of this exhibition, in 1975 the Berlin Senateapproved the establishment of a Jewish department within the BerlinMuseum. The establishment of this department fulfilled Galinski idea ofseeking representation for the history of the Jewish community of Berlin as anintegrated strand of the broader cultural history of the city.
  79. 79. The department gradually grew in size and scope of collections, anda need was felt to enlarge its premises. In 1988, the senate agreed to approvethe financing for building the premises of a Jewish department that wouldadministratively fall under the supervision of the Berlin Museum but thatwould have spatial and programmatic autonomy. A competition was launchedin 1988 for a building design that would help spatially extend the legacy of theBerlin Museum into the Jewish department, yet allow the department its ownspace character and identity. In keeping with the dual intentions, the projectwas called -Berlin Museum with the Jewish Museum Department. (In ourdiscussion, we refer to the Museum Department as Jewish Museum). The new expansion was to consist of three parts one displaying thegeneral history of Berlin from 1870 to the present, one representing thehistory of Jews in Berlin, and in between space dedicated to the theme of Jewsin the society that would articulate the relation and crossovers between thetwo other components .In 1989, just a few month before the Berlin wall camedown. Daniel Libeskind was declared as the surprise winner of thiscompetition. And in September 2001, the Jewish Museum as designed byLibeskind, open with a permanent exhibition in place. Daniel Libeskinds designfor the building draws from the three centuries of shared culture that Berlinwitnessed. It recognized the culture amalgam that occurred in this city asunique and unparalleled. However it also emphasizes that the force of thesudden extermination of the .Jewish population created a gaping hole in thecenturies old fabric of an interwoven history of Germans and Jews. Thebuilding thus attempts to straddle the duality characterized by intertwinedhistories, and at the same time it lays bare the void created when the adhesiveruptured, and the histories became disengaged.
  80. 80. In Libeskinds building, the void does not exist only as a conceptualentity a means to an end; it is the end in itself. The void manifests itself in thebuilding as a physical entity, making its presence felt in different intensities atdifferent places in the museum. Appearing sometimes as fractures in thelinearity of the building, and sometimes as virtually inaccessible and sealedspaces, the void is an intrinsic and inevitable part of the museum visitorsexperience. In the words of the Holocaust scholar James Young, the formertreatment of the void, "raft to the arsenics left behind by a murdered people,an absence that must be marked and that shapes (however negatively) theculture aim society that brought it about. The latter manifestation of the voidin the building - the sealed empty spaces, as akin to some deeply situatedmemory of the past, which “gives shapes to and meaning to the surroundingpresent but remain hidden in and of it. In relation to the discourse on postmemory, it is a similar kind ofdeeply personal memory of the museum‘s architects - Daniel Libeskind that Iam interested to explore within the depth of his design of this building. Thisfamilial association of architects with Jewish history, in particular with theHolocaust, is no secret; eighty five immediate relatives of Libeskind’s parentswere killed in Auschwitz, prior to his birth. However, the question is thathitherto less explored is, do Libeskind association with this post get manifestedinto his work, particularly the Jewish museum? Assuming that Libeskinds associations with the past quality aspostmemory ,let’s began to seek the interplay of this postmemory, first in thevoid of this museum, followed by some discussion on one of his conceptualdrawings, which could help us approach his psyche as a member of the post-survivor generation. What gets revealed in the process would perhaps alsohelp validate that Libeskind’s associations with familial and collective past areindeed akin to postmemory.
  81. 81. Museums architecture - The Void :- The idea of void is central to Libeskinds very understanding anddefinition of the project itself Instead of adopting the awkwardly long name ofthe project - Extension of Berlin Museum with the Jewish MuseumDepartment - the architect chooses to describe the project by a simple andcommon phrase between the lines’. There is a dual meaning signified by thisphrase. First, it has a literal connotation; for when we use phrase in relation toreading literary texts, we imply that by reading between the lines we are ableto look through the form and structure of a text for obscured meanings orunexpressed allusions. Second, the phrase is descriptive of the conceptualdesign that Libeskind devised for the buildings .In simple term, in the form andlayout of the building can be describe as a confluence of two kinds of lines: oneis straight but broken into many fragment and the other is tortuous linecontinuing infinitely. The lines are intertwined as if engaged in specific butlimited dialogue. In carrying out this dialogue the lines also fall apart, becomedisengaged and are seen as separated. In this way, they exposed a void whichruns through the museum- a discontinuous void. The lines of Libeskind conceptual design can be interpreted as asymbolic of two modes [or lines]of “thinking ,or organization or relationship.”Or they can be interpreted as a symbolic coming together of two strands ofhistory- the Jewish history intersected by changing flux of attitudes of thesesocieties in which Jews dwelt and mingled. Whatever the interpretation be,the duality marked by the phrase between the lines” urges us to look throughthe formal structure of the relationship between the parallel histories as wellthrough the formal characteristics of the buildings architecture into thevacuum that resides in between. This vacuum, void, or absence is the focalpoint of the entire exercise. For. it is this void that makes the extermination ofJews from the city of Berlin, palpable in the building.
