CHAPTER NO. 01
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF OGDCL
Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) is the largest petroleum
exploration and production (E&P) company in Pakistan oil and gas sector, and is
currently 95% owned by the Government of Pakistan (GOP). A strategic sale of 51%
shareholding along with transfer of management control is envisaged by the GOP.
The Government of Pakistan established Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC)
in 1961 as a statutory corporation to undertake exploration and development of oil and
gas resources. In October 1997 OGDC was converted into a public limited company and
renamed as Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL).
In November 2003, on behalf of the Government of Pakistan, the Privatization
Commission divested 5% of the GOP’s shareholding in OGDCL by way of an Offer for
Sale through an Initial Public Offering at the domestic stock exchanges.
OGDCL’s annual sales for the year 2005 are 39,130 barrels of oil per day, 919 million
cubic feet per day of gas, 334 metric tons per day of LPG and 71 metric tons per day of
sulphur. OGDCL’s share in the total oil and gas production has been 47% and 23%
respectively during the year 2004-05.
OGDCL holds the largest share of oil and gas reserves in the country, being 37% of total
oil and 32% of total gas reserves, amounting to 115 million barrels of oil and 10.5 trillion
cubic feet of gas as of July 1, 2005.
OGDCL’s major oil and gas fields are located at Kunnar, Pasakhi, Bobi, Tando Alam,
Thora, Lashari, Sono, Fimkassar, Kal, Sadqal, Rajian, Missakeswal, Dhodhak, Dhakhni,
Chanda, Chak, Naurang, Qadirpur, Uch, Pirkoh, Loti, Nandpur/Panjpir and Hundi/Sari.
OGDCL has so far completed major development projects like Dhodak Development
Project, Dhaki Development Project, Pirkoh Development Project, Nandpur/Panjpir
Development Project, Sadqal Gas Compression Project, Uch Development Project and
Bobi Development Project.
OGDCL carries out exploration and development activities on its own as well as in joint
ventures with other oil companies. OGDCL presently holds the largest acreage position
in Pakistan and as on 30 June, 2005 was operating in 25 concessions covering an area of
59,968 Sq Km which constitutes 30% of total exploration area granted to various E&P
companies in Pakistan. OCDCL also holds working interest in another three exploration
concessions which are operated by other Joint Venture Partners. OGDCL has 39
Development and Production / Mining Lease which are operated by working interest
ownership in 29 non-operated leases.
OGDCL’s equipment base includes 7 drilling rigs, 2 work over rigs, a geological field
party, 4 seismic parties, 4 engineering field parties, a gas gathering and pipeline
construction party , seismic data processing centre, geological analysis laboratory, wire
line logging unit, cementing units and data logging unit.
The company’s head office is located in Islamabad. As on 1st August 2005 OGDCL has
total manpower strength of 11,624 out of which 1,868 are officers. The company
possesses the largest professional/technical human resource base in the country's oil
1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF PROJECT
Qadirpur gas field/plant is located at a distance of about 8km from Ghotki and around 60
km northeast of Rohri in the Sindh province. It lies within the flood plain of River Indus.
The field is accessible by road from Sukkur through the National Highway. Pakistan
Railways also passes close to the site. OGDCL operates its own aircraft between
Islamabad and Qadirpur site periodically; however, generally the Sukkur airport is used
for air travel.
1.2.2 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE PROJECT
The Qadirpur gas field/plant is situated in one of the most sensitive riches of the River
Indus. The project area lies within natural flood plain of River Indus. The area is
characterized by alluvial soils deposited by River Indus. The alluvium consists of a
succession of layers of clay and send. Underlying deep below the alluvial deposits is a
thick bed of sandstone with intercalations of clay and siltstone layers known as Siwalik
The project area faces extreme temperature, very hot during the summer and cold during
the winter. The maximum and minimum temperatures generally range between 40 and 3
degree Celsius. The coldest and hottest months of the year are January and June
respectively. The area receives much of the precipitation during the monsoons season.
During the summer, the wind direction is mostly southeasterly and in winter it is
northeasterly. Flood season starts in June and continues up to September; however,
during July and August the flood discharges are at their peak flows.
1.2.4 ECOLOGY AND LANDUSE
The gas wells mostly lie in the katcha area of the river Indus. In the vicinity of Qadirpur
Gas field/plant, a few natural wetland forests exist in the katcha area, which is a protected
asset. Majority of the area comprises forests, cultivated land, swamp areas and fallow
land. The terrestrial wildlife of the area consists of mammals such as hog dear, porcupine
etc. and birds like partridge, waterfowl, lark, gully, tawny eagle etc. The Indus River
contains various types of fish and aquatic life. Indus Blue Dolphin (Platanista minor) is a
blind dolphin, which is unique to this reach of the Indus and is not found anywhere else
in the world. Initially, Indus Dolphin was reported to occur throughout the Indus river,
but due to excessive hunting, consturction of barrages, and non availability of fish for her
survival, her population has now dwindled to the stage of an endangered species, whose
only habitat limited to the stretch between Sukkur and Guddu Barrage i.e. the Qadirpur
This area was declared as the Indus Dolphin Reserve in 1974 by the Sindh Government.
It is feared that due to the proposed construction of flood protection bunds, the ecosystem
for this species may be affected badly.
Land within the Indus flood plain consists of fertile alluvial soils deposited over the
centuries by the river. Within the gas field and plant area, land use includes agriculture,
paved areas, residential (camps) areas, plant area and the land that has been utilized for
other ancillary works. A few villages are also located within the gas field area.
Agriculture mostly comprises cultivation of crops like wheat, cotton; sugar-cane,
sunflowers etc. vegetables and fruit are also grown. Farmers use Ghotki feeder canal
water for irrigating their seasonal crops and orchards. The area is quite famous for mango
production of different varieties. A significant portion of the area is covered with plants
1.2.5 SURFACE WATER
Qadirpur Gas Field is situated within the flood plain of River Indus. Ghotki Canal runs
from the northeastern to the southeastern direction of the gas field. These are two main
sources of surface water in the area. During the high flood season (monsoon), the surface
water from the river over spills and inundates the gas areas. To counter this risk; local
flood protection embankments namely lundi mirpur (LM) bund, Qadirpur bund and
OGDCL bund have been constructed in order to protect the field from flooding. For the
protection of the individual gas wells in the katcha areas, elevated platforms with
adequate stone pitching have been provided.
1.2.6 GROUND WATER
The groundwater depth below the ground surface has gone down from 4-5m in 1995-96
to 8-9m at present due to the prolonged drought and the lack of flood in the Indus River.
Water level may become shallower with normalization of floods in the Indus in the
future. The quality of ground water is good.
1.2.7 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
Large communities are established in the pucca area, close to the Qadirpur plant. Other
small communities are also present within the Katcha area. In the small communities, the
houses are usually built on elevated platforms, which rise above the normal inundation
watermark. Agriculture is the main vocation in the project area. Agriculture based cottage
industry, plying of transport and shop keeping are the other main sources of employment
in the area.
1.2.8 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
A total of 29 wells have been planned to be drilled in Qadirpur field. The field is planned
to be developed in three phases and it is expected to achieve production capacity of 500
MMSCFD. Development drilling at Qadirpur is a continuity effort to maintain the gas
supply to Southern Natural Gas PL.
1.3 Socioeconomic Environment
For the socioeconomic study, the project area includes an area lying within 3 km radius
of the proposed site for the combined cycle power plant. Administratively, the project
area falls in Ghotki taluka of the Ghotki district of Sindh province, Fig: 1.1.
As per the survey conducted for the EIA, there are 16 villages or settlements in the
project area. The size of the villages ranges from 8 to 1,300 houses. The average
household size in the study area is 6.1 as compared to the average household size of 5.5
in the Ghotki district (Population Census Organization, 2000).
The total population of the villages surveyed numbers is about 15,000. According to the
data collected, there is currently a potential workforce of 3,860 men in the project area.
There are about 8,000 persons in the project area above the age of 15 and about 7,000
below. While the census results for the Ghotki district reports 46.72 % of total population
are below the age of 15.
The data collected indicates that the male-female ratio is around 111:100, i.e., the males
in the project area outnumber the females. While the 1998 population census report for
the Ghotki district indicates the male-female ratio as 111:100. This implies that the
population pattern of the project area is similar to that of the Ghotki district.
The field survey reveals that there are approximately 2,433 houses in the project area.
Out of which about 1,464 (60%) are pakka while 969 (40%) are kacha (made of clay).
Most residents of the study area speak Sindhi and Siraiki. The major tribes of the area are
Bhutto, Samejo, Soomroo, Shaikh, Buraro, Senghar, Lakhan, Sawand, Jiskan, Drigh,
Khoso, Kolachi, Sangi, Baloch, Arain, and Syed.
