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  1. 1. CHAPTER NO. 01 INTRODUCTON 1.1 INTRODUCTION OF OGDCL Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) is the largest petroleum exploration and production (E&P) company in Pakistan oil and gas sector, and is currently 95% owned by the Government of Pakistan (GOP). A strategic sale of 51% shareholding along with transfer of management control is envisaged by the GOP. The Government of Pakistan established Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC) in 1961 as a statutory corporation to undertake exploration and development of oil and gas resources. In October 1997 OGDC was converted into a public limited company and renamed as Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL). In November 2003, on behalf of the Government of Pakistan, the Privatization Commission divested 5% of the GOP’s shareholding in OGDCL by way of an Offer for Sale through an Initial Public Offering at the domestic stock exchanges. OGDCL’s annual sales for the year 2005 are 39,130 barrels of oil per day, 919 million cubic feet per day of gas, 334 metric tons per day of LPG and 71 metric tons per day of sulphur. OGDCL’s share in the total oil and gas production has been 47% and 23% respectively during the year 2004-05. OGDCL holds the largest share of oil and gas reserves in the country, being 37% of total oil and 32% of total gas reserves, amounting to 115 million barrels of oil and 10.5 trillion cubic feet of gas as of July 1, 2005. OGDCL’s major oil and gas fields are located at Kunnar, Pasakhi, Bobi, Tando Alam, Thora, Lashari, Sono, Fimkassar, Kal, Sadqal, Rajian, Missakeswal, Dhodhak, Dhakhni, Chanda, Chak, Naurang, Qadirpur, Uch, Pirkoh, Loti, Nandpur/Panjpir and Hundi/Sari. 1
  2. 2. OGDCL has so far completed major development projects like Dhodak Development Project, Dhaki Development Project, Pirkoh Development Project, Nandpur/Panjpir Development Project, Sadqal Gas Compression Project, Uch Development Project and Bobi Development Project. OGDCL carries out exploration and development activities on its own as well as in joint ventures with other oil companies. OGDCL presently holds the largest acreage position in Pakistan and as on 30 June, 2005 was operating in 25 concessions covering an area of 59,968 Sq Km which constitutes 30% of total exploration area granted to various E&P companies in Pakistan. OCDCL also holds working interest in another three exploration concessions which are operated by other Joint Venture Partners. OGDCL has 39 Development and Production / Mining Lease which are operated by working interest ownership in 29 non-operated leases. OGDCL’s equipment base includes 7 drilling rigs, 2 work over rigs, a geological field party, 4 seismic parties, 4 engineering field parties, a gas gathering and pipeline construction party , seismic data processing centre, geological analysis laboratory, wire line logging unit, cementing units and data logging unit. The company’s head office is located in Islamabad. As on 1st August 2005 OGDCL has total manpower strength of 11,624 out of which 1,868 are officers. The company possesses the largest professional/technical human resource base in the country's oil industry. 1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF PROJECT 1.2.1 LOCATION Qadirpur gas field/plant is located at a distance of about 8km from Ghotki and around 60 km northeast of Rohri in the Sindh province. It lies within the flood plain of River Indus. The field is accessible by road from Sukkur through the National Highway. Pakistan Railways also passes close to the site. OGDCL operates its own aircraft between Islamabad and Qadirpur site periodically; however, generally the Sukkur airport is used 2
  3. 3. for air travel. 1.2.2 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE PROJECT The Qadirpur gas field/plant is situated in one of the most sensitive riches of the River Indus. The project area lies within natural flood plain of River Indus. The area is characterized by alluvial soils deposited by River Indus. The alluvium consists of a succession of layers of clay and send. Underlying deep below the alluvial deposits is a thick bed of sandstone with intercalations of clay and siltstone layers known as Siwalik formation. 1.2.3 CLIMATE The project area faces extreme temperature, very hot during the summer and cold during the winter. The maximum and minimum temperatures generally range between 40 and 3 degree Celsius. The coldest and hottest months of the year are January and June respectively. The area receives much of the precipitation during the monsoons season. During the summer, the wind direction is mostly southeasterly and in winter it is northeasterly. Flood season starts in June and continues up to September; however, during July and August the flood discharges are at their peak flows. 1.2.4 ECOLOGY AND LANDUSE The gas wells mostly lie in the katcha area of the river Indus. In the vicinity of Qadirpur Gas field/plant, a few natural wetland forests exist in the katcha area, which is a protected asset. Majority of the area comprises forests, cultivated land, swamp areas and fallow land. The terrestrial wildlife of the area consists of mammals such as hog dear, porcupine etc. and birds like partridge, waterfowl, lark, gully, tawny eagle etc. The Indus River contains various types of fish and aquatic life. Indus Blue Dolphin (Platanista minor) is a blind dolphin, which is unique to this reach of the Indus and is not found anywhere else in the world. Initially, Indus Dolphin was reported to occur throughout the Indus river, but due to excessive hunting, consturction of barrages, and non availability of fish for her survival, her population has now dwindled to the stage of an endangered species, whose 3