  82. 82. At the same time it is this very void that also serves as the structuralspine of the building preventing the continuum of the buildings zigzag formfrom falling apart. Further, it is the void that forms the only link between the Baroquebuildings of the Museum with the new building of the Jewish Museum. Thereis no entrance to the Museum from its own building or premises; the onlyentrance to the museum is through Berlin Museum. This makes it mandatoryfor any visitors to symbolically first acknowledges and encounter the historyof the city by seeking entrance into the Berlin Museum in order to approachand comprehend the Jewish history. The connection between the buildings isnot visible above the surface of ground; it is embedded with the ground levelas a network of subterranean passageway. huge stairwell located in theBerlin museum marks the entrance of this passageway. The void of thestairwell stretches into the long empty passage way leading into a Libeskindbuilding. It is this voids deeply embedded under a two museum building,which severs to symbolically reinforce a connection between oneinstitutionalized strand of history and the other. In Libeskind’s words: There is no door for you, because there is no way into Jewish historyand into Berlin‘s history by the traditional door: You have to follow a muchmore complex route to understand Jewish history in Berlin, and tounderstand the future of Berlin .You have to go back into the depth of Berlin’shistory, into it’s Baroque period, and therefore into the baroque buildingfirst.
  83. 83. The void reappears in five separate fragments along the length ofthe exhibition space the Jewish museum. Sometimes stretchinguninterrupted from the level of the underground passage way to the roof ofthe building, these fragments are volumetrically expansive. (Image 10)Together these fragments constitute the straight but fragmented linedescribed in Libeskinds concept. Intersecting and intercepting thecontinuous, contorted and collinear exhibition spaces, which represent theother line from Libeskind", the fragments translate into becoming thesanctimonious central (but empty) spaces for the museum. So as to maintainthe purity of symbolic purpose empty spaces, the architect has evenprescribed that no exhibits would be mounted on the wall: surrounding thefragmented void. The visitors to the museum encounter this fragmented voidthrough their unfinished raw walls of concrete that slice through theexhibition spaces. (Image 10) The fragments are kept for most parts as, as ifnot allow the viewer to sense their physical extent; for in order tocomprehend them, they be entered into. However, for most parts, thesefragments make their presence felt as solid, material of the wall, onlyoccasionally allowing a view into what lies within. One of the ways toexperience the void is form selected opening on the ground floor, where onecan almost feel the pressure of the voluminous vacuum overhead or bytrading on a few bridges running across at certain levels when quite literallyone is actually standing over the void. The void is kepi without insulation,heating or air conditioning for them to be experienced as blatantly aspossible. By investing the void with such strong experience. Libeskind hasinvested it with meaning and significance.
  84. 84. The void is frequently interpreted as a significance of collectivetrauma silent, confined but unmistakably present. Such an interpretationrecalls Alpheuss definition of trauma. Alphen had connotatively equatedtrauma with a void- one that results from nonoccurrence or failure ofdiscursive experience.XNI In reference to this definition, it seems thatLibeskind has actualized Alphen idea of the void. Whether in the form ofruptures in the continuous stream of history assembled in museums linearspaces, or as stacks of sealed-off inaccessible spaces, the void stands tosignify the sudden breaks in the narrative of memory caused by trauma. Expanding this interpretation into the realm of postmemory, thevoid could also be perceived the signifier of several unspoken/ unspeakablefamilial experiences, which postmemory generations (like Spiegel man’s,Silvas, Libeskinds and mine) have begun to express publically either inacademic discourse, or through artistic practices, or as performative ritualsstory is of Libeskinds family that he recounts in his autobiography perhapsfor the first time. Libeskind was born to Nachman and Dora, young Jewish activitiesfrom Poland – Nachman from Lodz and Dora from Warsaw. They field theirrespective cities for the Soviet Union in 1939 when the Nazi invaded Poland,while their respective families – parents, sibling, nephews, nieces-for somereason for the other, chose to stay in Poland. As noted earlier, eighty five ofthese immediately family members were reported murdered in Auschwitzwhen Nachman and Dora got a chance to return to Poland after many years.