The survey of the project area revealed that 50% of the workforce is involved in
agriculture and related activities; 40% are involved in labor in Ghotki, Hyderabad, and
other cities of the country; 5% are government servants and 5% have their own
businesses. Majority of the people are engaged in agriculture. Their condition on the
whole is not very encouraging. Only a few persons own big holdings. The rest are either
landless haris or petty khatedars who live from hand to mouth. The principal crops of the
district are sugarcane, wheat, cotton, rice, maize, jawar, bajra, gram, barley, tobacco etc.
Cultivation always depend on canal flows. In the district main source of irrigation is
Ghotki feeder which flows from river Indus at Guddu Barrage and radiates several small
canals irrigating the agriculture lands. The other means of irrigation are a few wells and
dug wells. The agricultural land in the project area is irrigated by both irrigation channels
and tube wells.
Groundwater is an important source of drinking water in the project area. Almost every
house in the area has a hand pump. It was observed that drinking water from most of
these sources is sweet and of good quality.
Major health problems in the area are gastroenteritis, acute respiratory infection (ARI),
malnutrition, anemia, eczema, fever, and general aches and pains. There is one Basic
Health Units (BHU) and one dispensary in the project area. Due to the proximity of the
project area to the city of Ghotki, the residents of the study area have access to public as
well as private health care.
The field survey revealed that the male literacy rate is 24% and the female literacy rate is
6% in the project area, compared to Ghotki where 44.21% of the men and 11.85% of the
women are educated (Population Census Organization, 2000).
All the villages in the project area have electricity and are accessible by blacktop roads.
Vans, pickups, and buses provide regular transport service in the area. Telephone
facilities are available in all the villages, but there is no gas supply except few villages.
Fig: 1.1 LOCATION MAP OF THE QADIRPUR GAS FIELD
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is considering as a project management tool for
collecting and analyzing information on the environmental effects of any development
Submission of an IEE or EIA report to the Environmental Protection Agency is
mandatory, according to the section 12 of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
and IEE/EIA Guidelines 2000. PEPA 1997 requires that every new project in Pakistan
has to be receded by Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) or Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) depending upon the size and severity of impact anticipated during
construction and commissioning of the project.
PEPA Review of IEE and EIA Regulation 2000 categories projects in separate schedule
that may require either an IEE (schedule-I) or an EIA (schedule-II).
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To assess the existing environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the project area.
2. To assess the potential environmental or socioeconomic impacts of all project
3. Propose appropriate mitigation measures for overcoming the environmental impacts.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of EIA includes:
1. The adverse environmental impacts would come into the knowledge of the decision
2. The decision makers would learn about the appropriate mitigation measures to control
and minimize the environmental impacts.
CHAPTER NO: 02
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
For an extensive and in-depth information various books, journals, periodicals, and
internet were referred some of the relevant information and work done by national and
international researchers in the field are given in the following section.
CHRISTINE HARRELL an oil and gas expert studied that; In terms of oil and gas
drilling, there are 4 primary types of well categories: exploratory wells, developmental
wells, production wells, and multi wells. Each type of well category has an inherently
different level of risk and potential return on investment. It is important for investors to
realize that each of these different well categories has different and associated risks and
All oil and gas drilling has risk, and no matter what type of drilling is done, that risk
cannot be completely eliminated. Here, we'll look at each of these four types of wells in
order of least risk to highest risk. Generally, lower risk wells tend to have a lower return
on investment for oil and gas investing purposes while higher risk wells yield a higher
Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources (CGER) studied that; it is
essential to recognize that estimates of undiscovered oil and gas resources are just that:
estimates. They are an attempt to quantify something that cannot be accurately known
until the resource has been essentially depleted. For that reason, resource estimates
should be viewed as assessed at a point in time based on whatever data, information and
methodology were available at that time. Resource estimates therefore are subject to
continuing revision as undiscovered resources are converted to reserves and as
improvements in data and assessment methods occur.
Historically, estimates of the quantities of undiscovered oil and gas resources expected to
exist within a region or the nation have been prepared for a variety of purposes using
several different methods. To make effective use of such estimates, or to compare them
with others, one must develop an understanding of how and why they were prepared; the
extent and reliability of the data upon which they are based; the expertise of the
assessors; the implications and limitations of the methodology used; and the nature of any
geographic, economic, technologic, or time limitations and assumptions that may apply
Forbes et al. studied the cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas there are lot of
effects on organisms that are caused by changes in the physical environment some of
those effects are mentioned here as well. For example, small areas of vegetation have
been Contaminated by spills of oil, other petroleum products, and Saltwater, and road
dust; vegetation has also been damaged by bulldozers, off-road vehicles, and ice roads;
and it has been destroyed where it underlies gravel pads and roads, or where it has been
removed to make way for gravel mines, Jorgenson and). Alterations in vegetation can
affect other organisms on the North Slope. Physical disturbances can affect fish
migrations, the movements of caribou, and in the marine environment migration and
distribution of animals, especially bowhead whales and fish. Oil-field activities can affect
the number and distribution of predators, which can in turn affect the number and
distribution of birds and some mammals .
Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper
that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and
many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil
disturbs the surrounding marine environment .
Glasby and Geoffrey have studied that extensive research into the chemical structure of
kerosene has identified algae as the primary source of oil. The a biogenic origin
hypothesis fails to explain the presence of these markers in kerosene and oil, as well as
failing to explain how inorganic origin could be achieved at temperatures and pressures
sufficient to convert kerosene to graphite. It has not been successfully used in uncovering
oil deposits by geologists, as the hypothesis lacks any mechanism for determining where
the process may occur .
James S. Robbins has argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved some
species of great whales from extinction by providing an inexpensive substitute for whale
oil, thus eliminating the economic imperative for open-boat whaling .
Jean-Philippe Nicot studied that Carbon capture and storage, a subset of which
involves injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface in a process called geological
sequestration (GS), has received renewed interest lately. The decision by the Obama
administration to handle climate change and the request for legislation to cap CO2
emissions follows an ever increasing body of work performed by scientists and engineers
all around the world, including in the US. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has large
programmers in place involving billions of dollars to address this important issue. In
Texas, large independents such as Kinder-Morgan and Denbury Resources Inc. have been
active partners with scientific institutions, allowing researchers access to data and sites
where CO2 is currently injected. In addition, all majors have shown a strong interest in
supporting the US GS research community. It is safe to say that West Texas is the world
centre of excellence when it comes to CO2 injection. Consequently, Texas has the skilled
workers and the technology required to become a major player in this nascent industry
Ruslan Vagapov studied that; in the oil production industry, economic losses and
ecological damage caused by corrosion stem from the very large amounts of metal
equipment and structures that come into contact with highly aggressive media. The most
important tasks in the development of an oilfield are reliable operation and long life of
equipment and pipeline systems. The presence of corrosive components in transported
fluids negatively affects metal in oil production, refinery, transportation and processing
operations. The degree of corrosive damage to oil production equipment is determined by
the degree of heterogeneity of the extracted fluid, the content of corrosive gases (carbon
dioxide [CO2] and/or hydrogen sulphide [H2S), and the degree of mineralization in the
aqueous phase and the variability of the corrosion activity of technological media in the
course of exploration of a given deposit.
Under such conditions, a technically justified and efficient method of protection is the use
of inhibitors that adsorb as protective films on a metal to prevent its corrosion. At the
same time, inhibitor protection seems to be one of the most appropriate and cost-efficient
ways to address this problem. The inhibitors applied during the operation of oil
equipment and pipelines should satisfy a number of engineering requirements: they
should be soluble or dispersible in water or brine, they should pass to an organic phase in
insignificant amounts only, they should not create emulsions in water and condensates,
they should be easily separable, they should ensure a highly protective effect, they should
prevent the formation of pitting, they should prevent the hydrogenation of steel (in the
case of the presence of (H2S), they should be non-toxic and they should have strong after-
Speight, James G have mentioned that the hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes,
cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds
contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel,
copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to
formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as
T. Ramjeawon and R. Beedassy studied that The Environment Protection Act (EPA) in
Mauritius provides for the application of an EIA license in respect of undertakings listed
in its first schedule. Following the promulgation of the Act in June 1993, the Department
of Environment (DOE) is issuing an average of 125 EIA licenses yearly. In general, the
review exercise of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is terminated once the
license has been granted. The aim of this project was to evaluate the EIA system in
Mauritius and to identify its weaknesses and strengths. One of the main weaknesses,
besides the lack of EIA audits, is the absence of EIA follow-up monitoring. It is
necessary to distinguish between monitoring done for regulatory purposes (compliance
monitoring) and environmental monitoring related to the EIA. With the growth of the
tourism industry on the island, coastal development projects have the potential to cause
significant environmental impacts. A sample of EIA reports pertaining to this sector was
assessed for its quality and follow-up mechanisms. Proposals for the contents of EIA
Prediction Audits, Environmental Monitoring Plans (EMP) and the format for an EMP
report are made .