  4. 4. only habitat limited to the stretch between Sukkur and Guddu Barrage i.e. the Qadirpur area. This area was declared as the Indus Dolphin Reserve in 1974 by the Sindh Government. It is feared that due to the proposed construction of flood protection bunds, the ecosystem for this species may be affected badly. Land within the Indus flood plain consists of fertile alluvial soils deposited over the centuries by the river. Within the gas field and plant area, land use includes agriculture, paved areas, residential (camps) areas, plant area and the land that has been utilized for other ancillary works. A few villages are also located within the gas field area. Agriculture mostly comprises cultivation of crops like wheat, cotton; sugar-cane, sunflowers etc. vegetables and fruit are also grown. Farmers use Ghotki feeder canal water for irrigating their seasonal crops and orchards. The area is quite famous for mango production of different varieties. A significant portion of the area is covered with plants and vegetation. 1.2.5 SURFACE WATER Qadirpur Gas Field is situated within the flood plain of River Indus. Ghotki Canal runs from the northeastern to the southeastern direction of the gas field. These are two main sources of surface water in the area. During the high flood season (monsoon), the surface water from the river over spills and inundates the gas areas. To counter this risk; local flood protection embankments namely lundi mirpur (LM) bund, Qadirpur bund and OGDCL bund have been constructed in order to protect the field from flooding. For the protection of the individual gas wells in the katcha areas, elevated platforms with adequate stone pitching have been provided. 1.2.6 GROUND WATER The groundwater depth below the ground surface has gone down from 4-5m in 1995-96 to 8-9m at present due to the prolonged drought and the lack of flood in the Indus River. Water level may become shallower with normalization of floods in the Indus in the 4
  5. 5. future. The quality of ground water is good. 1.2.7 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS Large communities are established in the pucca area, close to the Qadirpur plant. Other small communities are also present within the Katcha area. In the small communities, the houses are usually built on elevated platforms, which rise above the normal inundation watermark. Agriculture is the main vocation in the project area. Agriculture based cottage industry, plying of transport and shop keeping are the other main sources of employment in the area. 1.2.8 PROJECT DESCRIPTION A total of 29 wells have been planned to be drilled in Qadirpur field. The field is planned to be developed in three phases and it is expected to achieve production capacity of 500 MMSCFD. Development drilling at Qadirpur is a continuity effort to maintain the gas supply to Southern Natural Gas PL. 1.3 Socioeconomic Environment For the socioeconomic study, the project area includes an area lying within 3 km radius of the proposed site for the combined cycle power plant. Administratively, the project area falls in Ghotki taluka of the Ghotki district of Sindh province, Fig: 1.1. As per the survey conducted for the EIA, there are 16 villages or settlements in the project area. The size of the villages ranges from 8 to 1,300 houses. The average household size in the study area is 6.1 as compared to the average household size of 5.5 in the Ghotki district (Population Census Organization, 2000). The total population of the villages surveyed numbers is about 15,000. According to the data collected, there is currently a potential workforce of 3,860 men in the project area. There are about 8,000 persons in the project area above the age of 15 and about 7,000 below. While the census results for the Ghotki district reports 46.72 % of total population are below the age of 15. 5