  85. 85. During their years in the Soviet Union, Libeskinds parents werecaptured by the Red-army and transported to gulag or penal-labor camps ofthe Soviet Union. Although, this way. They escaped the hardships of theNazi labor concentration camps, life was not easy for them .Nachman andDora were put into separate camps, where the only way to survive was totoil. In the words of L libeskind: "It was a brutal life. Subsisting on nothing but watery soup, bits ofstale bread, and black water they called coffee, and dressed in cottonclothing and rubber shoes Nachman and the other inmates walked for hoursthrough snow to a work site, guarded by dogs and soldiers, they dug tunnels,built bridges, and crushed rocks, all for the war effort.” In camp near Novosibirsk Dora was put to work making leatherboots and elaborately detailed shirts of the finest silk for the Soviet generalstaff. She herself wore only rags, and wrapped her feel in newspaper lo wardoff frostbite. The women in the camp were routinely abused by theguards...and what injury the guards didn’t inflict, they did. The camp inmates were set there in 1942. With the SecondWorld War having erupted, it would have been fatal to enter Poland again. Sosome inmates tied southwards, to a soviet state called, Kyrgyzstan. Nachmanand Dora met at a refugee center in Kyrgyzstan the same y ear and married.Anya, their first child was born in 1944 amidst a famine that swept throughthe region. Two year later Libeskind was born in a refugee hospital in Lodzwhen the family was able to move into Poland only to discover that theirkith and kin had met the same fate as million of other Jews- exterminated ingas chamber.”
  86. 86. In the context of such an account of familial history the void inLibeskind architectural organization for the Jewish Museum takes on highlypersonal (and familial) meaning. The suddenly begin to suddenly begin tosignify the material, familial and social void in the lives of survivors, such ashis parents, as they prepared to start their again after encounteringirrecoverable losses in the Holocausts. If the building can be regarded asLibeskind’s text conglomeration of signs then there is indeed a personal(familial) presence in the void of the Jewish Museum, which stands torepresent the traumas of the community of which his family was, is also apart. Libeskind is aware of such gruesome episodes of familial historythrough the stories he has come to learn from his family. The stories haveinformed his consciousness and sense of being, which in turn informs hiswork. "We are our parent .s children someone who was born in the post-Holocaust world to parents who were both Holocaust survivors. I bring thathistory-to bear on my work."‘ Libeskinds architecture of the Jewish Museum is informed bypersonal history as well as an understanding of history (after worldcatastrophes) culminating in the tragic void. "Because of who I am, I havethought a lot about matters like trauma and memory: awareness andsensitivity precipitates as others memory into his work. He favors an agendathat seeks "a profound indication of memory" in place of work that is "glossy,contemporary ironic. Self satisfied. He expresses his mandate as follows:“Painters have their color, musician their sound, writers their words ...Thetool of architects [Stone, steel, concrete, glass, wood] are less easy toassemble. The challenge before me is to design expensive building – buildingthat tell human stories with this mute substance.”
  87. 87. He approached the Jewish Museum as a meaning making exerciseas well as an opportunity to examine the very purpose of meaning making .Inan instance he has tried to emphasize his point about meaning making byasking –“Is it to erase the memory of what has happened ? Is it to show thateverything is fine? That everything will be just as before?”Such question ledhim to for sake the trodden path, and seek a language of profundity, whichhe assembles through his manifestation of an architectural void. The voidbecome his primary device to express the “the presence of overwhelmingemptiness created when a community is wiped out , or individual freedom isstamped out :when the continuity of life is so brutally disrupted that thestructure of life is forever torque and transformed. An indelible association with his parents past, coupled with thetemporal and geographical distance that has allowed him the stability of apeaceful life, and opportunities to acquire and establish the intellect of aphilosopher, the skill of an architect and the fluidity of a musician, arerespectively responsible for invoking in him the urge as well as the capabilityto seek a profound representation for the pathos of the Jewish population inthe void of the Jewish museum. No surprise then, that his design outshoneother 164 entries in the competition of 1988 by refusing to contain itself in a"neutral box. Soothing and attractive, where one could visit remains of aonce .flourishing culture after viewing other exhibits in the big Baroquebuilding. Instead it chose to reside in a radical scheme, which deniesrecognizing the history of the Jewish community, whether in Berlin orelsewhere, as neutral. Libeskinds designs leave open the gash in the history,which other competitors had proposed to be flattened for future histories toflourish over it.