Tema Nord has studied that, the amount of various molecules in an oil sample can be
determined in laboratory. The molecules are typically extracted in a solvent, then
separated in a gas chromatograph, and finally determined with a suitable detector, such as
a flame ionization detector or a mass spectrometer.
Wen-Shyan Leu, et.al suggested environmental impact assessment (EIA) evaluation
model can be used to assess the completeness and effectiveness of EIA systems. This
model is based on a consideration of the fundamental components of an EIA. The EIA
system in Taiwan has been used as the case study to demonstrate how the proposed EIA
evaluation model can be applied. Taiwan is demonstrated to have a comprehensive EIA
system, which is clearly defined legally and with guidelines available to assist proponents
in implementing the system. A particular strength is the requirement for compliance and
enforcement monitoring. Important reservations are the lack of an appeals system and the
failure to require the consideration of no-action or alternative-action strategies and the
lack of public participation at some key points in the EIA process, particularly at the
decision-making stage. Training programs could be more comprehensively available to
expand national EIA capability. It is concluded that the proposed EIA evaluation model
provides a useful tool for the evaluation of EIA systems. National authorities can apply
this model to analyze strengths and weaknesses of their EIA systems. .
3.1 Identification of adverse impacts
This section describes the identification of potential adverse impacts. The Environmental
impacts are assessed in the following stages:
• Identification of potential impacts
• Evaluation and quantification (where possible) of potential impacts
• Interpretation of the significance of potential impacts.
3.1.1 Identification of Impacts
Various studies and guidelines have identified typical impacts of oil and gas production
on the environment. For this study, the following guidelines have been used:
• Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Pakistan Environmental Assessment
Procedure. Section on Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, December 1999.
• The World Bank, Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998. Section on
Oil and Gas Development (Onshore).
• The World Bank, Environmental Assessment Sourcebook, Volume III: Guidelines for
Environmental Assessment of Energy and Industrial Projects. Section on Oil and Gas
• Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Directorate General of Petroleum
Concessions, Guidelines for Operational Safety, Health and Environmental
Management, Petroleum Exploration and Production Sector, 1996.
These guidelines provide general information. More specific information on the
environmental impacts of oil and gas production was obtained from Hagler Bailly
Pakistan’s previous work on similar projects.
3.1.2 Evaluation of Potential Impacts
This step refers to the evaluation and the quantification (where possible), or the
qualitative description, of the anticipated impacts of the proposed project on various
.3.1.3 Significance of Potential Impacts
The next step in impact assessment is determining significance of the potential impacts.
To determine the significance, both the consequence and the likelihood of occurrence of
the impact need to be considered. The consequence of the proposed activity is evaluated
on the basis of institutional recognition, public recognition, and technical recognition of
the issue or the environmental resource that is affected.
Institutional recognition means that the importance of the impact is recognized in laws,
development plans, and policy statements of the government. Public recognition means
that a segment of the public, especially the community directly affected by the project,
expresses concern about the impact. Technical recognition means that the importance is
based on scientific or technical knowledge, or on the judgment of critical resource
The overall assessment of significance is made using a standard risk assessment approach
that considers the potential consequences of the impact in conjunction with the
3.2 IDENTIFICATIN OF POTENTIAL ADVERSE IMPACTS
3.2.1 Potential Impacts on Physical Environment
The project’s potential impact on the area’s geomorphology, soil, water resources, and air
are discussed in physical environment and, where applicable, identifies mitigation easures
that will reduce, if not eliminate, its adverse impact. If all proposed mitigation measures
and monitoring mechanisms are incorporated into the project activities, their impact on
the area’s physical environment will be manageable and reversible.
3.2.2 Geology, Soil, and Topography
126.96.36.199 Potential Impacts
Impacts on geomorphology and soils may arise when following activities are carried out:
• Clearing and leveling of land along seismic lines
• Clearing of top soil and vegetation for up-holes drilling
• Earthworks, paving and construction during camp site preparation
• Vehicular and machinery mobilization
• Storage of fuels, oils and chemicals at the camp. Inevitable spillage of fuels, oils or
chemicals in the course of work.
• The likely impacts of these activities may include:
• Physical scarring of the landscape
• The loss of top-soil
• Accelerated soil erosion
• Soil contamination by accidental spillage or leakage from project vehicles and
machinery or during regular course of work at the campsite.
188.8.131.52 Assessment of Impact
Physical scarring caused by clearing and leveling for seismic lines, access tracks and up
holes drilling has the potential to be prominent on the topography of the area. However, it
would be more prominent in sand dunes area. Clearing and leveling may also increase
The loss of top-soil is only likely to take place along the seismic lines and access tracks,
if needed, and at a few other locations, such as the landfill site, within the camp.
However, in view of the limited area covered by the seismic lines, access tracks and
campsites, this impact is expected to be insignificant. Approximately 30,000 m2 area will
be covered in base camp.
The spillage and leakage of fuels, oils and other chemicals may lead to soil
contamination. Possible contaminant sources include fuel, oil and chemical storage areas
at campsites, and vehicles and machinery used in the field.
184.108.40.206 Mitigation Measures
The proposed mitigation measures to reduce the impacts on geology, topography, and soil
during the proposed seismic survey are
220.127.116.11 General Measures
• Thick vegetation clearing will be minimized and felling of trees will be avoided.
• Unnecessary clearing of vegetation will be strictly prohibited.
• Dozers will not be used to minimize drop damage.
18.104.22.168 Field Camps
• Camps will be established in clearings that already exist.
• If clearing for establishing a campsite is unavoidable, rootstock will be preserved to
minimize damage to topsoil.
• No trees will be cut.
• The movement of machinery will be restricted to the work corridor.
• Roads, Vehicles and Seismic Lines
• Existing routes will be used to access the survey lines as far as possible.
• The number of routes will be kept to a minimum
• The width of seismic lines will be kept to a minimum
22.214.171.124 Residual Impact
If the mitigation measures are effectively implemented, the residual impact of the
proposed activities on the area’s geophysical environment is expected to be insignificant.
This is summarized below:
Nature of impact Direct
Timing Operation phase
Duration Short-to medium-term
Likelihood Low, as mitigation measures will ensure that there is no adverse
Consequences Mild to moderate; the scarring of a small area of land will not have
a severe impact
Impact significance Low, resulting from low likelihood and mild to moderate
.3.2.3 Water Resources
The total water requirement for the project is estimated to be approximately 10,000 liters/
day during the proposed survey activities. Area’s groundwater from the project area will
be used to meet project requirements.
126.96.36.199 Potential Issues
Potential environmental issues associated with the use of the area’s groundwater
resources for the purposes of the project are as follows:
• Long-term impact groundwater extraction over and above the sustainable yield will
reduce the volume of groundwater available.
• Short-term impact the yield of groundwater in the vicinity of the wells used for
project purposes may fall, along with a possible decline in the quality of water in the
188.8.131.52 Assessment of Impact
The extraction of water for project activities can affect groundwater availability in the
short term, which implies that the groundwater immediately available to the communities
may fall. This should not however, affect the long-term availability of the area’s water
Short-term water extraction can affect the quantity and, indirectly, the quality of water
available to local communities. In this discussion, ‘short-term’ refers to a time period
ranging from a few hours to a few days.
OGDCL will not use existing groundwater wells. Water will be extracted from the area’s
deep, confined aquifer. It is therefore unlikely that the use of water for project needs will
affect the water table of other shallow community wells. The well which will be used by
OGDCL, will not be located closer than 100 m from any community resource.
184.108.40.206 Mitigation Measures
Based on the discussion above, the following measures are proposed:
1. Water will be extracted only from the deep confined aquifer.
2. Given that water is to be extracted from a confined aquifer whose recharge rate. (Just
as the actual volume of water available or its rate of depletion) is not known, the
extraction will be monitored to ensure that it does not lead to irreversible environmental
3. As the magnitude of natural variation in water quality and water table depth is not
known, it is not possible to establish the trigger value to take corrective measures if a
drop in the values of these parameters is seen. A trigger value of 10% is suggested at the
moment. This trigger value will be utilized for water extraction wells as well as
community wells. In case the monitoring parameters fall below their respective trigger
values, the monitoring team will assess water extraction, the discharge rate, and duration
of tube well operation. As a response, the discharge will first be reduced progressively to
20% of the average weekly discharge, and the effects on the adjoining wells and aquifer
kept under observation. 
220.127.116.11 Residual Impact
Post-mitigation residual impact on groundwater has been deemed acceptable if it meets
the following criteria:
Nature of impact Direct
Timing Operation phase
Duration Long-term, depends on the rainfall pattern and recharge
regime of the deep aquifer
Consequences Low, as monitoring and corrective action will ensure that
there is no adverse impact
Impact significance Medium
3.2.4 Contamination of Soil and Water
18.104.22.168 Potential Adverse Impact
Effluents released as a result of project activities, if not contained properly, may
contaminate the soil. Water quality may deteriorate if pollutants are mixed with surface
runoff during rain and carried to water resources in the vicinity, or if pollutants leach into
the ground. Potential sources of pollution in such cases may include:
• Domestic waste (sanitary and kitchen discharge)
• Oil and grease from vehicles and machinery
• Sediments from altered land surfaces (campsite)
• Stored fuel, oil, and other chemicals
• Pollutants can also be transferred through the food chain, thereby affecting
• Health and well-being.
22.214.171.124 Assessment of Impact
All wastewater from the kitchens, showers, and laundry will be directed into a soak pit.
Gray water from the pit will be pumped out periodically and sprayed along the access
road, to reduce dust generation. Gray water from the pit will only pollute the area’s
surface water resources if the pit is allowed to fill up, and rain causes it to overflow into
the surrounding areas. Periodic emptying of the pit will ensure that this does not happen.
Also, the pits will be designed so that water from surrounding areas does not flow into
them. Sewage from the camp will go into a concrete septic tank, which will be emptied
whenever necessary. The concrete lining will prevent sewage from polluting
All pits will be larger than the required capacity, to prevent them from overflowing. The
pits will have dykes around them to prevent runoff from entering them. All pits will be
lined with impervious pit liner to prevent contaminants from seeping into groundwater.
Stored fuel, oil, and other chemicals may contaminate the area’s water resources if it
rains and they get washed into surrounding areas. The storage and handling of fuels and
lubricants may also contaminate surface and groundwater resources, if there are spillages
that wash into surrounding areas or seep into the ground. However, the built-in mitigation
measures in the project design should ensure that pollutant discharge through run-off is
minimal and it may not be necessary to quantitatively determine the deterioration in
surface water quality.
126.96.36.199 Mitigation Measures
Mitigation measures to reduce the impact of waste effluents produced during project
activities are listed below.
1. The camps will be located at least 1 km away to avoid proximity with groundwater
wells, maintaining a minimum distance of 1 km from such natural resources.
2. Deep holes should not be located in the vicinity (i.e. within 100 m) of dug wells.
3. Tarpaulin sheets will be placed under generators, compressors, and oil cans in the field.
4. Vehicles and other equipment should not be serviced outside of the designated areas.
5. Vehicles and other equipment should not be repaired outside of the designated areas.
6. No contaminated effluents will be released into the environment without having been
7. Sewage and other waste effluents will be handled to avoid contaminating surface and
8. Water from washing areas and the kitchen will be released into sumps.
9. An appropriately designed septic tank will be used to treat sewage and outlets will
release treated effluent into sumps. The integrity of the entire system will be maintained
10. Septic tanks and sumps will be built at a safe distance from any water hole, stream, or
dry streambed, to prevent the entry of surface water, and the bottom of the sump will be
kept above groundwater level.
11. Sumps will be located in a position such that they are:
a. Fixed in absorbent soil
b. Down-slope and away from the camp (and downwind, if practical)
c. Downstream from the camp water source and above the high-water mark of
any nearby water body (if any).
12. When abandoning sumps, an extra cap of soil will be placed over them to allow for
13. Solid waste (including food waste) will be segregated and disposed of as follows:
a. Materials suitable for recycling will be stored separately and sold to approved
b. Combustible waste will be disposed of at a burn pit.
c. Non-combustible, non-recyclable rubbish will be disposed of properly
d. Medical waste will be transported to the any nearby facility for incineration.
e. Solid residue from the septic tanks will be transported to municipal sewage treatment
facilities in any near by city.
14. Vehicle and equipment maintenance, including washing, will be allowed only in
designated areas underlain with concrete slabs and a system to catch runoff.
15. Fuels, oils, and other hazardous substances will be handled and stored according to
standard safety practices.
16. Fuel tanks will be appropriately marked by content and, along with oils and
chemicals, will be stored in dyked areas lined with an impervious base.
17. Precautions, such as drip pans, will be used to avoid any spills that may occur during
fuel and oil transfer operations.
18. Fuels, oil, and chemical storage facilities will be checked daily for any signs of
19. Precautionary materials, including shovels, plastic bags, and absorbent materials, will
be kept available near fuel and oil storage areas.
20. Vehicles will be refueled daily in order to minimize travel and chances of spills, all
operating vehicles will be checked regularly for signs of fuel, oil, or battery fluid leakage.
21. A leak/spill record will be maintained for each vehicle and repairs effected at the
earliest opportunity. Vehicles with suspected leaks will not be used until repaired.
22. Soil contaminated by minor spills or leaks (defined as contaminated soil covering an
area of up to 0.1 m2 and 75 mm deep) will be collected and sent to burn pit for disposal.
23. Soil contaminated by moderate spills or leaks (defined as the spill or leakage with a
volume of up to 200 liters) will be contained using shovels, sand, and soil. The
contaminated soil will be removed from the site and disposed of as appropriate.
24. Soil contaminated as a result of a major spill (defined as a volume of more than 200
liters,) will also be removed from the site and may require special treatment, such as
188.8.131.52 Residual Impact
The residual impact of project activities on the soil and water quality of the area is
expected to be insignificant once the suggested mitigation measures are put into effect.
The residual effects are summarized below:
Nature of impact Indirect
Timing Operation Phase
Duration Medium to long term
Timing Construction and Operation
Likelihood Low, as the proposed mitigation measures will ensure that
soil and water are not contaminated.
Consequences Mild to moderate, as the effluents released into the
environment will have been adequately treated
Impact significance Low to medium, based upon low likelihood and mild to
3.2.5 Air Quality
184.108.40.206 Potential Impact
Air emissions from project-related activities are likely to include:
• Dust emissions produced during earthworks and construction for campsite
• Dust raised on dirt tracks by project-related vehicles
• Dust from drilling of deep holes
• Combustion products (nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon
monoxide, and volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine used in the camps to
generate electric power
• Combustion products from vehicles used for project-related activities
• Emissions from the burn pit
These are discussed in detail below. The potential sources of air pollution are shown in
Table no: 01
220.127.116.11 Assessment of Impact
a) Dust Emissions
Dust emissions caused by vehicular traffic on dirt track are an important concern,
primarily when such traffic passes nearby community settlements. It is not uncommon to
see a huge cloud of dust following vehicles traveling on unpaved roads. Where these
roads are paved, the problem is usually not as serious. The exception is when two
vehicles coming from opposite directions cross on a single-lane paved road two to three
meters wide. In such situations, usually one or both the vehicles are partially forced off
the paved surface, producing dust emissions since the road shoulder is generally unpaved.
Dust emissions cause the amount of particulate matter in the air to increase, and thus
become a health concern. Dust clouds also reduce road visibility, creating a traffic
b) Generator Emissions
Four generators of approximately 250 KVA capacities will be used during the proposed
seismic program. The exhaust emissions produced by the generators was previously been
monitored and found to meet the NEQS. Similarly, the ambient air quality was also
monitored and was found to have a minimal impact on the air quality.
c) Exhaust Fumes from Vehicles and Construction Machinery
Emissions produced by vehicles and equipment will be similar to those produced by
diesel generators in terms of the resulting pollutants (SO2, NOX, PM, etc.). However, the
extent to which they are produced will be considerably lower, since much smaller diesel
engines are used in vehicles and construction machinery.
d) Emissions from Burn Pit
The emissions produced by the burn pit will be composed of combustion products
including CO2, CO, and PM. Not much NOX or SO2 is expected to be present because
of the low combustion temperature and the absence of any sulfur or its compounds in the
combustible waste, respectively.
18.104.22.168 Mitigation Measures
None of the potential effects discussed above are expected to exceed acceptable limits.
The mitigation measures given below will further reduce their impact, and ensure that
they remain within acceptable limits.
1. The campsites will be located at least 200 m from any settlements.
2. All equipment, generators, and vehicles used during the project will be properly tuned
and maintained in good working condition in order to minimize exhaust emissions.
3. Vehicle speed will be reduced on track passing through or close to settlements.
4. Imposing speed limits and encouraging more efficient journey management will reduce
the dust emissions produced by vehicular traffic. Water will be sprinkled where necessary
to contain dust emissions.
5. All project vehicles will be checked regularly to ensure that engines are in sound
working condition and are not emitting smoke. 