  88. 88. No wonder also that due to its universal approach and appeal, theproject that was that mean to house only a departmental extension of anestablished city museum {i.e. Berlin Museum} was granted the status of anautonomous museum. I n 1998 , as the construction of Libeskind buildingwas nearing completion , the model of conceptual and institutionalintegration of the Jewish Museum with the city Museum was abandoned ;the Jewish Museum was given autonomy as an independent institution ,along the Berlin museum .Instead of focusing on the role of Jewish history inBerlin alone , the conception of museum was expanded to include thenational , European and global dimension , and the entire , nowindependent annex was made available to the Jewish Museum. What draws me to include the Jewish Museum into the discussionon postmemory in addition to the self-acknowledged presence of a familialstory at the core of his motivation for this building? Are a few markedsimilarities that Libeskinds process bears with Art Spiegel men? To illustratethis, I would like to bring into discussion the conceptual diagram thatLibeskind prepared at the beginning of the design exercise for the JewishMuseum.
  89. 89. Design process - The Star Diagram: When I started thinking about what to design, I d brought a map ofBerlin.... Next Id written the West German government, asking for copies ofthe gedenkbuch or Memorial Book. Writes Libeskind, describing how heinitiated the work on this project. Libeskind felt necessary to first map out amental model of the city of I the map of Berlin, he began by plotting thenames and addresses of famous German Jewish scholars, artists,philosophers, musicians and other well known personalities, who wereaffected by the Holocaust .These name and addresses were extracted fromGedenkbuch which list the name of all German Jews murdered in theHolocaust .The entries in the book records their date of birth , home cities ,presumed dates of death and the ghettoes and concentration camps inwhich the victims perished. On the layer created by the superimposition of the map with thenames and addressed of German Jews, Libeskind then inscribe a referentialgrid by connections lines between pairs of randomly spotted names andcorresponding addresses. One such referential grid drive out of pairing someof its favorite personalities from among the most illustrious German Jews –Mies Van der Rohe and E.T.A. Hoffmann,Paul Klee and Friedrich von Kleist,Rahel Levin Varnhagen and Friedrich Schleiermacher resulted in theformation of a skewed Star of David over the map of Berlin .Although,Libeskind refrains from distributing the six letters of the word B-E-R-L-I-N inthe diagram, he suggested that they could be used to denote each vertex ofthe six pointed star.
  90. 90. The diagram represents the sketch resulting from the three stepprocess that Libeskind thus followed. The exercise may itself not beimportant for the design of the building, but it acts as the stepping stone forallowing personal associations with the site, the city of Berlin, and Jewishhistory. The diagram is a palimpsest of document and imagination" - wherethe names addresses and the map serve as factual document, but thereferential grid is a derivatives Libeskinds cultural imagination i.e. hisassociations with the cultural history of the city. The diagram is reminiscent of the family-sketch that Art Spiegel manhad created for the first Maus of 1971. The commonality of the artisticprocesses for both these exercises lies in the use of documentary imagescombined with imaginative investment. For Spiegel man the base layer hisfamily sketch consisted of a journalistic photo that record the faces of thesurvivors of the Buchenwald camp .For Libeskind the base layer is the officialgazette of the victims of the Holocaust. Imaginative investment is visible in the next step when the baselayer is superimposed with associative and hand drawing. Libeskind sketchesa grid in the form of stars, with the virtual image of the letters of the wordBerlin at each corner of the star formation which is akin to the letters of theword Poppa Thai Spiegel man inscribes in his family-sketch. It is nocoincidence for Spiegel man that the arrow before the word "poppa" pointstowards a specific man in the image. Similarly it is no coincidence for ILibeskind that the site of the Berlin Museum falls on one of the corners of hisreferential Star of David grid. The positioning of the site on the referentialgrid of the Star of David is a sign of Libeskinds identification with the projectas well as his realization that through this project he stands to represent theJewish community and its history.