22.214.171.124 Residual Impact
After implementing the mitigation measures listed above, the residual impact of the
proposed activities on ambient air quality is expected to be insignificant, as shown below:
Nature of impact Direct
Duration Short term
Timing Seismic operation
Reversibility Not applicable
Likelihood Low (unlikely) as mitigation measures will ensure
that air pollution remains within acceptable limits.
Consequences Mild, as pollutant levels in the ambient air will be
well within acceptable limits.
Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild to
3.3 Impact on Biological Environment
3.3.1 Potential Issues of natural vegetation
Project activities that may affect the area’s natural vegetation include the establishment of
camps, and access roads, and clearing of vegetation for the seismic lines.
126.96.36.199 Assessment of Impact
A significant impact will be interpreted if unnecessary or excessive removal and burning
of plants for fuel wood is observed. The vegetation on of the area is facing increasing
pressure from live stock. Signs of habitat degradation caused low rain fall and by grazing
are visible. Woody species are being exploited for fuel and fodder purposes. No rare,
sensitive or vulnerable species are recorded or reported in the project area. Most of the
plants present in the area have the properties to grow in more than one habitat and have
populations large enough to ensure their genetic diversity. The removal of a small portion
of vegetation is not likely to harm the overall diversity of plant communities and the
genetic diversity of species.
188.8.131.52 Mitigation Measures
The following mitigation measures will reduce any adverse impact on vegetation:
1. The clearing of vegetation along the seismic lines and campsite will be minimized as
far as possible.
2. Dense vegetation and tree clusters will be avoided.
3. Open fires will not be allowed anywhere outside the campsites.
4. Fuel-wood and shrubs will not be used as fuel during project activities.
5. Unnecessary damage to vegetation in will strictly be avoided.
6. When clearing a campsite, disturbance to topsoil and vegetation rootstock will be
avoided to the greatest possible extent.
184.108.40.206 Residual Impact
Given the current state of the vegetation, and proper implementation of the proposed
mitigation measures, no significant residual impact on the natural vegetation of the area is
anticipated, as shown below:
Nature of impact Direct
Duration Short-to medium-term
Timing Operation phase
Likelihood Low (unlikely), as the mitigation measures will
ensure that vegetation clearing is minimized
Consequences Mild, as no rare plant species are present in the
areas where vegetation will be cleared
Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild
220.127.116.11 Potential Impact
The project activities that may affect the wildlife of the area include the improvement and
construction of the access road, clearing of vegetation for seismic lines, and campsite
preparation. The following aspects of these activities are expected to disturb the wildlife
during these activities:
• Presence of people in the area
• Noise and movement of seismic vehicles and machinery
• Physical damage to the habitat
• Displacement of wildlife for a short period.
18.104.22.168 Assessment of Impacts on mammals
The large mammals of the area include hyena, wolf, and Chinkara. These animals are
counted as species of special significance of the area. Most carnivores, including hyena
and wolf, are nocturnal; hence, barring direct damage to their dens, project impact on
these species is expected to be insignificant. Chinkara, though not nocturnal, will
temporarily leave the specific area of the project activity, and will come back once the
activity level decreases.
None of the area’s small mammals are included in the species of concern discussed in
Though areas with dense vegetation will be avoided while clearing the seismic lines and
explosions, there will however be some impact on the small mammals of the area, such as
damage to their burrows and dens that cannot be mitigated.
22.214.171.124 Assessment of impacts on Birds
Birds, being highly mobile and therefore capable of avoiding project activity areas, are
generally the least susceptible of an area’s wildlife to the long-term impacts of such
temporary activities as seismic surveys.
Two avian species, the houbara bustard and the partridge are included in the project area's
species of special significance. The houbara bustard is a winter visitor, whereas the
partridge is a resident of the area, will also have adverse effects on the avian species of
the area, particularly the bustard, as it is dependent upon the vegetation for nesting and
feeding. Although steering clear of large bushes and areas of dense vegetation will reduce
the impact of the project on these avian species; there will nonetheless be some residual
impact which cannot be completely avoided.
126.96.36.199 Assessment of impacts on Reptiles and Amphibians
The project activities’ impacts on the reptiles and amphibians of the project area will be
similar to those on the small mammals discussed earlier. The leveling and explosions
may destroy the burrows of these animals. Though avoiding areas of dense vegetation
will reduce this impact, a certain degree of residual effects are expected. However, in
view of the abundance of these species in the area, the unmitigated residual impacts are
188.8.131.52 Mitigation Measures
The following mitigation measures will reduce the adverse impact of the project
1. Areas with concentrated colonies of active burrows and dens will be avoided.
2. Discharging firearms will be explicitly prohibited.
3. Waste of any kind will not be discharged in open areas.
4. A ‘no-hunting, no-trapping, no-harassing’ policy will be strictly enforced.
5. The project staff’s movement will be strictly restricted to the work area.
6. The project staff will be educated and instructed to avoid killing or chasing wild
7. Safe driving practices will be observed to minimize the accidental killing of reptiles or
small mammals crossing the road.
8. Camp waste will be disposed of in such a manner that animals are not attracted to it.
9. Off-road driving will not be allowed.
10. Unnecessary damage to the natural topography and landscape will be kept to a
minimum to the extent possible.
11. As dolphins are more active at night (Pilleri, 1971), the project activities will be
restricted to diurnal hours only so that the operation may not interfere in their peak
12. The explosive activity will be restricted to a distance of 25 m away from the river
13. There will be no equipment movement across the river through boats. River crossings
through boats will be minimized. 
184.108.40.206 Residual Impact
Due to the proper implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, no significant
residual impact on birds, mammals, reptiles, or amphibians are anticipated, as shown
Nature of impact Direct
Duration Short- to medium-term
Timing Operation phase
Likelihood Low (unlikely)
Consequences Mild, as the project area does not fall in any more
Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild
3.4 Impact on Social and Cultural Environment
3.4.1 Assessment of Impact
Conducting seismic activity in the QADIRPUR GAS FIELD and subsequent project-
elated activities have several implications. Seismic activities are bound to utilize
community resources including land, labor, water, and common property, such as
traditional grazing areas when constructing access routes. This section discusses the
framework in which the seismic activities proposed in this project affect the community’s
utilization of resources.
a) Community Well-being Parameters
In the course of this study, a set of parameters for the assessment of the well-being of the
affected poor (World Bank, 2000) was used to assess the social, economic, and cultural
impacts of the project. The surveyors used a nonlinear and multidimensional model of
analysis to assess the current status of community well being. This model allows for the
recognition of non economic factors in determination of the well being of the affected
communities. Thus the model was strengthened by integrating gender, economic welfare,
and other sociocultural factors.
b) Primary Health: Health indicators, such as infant mortality rates, access to community
health services (public and private), and the general life expectancy in a region represent
the sate of general well-being of a certain community. Health is also closely correlated
with labor productivity and efficiency. Improving the overall health of a community
enhances its income-earning potential.
c) Primary Education: Education is also directly related to income-level; the higher the
income level, the more likely the presence of educational facilities. People below the
poverty line, on the other hand, are less likely to have access to education. In general,
education strengthens human and social capital and enhances gender equality. In the long
run, access to education is instrumental in enhancing the level of awareness that provides
the intellectual tools to analyze evaluate and adapt to new situation with exit
opportunities. It gives empowerment, increased political participation, and reduced
birthrates, addressing the long-term needs of an entire community and particularly its
d) Availability of Drinking Water: Groundwater is used in the area for irrigation as well as
for drinking and sanitary purposes. Availability of fresh water for these purposes is
important for the wellbeing of the primary stakeholders i.e. the villagers in the project
area. The effect of project on the area’s water resources is important in measuring the
impact of the project on the socioeconomic environment of the area.
e) Land Use: land in project area is used for irrigation and wood collection. As in most
pastoral societies, loosely defined communal ownership of cultivated areas plays a major
role in defining individual social status and tribal power dynamics.
f) Employment: Employment is largely restricted to the urban centers like Sukkur and
GHOTKI .Men from the project area migrate seasonally and in the years of drought to
avail unskilled labor. Most of these men come from the poorest strata of the local society.
g) Gender Equity: Gender equity, or the lack of it, reflects women’s access to and control
of natural resources, public health, and education services, their participation in decision-
making and political processes, and their ownership of productive assets in comparison
with men. Gender roles in the project area are largely determined by the social relations
prevalent between men and women in the area. After marriage, a woman’s assets are
transferred to her husband’s and cannot be disposed of without his permission.
h) Social Institutions: Tribal social institutions flourish when the presence of the state is
minimal, as in this case. It is therefore imperative to include these institutions in any
analysis of community well-being in the project area. The kinship based structure of
traditional tribal institution can potentially stifle the freedom of less influential and
marginalized groups including women and poorest people. Civil society institutions if
allowed to flourish will increase the possibilities of gender equity and inclusion of
marginalized in the mainstream social life.
i) Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms: The indigenous conflict-resolution mechanism of the
project area is completely patriarchal and hierarchical. This mechanism helps to
demarcate tribal zones of influence, water-sharing arrangements, and has recently been
used to determine political representation as well. Any project activity challenging the
local system of conflict-resolution and decision-making could result in conflicts between
the major tribes and OGDCL. Presence of civil law and modern institutions of conflict
resolution will reduce the monopoly of tribal institutions.
j) Vulnerability: Vulnerability was viewed in two dimensions sensitivity (the magnitude
of a system’s response to an external event) and resilience (the ease and rapidity of a
system’s recovery from stress). In the project area, ‘vulnerability’ implies the ability of
the population to deal with natural disasters such as droughts. It also determines the
percentage of migrants and the proportion of people in the study area living below the
poverty line before and after the occurrence of such natural shocks. If the issues cited
above that impede the well being of the communities are not properly addressed, the level
of vulnerability will automatically increase.
k) Assessment Methodology
The positive and negative effects of the project were analyzed based on their intensity
and permanence, as well as in light of the well-being parameters set out above. Mitigation
measures were then identified through a consultative process that involved a team of
social analyst, ethnographers and anthropologists, as well as community respondents.
The short-term effects of project activities, along with relevant mitigation measures, reset
as the use of groundwater have been addressed in this document. In general the project
activities will not have long term adverse impacts on the lives of locals. The following
two methodologies were used to assess the livelihood and vulnerability of the
• Stakeholder consultation
• Qualitative studies and focus groups
3.4.2 Potential Impact
After screening all potential issues through the scoping process it is concluded that the
following issues merit detailed assessments:
• Community conflicts
• Land use and acquisition of productive land
• Gender issues and interaction with local communities
• Community disturbance
• Community health and safety
• Local employment
220.127.116.11 Community Conflict and Management
The likelihood and the possibilities of a multitude of conflicts was assessed in order to
identify the most effective patterns of interaction, management and resolution of the
conflict to increase the effectiveness of the project in addressing the needs of the poorest
of the poor. Conflict analysis was conducted in consultation with primary stakeholders.
The following criteria were used:
• The relative power and interest of each stakeholder (Freeman, 1984)
• Their importance and influence (Grumbler and Willard, 1996)
• Their various roles
• The networks and coalitions to which they belong (Freeman and Gilbert, 1987). In
conflict assessment, four types of stakeholders are expected to emerge: those with
claims to legal protection, those with political clout, those with power to block
negotiated agreements, and those who command respect and have the public
sympathizes (Susskind and Cruikshank, 1987).
According to the field survey, one of the reasons for conflict could be unrealistic
expectation on the part of local communities in terms of the benefits they could derive
frm the project. Conflicts could arise on the following issues:
• Local employment
• Land and other natural resource acquisition, utilization and compensation.Based on
the assessment of conflict over natural resources and the tribal distribution of the area,
it becomes evident that due to numerical strength of their respective tribes the elderly
of Mahar and Lund tribe enjoy slightly higher influence than the rest of the tribal
leaders who can potentially influence the decision making in a conflict situation.
Although this does not automatically translate into a conflict situation between tribes,
it does show that some of these tribes are better placed in terms of access and
utilization of resources. As a result of their stronger presence, these relatively
influential tribes could manipulate the situation to unilaterally usurp the potential
benefits from the project.
In this specific case, the key players in the resolution of potential conflicts are the leaders
of Mahar tribes. They hold the power1 and influence to negotiate agreements with the
tribes of the project area.
18.104.22.168 Mitigation Measures
Conflict mitigation can be addressed through:
1. Joint decision-making
Given the possibility that the project activities can potentially trigger a conflict situation
worsening the relationship between the proponents and tribal leadership, it is vital for the
proponents to adopt a joint decision-making approach. To help build trust and confidence
between tribal leaders, and OGDCL it is crucial to recognize the proportionate
representation of all interest groups in the process of the dialogue between community
and the project proponents. Furthermore in compliance with the policy of information
disclosure enshrined in international conventions on responsible business OGDCL will
share information with the concerned tribal leaders and communities regarding:
• Project activities, especially the usage of the access track
• Information on and verification of land claims if any and issues of tribal ownership of
water sources and pastoral areas.
• Planned community development programs in the area
• OGDCL has to evolve a social cultural and economic cost mitigation policy that is
acceptable to the locals.
OGDCL will ensure that it establishes contact and dialogue with local communities and
the local and tribal leadership of the area before commencing project activities. This
strategy will develop consensus, avoid conflict, and evolve a positive long-term
relationship between the community and the project proponent.
22.214.171.124 Land use and acquisition of productive land
Land use in the project area is categorized as fertile alluvial land. Most of the land is
being used for irrigation. The area gets flooded through part of the year and is cultivated
only when flood waters recede. Only one wheat crop is planted through the year.
No agricultural, settled, or historically significant land will be appropriated for this
project during the seismic survey. OGDCL will establish the campsites on land affected
by water logging and salinity just outside the seismic block. Upgrading the access track is
not expected to have a significant impact because the road that will be utilized during the
project is the main access road to project area from GHOTKI and is already in use by the
local community. This is a carpeted road constructed to facilitate the access between
QADIRPUR AND GHOTKI For the seismic survey, each category of land use may be
utilized for short periods. In cases where land is covered by settlements, whether large
villages or hamlets, the seismic survey will be diverted to maintain a minimum
126.96.36.199 Mitigation Measures
OGDCL is likely to face the grievances over compensation payments because the land is
owned by the private owners. To avoid such circumstances it is advised that OGDCL acts
in concert with the local land owner and Chief Sardar of the Mahar Tribe Sardar Ghulam
Muhammad Mahar. OGDCL’s Party Chief will ensure that complaints regarding
perceived threat to cultivated parts of project area are addressed in a timely manner.
a) Impact on Livelihood
Community livelihood is primarily dependent on Irrigation and Land Cultivation. The
impact of project activities on community livelihood is discussed below.
b) Impacts on Agriculture
Although no grazing land will be appropriated for the project (campsites and widening of
access track), seismic lines may be aligned such that they, on occasion, traverse pastoral
areas near the wells. In order to minimize the impact of project activity on pastoral land
he seismic survey can be conducted after the crop has been cut. The permitting team will
survey the damage after the project with local representatives and compensate the grieved
c) Local Economy
There is likely to be significant demand for goods and services to supply the daily needs
of the crew. Because of the size, scale, and nature of these goods and services, most of
these goods, including food items, will be procured in city centers and transported to the
field camps on a regular basis. In order to undertake this activity the company will have
to employ local manual labor thus creating employment opportunity. As a result short
term disposable income of the community will increase.
d) Use of Local Resources
The influx of a large group of people in an area with scarce natural resources could have
significant repercussions on the local ecology. The most significant impacts are likely to
be on the use of fuel-wood and water. The management of the campsite itself, which will
accommodate a large number of people, will have to ensure that unsustainable resource
exploitation does not occur.
e) Fuel Wood
No vegetation clearing will be required to conduct the seismic survey. Moreover, the use
of fuel-wood at campsites will be prohibited, and all fuel requirements will be met
through natural gas cylinders.
Water is a common resource that is communally owned by tribes in the project area.
People or groups of people own many of the existing water sources, all of which are
operated according to local community norms, especially water for drinking purposes.
With the onset of project deviation from established customs on the use of water should
be avoided and the pattern of local water distribution should be recognized as an
established law governed by community needs.
OGDCL will install their own wells just outside the project area. These wells will be
deeper than the 40 ft. deep community wells. Water from the community tube wells and
hand pumps will not be used for the project.
Employment by OGDCL is clearly in high demand among the local communities since
people are often forced to migrate to areas outside the project area to find employment.
However, the seismic survey requires the employment of skilled labor, almost all of
which will come from outside the project area. Opportunities for employment of the local
population are likely to be restricted to unskilled labor only such as watchmen at the
campsites. Some unskilled labor may be required during road leveling operations, but this
will probably be very short-term.
f) Gender Issues and Interaction with Local Communities
Gender roles are strictly defined in rural, tribal societies. The women of the areas visited
during the survey do not observe strict purdah, and are mobile to the extent of traveling
within village limits or even outside the settlement area to fetch fuel wood or water.
However, they are generally not exposed to strangers, particularly when their men-folk
are not present. The seismic survey will, in all probability, lead to some additional
restrictions on female mobility in areas where the survey is being carried out within a
radius of 1 km from settlements. This will hold particularly true when the survey is being
conducted in areas adjoining main water sources or areas where fuel-wood is collected.