  91. 91. Family and community become the shared resources of the artisticexercises of each of these two artists. The members of familiar associationthat ignited an artistic process for Spiegleman can be seen here as sparks of‘collective association resulting in the blitz"" of Libeskind’s building. Thoughdifferently trained, both unhesitatingly voice this association in theirrespective works. Spiegleman voices it through his so called image-text.Extending the analogy of the phrase, one could say that Libeskind manifestshis associations through the void of his spatial-text. This comparisonunderscores that in the same way as the family-sketch revealed Artspiegelmen urge to visualize his fathers past in the concentration camp viahis sketch. Libeskind’s diagram expresses his urge to visualize his collectivepast , which exists in the form of the presence of the rich German – Jewishcultural amalgam in the city of Berlin years before, but of which very fewtraces were left visible in the city .the comparison also helps evince that theJewish Museum building is unique not just architecturally ,muse logically andfrom the prospective of the collective memory .Instead , it is unique becausein its artistic production lies culmination a commemorative exercise. The museum building can therefore he regarded as an extensionof an individual, his family and Community’s collective past. All three forcescome into play within the void inscribed within the museum, philosophical!),conceptually and architecturally. An institution is sometimes referred to asthe elongated shadow of the vision armies who set it up. If that is indeedtrue, then at the very least the building of the Jewish Museum. Berlin is anextension of its architect, reflected in all the personal as well as collectiveassociations that have informed its very unique architecture.
  92. 92. The museum draws its profundity from the fact that Libeskind isclosely and personally connected with a family of survivors. However, wherehe is not as closely connected as in the case of the cultural history of Berlin,he begins to draw a personal association by investing into document +imagination exercise, as represented by the conceptual diagram. Although,at the time when he initiated the design of the museum, the termpostmemory had not been proposed (as also in the case of Spiegleman) yetat best the void of his building, as well as the associative narrativeformulated in the conceptual diagram can be described as postmemorycommemoration exercises- where deep empathy for familial and collectivepast exists in spite of a temporal distancing. The empathy helps invigoratethe design with profoundly, while the temporal distancing facilitates a uniqueinterpretation of history, which denounces complacency in favor of a boldand radical encounter characterized by the product as well as its process .Itthis boldness that made Libeskind‘s proposal strand out amongst the other inthe competition. In accepting the personally and associatively informed bold designfor a museum building, it seems that the Jewish Museum, Berlin has set aprecedent for giving space to personal narratives in Museum architecture .Itcould be therefore be concluded that postmemory has, at the very least,found its way to the door of the Museum building .However, it’s nowimportant to see if it has any acceptance beyond the threshold i.e. in theactivities or programs of museum. The following case study would help usexamine the extent of relevance and acceptance of postmemory in themuseum programs.
  93. 93. THE STAR DIAGRAM. The site is the new-old center of Berlin on Linder Strasse Libeskindat the same time felt there was an invisible matrix of connectionsbetween the figures of Jews and Germans. Libeskind plotted an“irrational matrix” which resembled a distorted star: the yellow star thatwas worn often on this very site. Libeskind inspired by the ‘Gedenbuch’which contains all the names, dates of births, and places/dates ofdepuration and/or deaths. Incorporated Walter Benjamin’s text ‘OneWay Street’ into the continuous sequence of 60 sections along thezigzag, each representing of the ‘Stations of the Star’…… The Voidsrepresent the central structural element of the New Building. From theOld Building, a staircase leads down to the basement through a Void ofbare concrete which joins the two buildings . . . . .
  94. 94. The Jewish Museum marks a special point on the map of Berlin. Its located atthe intersection of Markgrafenstrasse and Lindenstrasse lies on the edge ofFriedrichstadt. The area exhibits a compelling key of historicalbuildings and architectural styles consisting of Karl Schinkel’s Schauspielhaus,or Theater, Carl von Gontard’s two tower structures and Jewish Museum. GROUND FLOOR“The Jewish Museum is conceived as an emblem inwhich the Invisible and the Visible are thestructural features which have been gathered inthis space of Berlin and laid bare in an architecturewhere the unnamed remains the name whichkeeps still. The aim of the project was a criticalreconstruction of the historical city plan, usingcontemporary architectural means”--Daniel Libeskind
  97. 97. The structure of this building goes far beyondthe physical realm. It addresses the socialstructure of Berlin and the absence of Jews inBerlin. Libeskind creates a dialogue between thepast and the present of the Holocaust, andMost importantly, Libeskind poses the question,how do we deal with the scars from the past?