Gender roles are strictly defined in rural feudal and tribal societies. Women in the project
area perform traditional activities like fetching water, and collecting fuel wood. The
mobility of women in the project area may be hampered due to the presence of men
during the proposed seismic survey. However, as explained above, the survey team’s
presence in an area will be for a short span of time, ie, one to two days. Interaction
between locals and OGDCL employees who do not belong to the project area will be
strictly reduced to project specific needs. The impact on the mobility of women therefore,
is not expected to be significant. There will be no impact on gender roles and
responsibilities relating to collection of fuel wood given that:
• The alignment of the proposed access track is such that it will not increase the
workload of women because of detours to access wood collection areas.
• Alternative fuel wood collection options are available for the community near their
• To avoid gender issues the following measures will be adopted:
• It will be ensured during the seismic survey that field crews do not enter settlement
areas unless accompanied by local men-folk.
• Field crews will avoid going near springs and hand pumps.
• A minimum distance (approximately 300 m) from settlements, water points, and
culturally significant areas will be maintained during the seismic survey.
• A locale should accompany the project team during their trips to the settlements,
watering points, and culturally significant areas.
• The seismic permitting staff will inform village leaders of the location and time of all
There is expected to be very little interaction between seismic crews and local
communities, except for the local people who are hired for the project. However, the
influx of outsiders may affect the mobility of local women. As the seismic survey
workers will not remain in one area for more than a few days, so the impact will be
temporary. Seismic workers will be instructed to avoid interacting with local people
when outside the enclosure.
g) Community Disturbance
Community disturbance is likely to become an issue if seismic work is conducted close to
the scattered settlements. Various field activities, such as transportation of heavy
machinery, materials, equipment and personnel will cause noise and vibration along the
roads and the seismic lines, which may disturb people in nearby houses. Access roads
passing close to villages will also result in disturbance. Shooting and recording will not
result in disturbance, since only a single, muffled thud is heard on the surface when the
explosive is detonated.
To minimize the disturbance and noise impacts, the following mitigation measures will
be implemented for conducting work close to settlements:
1. Communities will be informed about the project activities and possible disturbance in
2. All project drivers will adopt safe driving practices and special care will be taken while
passing through the settlements, and speed will be reduced as required.
3. Any new tracks, if required, will be aligned a minimum of 500 m from the settlements,
if possible. If this is not possible, the tracks will be restored after completion of work in
4. If alternative routes exist, existing tracks passing close to settlements will not be used.
5. No activity will be undertaken at night.
6. Use of horns will be prohibited.
h)Community Health and Safety
People from the project area regularly travel to other cities, and thus cannot be considered
isolated from the rest of the country. They are regularly exposed to illnesses common to
urban populations, and have similar levels of immunity. The seismic crew will undergo
medical examinations before being hired, and will be screened for communicable
diseases. The project is therefore very unlikely to lead to an epidemic of any sort among
Project activities, such as the handling of explosives, could become a hazard if conducted
in populated areas where local people, especially children, are likely to gather around to
watch the activity. The other safety issue is that of traffic, especially along access roads
close to settlements. To reduce the hazards, the following mitigation measures will be
1. Local people will be informed in advance when work is about to start in an area. This
may result in people keeping young children away from work areas. Seismic contractor
will also be responsible to ensure that any person not related to the survey is not allowed
to come close to the work area without permission of the seismic crew.
2. Compressors and other machinery will never be left unattended.
3. Safe driving practices will be adopted, particularly while passing through settlements.
188.8.131.52 Non-Local Labor and Local Employment
Skilled or unskilled labor brought in from outside the project area is likely to cause
resentment among local communities. This may cause dismay and resentment among
locals against the non local labor. The presence of a large number of non-local men in the
project area may impact the mobility of women who need to leave their homes to fetch
water and collect fuel wood. During the seismic activity, expectations of opportunities for
paid work will increase sharply. Employment not fairly distributed between the tribes of
the project area will cause inter-tribe conflict resulting in project delays. Moreover,
assuming the potential engagement of men in project-related activities, the role of male
family members in irrigation and household activities is expected to decline further and
the pressure of work on women to increase accordingly. Although limited, one positive
impact of the seismic survey will be a marginal improvement in the income level of the
184.108.40.206 Mitigation Measures
Although the seismic activity is not expected to generate many jobs, OGDCL will ensure,
that maximum of the unskilled jobs (watchmen), local guards, manual laborers, and the
‘green team’ utilized for restoration activities) are reserved for locals. The locals will be
hired through labor contractors. Based on data collected during the field survey, there is
currently a potential workforce of more than 1,000 males in the project area. Where
possible, semi-skilled jobs will also be provided to individuals from the project area.
For this project, the term ‘local’ will be defined as ‘individuals living in the project area,
with preference given to people directly affected by the project activities. In order not to
raise expectations, the proponent will maintain regular contact with locals through its
Party Chief, who will provide realistic numbers and categories of employment
Interaction between non-local employees and locals not employed by OGDCL will be
discouraged. Project staff will be instructed to stay away from areas frequented by
women. Village elders will be informed at least two weeks prior to the commencement of
project activities in an area.
OGDCL will do the local hiring through contractors. Semi skilled tasks—tanker drivers
for the transport of water to campsites can also be distributed among local if such skills
In a typical seismic operation, regardless of the gender relations in the project area, it is
practically impossible to employ women from the project area. However, the major
beneficiaries of OGDCL’s community development projects in the area are expected to
be women and children. Cause inter-tribe conflict resulting in project delays. Moreover,
assuming the potential engagement of men in project-related activities, the role of male
family members in irrigation and household activities is expected to decline further and
the pressure of work on women to increase accordingly. Although limited, one positive
impact of the seismic survey will be a marginal improvement in the income level of the
3.5 Stack Gaseous Emission
From the environmental monitoring data, as reported in TABLE 3.10, it is evident that
CO and NOx stack emissions from both the generators (one diesel fired & one gas fired),
stack emissions of NOx from turbine No 1, emission of CO from gas heater, flare and
water pump emission of SO2 from main Flare, and stack emission of NOx from fire water
pump are in violation of the NEQS.
H2S Emission from the turbine stacks as measured by the plant in October 2008 was
found to be almost nil. Emission of stack particulate matter, as reported in table are in
compliance with the NEQS limiting value.
3.5.1 Assessment Of Impact
All the six stack emission show that they emit one or the other gaseous emissions in
excess of the NEQS limiting values.
3.5.2 Mitigation Measure
For Air Emissions a double chamber-four electrostatic precipitator (ESP) may be
employed for treatment of flue gas from each boiler. The de-dusting efficiency of ESP
will be 99.52%. The flue gas would be desulphurised by passing it through the flue gas
desulphurization efficiency of above 90%. The level of dust emission would be 90
mg/Nm3, and the total emission 164.473 t/h. The SO 2 emission concentration would be
750 mg/Nm3, while the total SO2 emission would be 1367.118 kg/h, which will be well
within the NEQS limits of 500 tons/day.
3.6 NOISE LEVEL
Noise levels monitored data reported in Table-3.2 and 3.3 show that the noise levels at
reference point No 6 near Turbine-1, Reference point No 7 Fin Fan Coolers Train-1,
Reference point No 11 Compressor near plant operator room and Reference point No13
inside Gas Field Generator Room are in violation of the NEQS limiting value.
3.6.1 Assessment Of Impact
It assess that during the monitoring data that at the boundary level the noise level is right
and less than 85 (db) at showing in the Table. But at the plant boundary some areas where
the noise level is greater than the Required NEQS. It showing at the Table No.3.3
3.6.2 Mitigation Measure
In areas identified with high noise levels within the plant site entry of the people should
be restricted to those attending to the job staff to work at these places should use proper
safety gears/apparels along with ear muffs/plugs as the case may be.
However, it is recommended that proper high noise level control techniques such as the
use of noise mufflers, sound absorbing materials, vibration damping materials etc, should
be adopted. Since the matter requires detailed study and investigations, hence a separate
proposal can be submitted by NESPAK to OGDCL, if desired.
At the same time, possibilities to reduce the noise levels from the primary plant sources
should also be explored, such as proper lubrication of the machine parts and also suitable
covering of the noisy parts can be helpful in reducing the noise level. 
3.7 WASTEWATER ANALYSIS
The wastewater laboratory test data as shown in TABLE 3.8 and 3.9 indicate that two
sewage samples one each collected from workers plus Assistant-2 Mess and Assistant-1
and officers Camp are in violation of the NEQS with respect to COD, BOD 5 and oil and
The wastewater samples from the produced water Tank are in gross violation of the
NEQS limiting values of TDS, COD, BOD5, Oil and Grease with minor violation of
sulphides while the wastewater samples from Retention Pond are in violation of COD,
BOD5, Oil and Grease and Sulphides.
3.7.1 Assessment Of Impact
It is recommended that wastewater from the entire source. Sewage (two source),
Produced water and plant Waste water ( retention Pond Water ) should be treated in a
treatment plant and than either it should be discharged into the canal or be used for
irrigation outside the plant area by farmers and / or on site as the case may be.
3.7.2 Mitigation Measure
“Raw sewage” generated from the plant/camp area could be used for
irrigation/cultivation of vegetables. It would be responsible for pollution/bacterial
contamination specially of leafy vegetables consumption of such contaminated
vegetables can cause viral/bacterial diseases among their consumers this tendency should
therefore, be avoided at all costs. Sewage from the plant site is pumped into an open drain
wherefrom it evaporates into the environment under the Sun. This could spread bacteria
in the environment around thus slowly polluting the air and such polluted air being
inhaled by the people around can cause a variety of diseases. This practice should be
3.8 Wastewater from scavenger
Waste generated from the scavenger after reaction with H2S is an aqueous solution of
Amine complex, which is pale white in color and has a pungent odor. Average quantity
of scavenger waste generated is 2300-2600 liters/day. The waste contains acid and stable
organic sulphur compounds as well as a little quantity of liquid hydrocarbons. This liquid
waste is then passed through a corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) to absorb the liquid
hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons free liquid waste thus generated is transferred into the
produced well storage from where it is injected into the disposal well.
This practice can seriously deteriorate the quality of groundwater.
Therefore, it is recommended that the disposal of scavenger waste into the ground should
be stopped immediately. Proper chemical treatment of the scavenger waste should be
carried out through usually the chemical treatment proves expensive. After removal of
the toxic chemicals, it can be disposal of suitability.
An alternative to the chemical treatment can, therefore, be to incinerate the waste in a
specially designed incinerator.
“Produced water”, exceeding permissible units of some parameters as per NEQS, is being
pumped into a deep well on plant site without any treatment. At a later stage, this water
can cause pollution of the underground sweet water being used for irrigation and drinking
by human beings and animals. In such a case, it will be a great loss to the national
resources. Pakistan is already hard hit for fresh water and as such cannot afford to allow
this practice, which needs to be discontinued.
According to the staff at the plant, “plant wastewater (Retention pond water)” after only
CPI treatment is being discharged into the nearby feeder canal through about 6km long
R.C.C pipe line. This water like other wastewaters being generated at the plant is also
highly polluted. As such, it should not be discharged into the canal or any other water
body. This is an illegal practice and is in violation of the Pakistan Environment
3.9 Assessment of Impacts of Ambient Air Quality within Plant Boundary
The results of CO, NOx, SO2 and H2S monitoring are given in TABLE-3.7 and 10 when
compared with OSHA standards, these values are within the acceptable limits for ambient
air within the plant area.
The results of PM monitoring are given in TABLE-3.6. The values range between 10 to
58 mg/NM3 . None of the documents referred in the Terms of Reference of the OGDCL
provides standards for ambient air quality assessment with regard to PM inside the plant
boundary. Additionally, it is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring as in
the present case, for assessing the quality of ambient air in the plant or to look for the
environmental adverse effects of PM emissions from the plant. The result can not be
conclusive about the true state of environment until annual mean basis is carried out.
However, the results can be considered as acceptable for preliminary evaluation and can
be compared with WHO Guidelines for Air Quality. It is seen that the results are within
the permissible limits.
3.9.1 Mitigation Measures
Ambient Air Quality within Plant Boundary
Spot monitoring as carried out in the present study, though shows the level of pollutants
are OK with regard to OSHA, yet it cannot be considered as conclusive and it is
suggested that the pollution levels can turn out to be high if comprehensive time targeted
monitoring is done. It is therefore, extremely important that monitoring on hourly basis
for 24 hours and yearly mean basis should be carried out to determine the real picture of
the ambient air vis a vis State of the Environment (SoE). Based on these findings, actions
to manage the environment should be chalked out.
3.10 Assessment Of Impact
3.10.1 Ambient Air Quality within Three Kilometers around the Plant Boundary
The ambient air monitoring values within 3km around the plant are shown in TABLE-5.
None of the documents referred in the Terms of Reference of the OGDCL, provides
standards for the ambient air quality assessment outside the plant boundary. Additionally,
it is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring as in the present case, for
assessing the quality of ambient air around the plant or to look for the environmental
adverse effects of the emissions from the plant. Ambient air profile should be prepared on
the basis of hourly monitoring for 24 hours (hourly mean for 24 hours) or annual mean
basis. Therefore, assessment of the ambient air quality on the basis of one time grab
monitoring can be considered as preliminary. As compared to WHO Guidelines for Air
Quality, the ambient air condition is considered as satisfactory for preliminary evaluation.
3.10.2 Mitigation Measures
Ambient Air Profile within Three Kilometers around the Plant Boundary
It is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring, as in the present case, for
assessing the quality of the ambient air around the plant or to look for the environmental
adverse effects of the emissions from the plant. However, based on WHO Guidelines for
Air Quality, the results can be treated as satisfactory for preliminary evaluation.
Ambient air profile should be prepared on the basis of hourly monitoring for 24 hours or
annual mean basis. Therefore, assessment of the ambient air quality on the basis of one
time grab monitoring can be considered as preliminary.
Accordingly, it is recommended that following the proper methods of ambient air quality
monitoring. Environment profile should be prepared based on which the required
environmental management should be carried out.
Table No.3.1 AIR POLLUTION SOURCES
Nature of Pollutant
Period and Nature of
Class Source Classification Period and Nature of
Particulate matter Periodically
ranging in size from5 throughout the day
1 Dust from earthwork and clearing
micron to 50 micron during project period
Vehicle exhaust fumes on roads SO2, NOX, CO, and Periodically
near communities Periodically Unburned throughout the day
throughout the day during project during project period
period (60-90) days (60-90) days
Particulate matter Periodically
Dust from traffic on unpaved ranging in size from 5 throughout the day
loads near communities clearing micron to 50 micron during project period
Hydrocarbons (30-90)days clearing
Table No. 3.2 NOISE LEVEL AT BOUNDARY LEVEL
1 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT 54.16
2 14.11.2009 BOUNDARY WALL A 64.20
3 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL 65.41
BOUNDARY WALL B
4 14.11.2009 64.15
5 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL 53.12
6 15.11.2009 BOUNDARY WALL C 67.6
7 15.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL C+D 60.10
Table No. 3.3 NOISE LEVEL MONITORING DATA WITHIN PLANT
1 14.11.2009 OUTSIDE CONTROL ROOM 83
2 14.11.2009 MAINTAENANCE SITE OFFICE 79.30
3 14.11.2009 OUT SIDE WARE HOUSE 81.55
4 14.11.2009 INSIDE CONTROL ROOM 67.15
5 14.11.2009 INSIDE LABORATORY 69.60
6 15.11.2009 NEAR TURBINE 94.20
7 15.11.2009 FIN FAN COOLERS TRAIN 1 96.50
8 15.11.2009 SLUG CATCHER 73.00
9 15.11.2009 RETENTION POND 75.70
10 15.11.2009 COMPRESSOR NEAR PLANT OPERATOR 89.00
11 15.11.2009 PLANT OPERATOR ROOM 66.85
12 15.11.2009 INSIDE GAS FIRED GENERATOR 95.40
13 15.11.2009 SAFETY SITE OFFICE 65.05
Link to Project Monitoring
Impact Parameter Potential Impact Mitigation
1- Appropriation of Construction of Dissatisfaction with Payment of agreed Compensation and
privately-owned access routes, level of compensation lease payments
land. campsites and compensation paid. Minimize use of paid by OGDCL
well site. private land for and
project activities The bases of
Company payments received
compensation by affectes.
policy to include List of people paid
Compensation for full and fair
The use of compensation
Community If damage to
Community property takes
2-Influx of non Skilled labor Dissatisfaction Balanced
local migrant labor. Required for the among local employment to Percentage of non
project. Communities over Local communities. Local labor in
Loss of income Hiring of locals for unskilled,
opportunities semi-skilled jobs, semi-skilled jobs
Intercultural where available. Number and origin
tensions Sensitization of of laborers
Dissatisfaction with non-local labor to Employed Wages
project proponent Local culture and Paid Number of
Gender mobility norms. Training sessions
issues. held on local
3- Inequitable Unskilled labor Inter-tribal tensions. Consultation with norms.
distribution of required by project. tribal leaders of the Proportion of local
employment. area Balanced labor employed.
employment among Tribal affiliation
tribal groups of labor employed
Balanced Proportion of
distribution of semi-skilled and
58 Semiskilled and Unskilled jobs.
Unskilled jobs as
Per local human