  6. 6. The data collected indicates that the male-female ratio is around 111:100, i.e., the males in the project area outnumber the females. While the 1998 population census report for the Ghotki district indicates the male-female ratio as 111:100. This implies that the population pattern of the project area is similar to that of the Ghotki district. The field survey reveals that there are approximately 2,433 houses in the project area. Out of which about 1,464 (60%) are pakka while 969 (40%) are kacha (made of clay). Most residents of the study area speak Sindhi and Siraiki. The major tribes of the area are Bhutto, Samejo, Soomroo, Shaikh, Buraro, Senghar, Lakhan, Sawand, Jiskan, Drigh, Khoso, Kolachi, Sangi, Baloch, Arain, and Syed. The survey of the project area revealed that 50% of the workforce is involved in agriculture and related activities; 40% are involved in labor in Ghotki, Hyderabad, and other cities of the country; 5% are government servants and 5% have their own businesses. Majority of the people are engaged in agriculture. Their condition on the whole is not very encouraging. Only a few persons own big holdings. The rest are either landless haris or petty khatedars who live from hand to mouth. The principal crops of the district are sugarcane, wheat, cotton, rice, maize, jawar, bajra, gram, barley, tobacco etc. Cultivation always depend on canal flows. In the district main source of irrigation is Ghotki feeder which flows from river Indus at Guddu Barrage and radiates several small canals irrigating the agriculture lands. The other means of irrigation are a few wells and dug wells. The agricultural land in the project area is irrigated by both irrigation channels and tube wells. Groundwater is an important source of drinking water in the project area. Almost every house in the area has a hand pump. It was observed that drinking water from most of these sources is sweet and of good quality. Major health problems in the area are gastroenteritis, acute respiratory infection (ARI), malnutrition, anemia, eczema, fever, and general aches and pains. There is one Basic Health Units (BHU) and one dispensary in the project area. Due to the proximity of the 6
  7. 7. project area to the city of Ghotki, the residents of the study area have access to public as well as private health care. The field survey revealed that the male literacy rate is 24% and the female literacy rate is 6% in the project area, compared to Ghotki where 44.21% of the men and 11.85% of the women are educated (Population Census Organization, 2000). All the villages in the project area have electricity and are accessible by blacktop roads. Vans, pickups, and buses provide regular transport service in the area. Telephone facilities are available in all the villages, but there is no gas supply except few villages. 7
  10. 10. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is considering as a project management tool for collecting and analyzing information on the environmental effects of any development project. Submission of an IEE or EIA report to the Environmental Protection Agency is mandatory, according to the section 12 of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 and IEE/EIA Guidelines 2000. PEPA 1997 requires that every new project in Pakistan has to be receded by Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) depending upon the size and severity of impact anticipated during construction and commissioning of the project. PEPA Review of IEE and EIA Regulation 2000 categories projects in separate schedule that may require either an IEE (schedule-I) or an EIA (schedule-II). 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To assess the existing environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the project area. 2. To assess the potential environmental or socioeconomic impacts of all project activities. 3. Propose appropriate mitigation measures for overcoming the environmental impacts. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of EIA includes: 1. The adverse environmental impacts would come into the knowledge of the decision makers. 2. The decision makers would learn about the appropriate mitigation measures to control and minimize the environmental impacts. CHAPTER NO: 02 10
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW For an extensive and in-depth information various books, journals, periodicals, and internet were referred some of the relevant information and work done by national and international researchers in the field are given in the following section. CHRISTINE HARRELL an oil and gas expert studied that; In terms of oil and gas drilling, there are 4 primary types of well categories: exploratory wells, developmental wells, production wells, and multi wells. Each type of well category has an inherently different level of risk and potential return on investment. It is important for investors to realize that each of these different well categories has different and associated risks and rewards. All oil and gas drilling has risk, and no matter what type of drilling is done, that risk cannot be completely eliminated. Here, we'll look at each of these four types of wells in order of least risk to highest risk. Generally, lower risk wells tend to have a lower return on investment for oil and gas investing purposes while higher risk wells yield a higher ROI. [1]. Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources (CGER) studied that; it is essential to recognize that estimates of undiscovered oil and gas resources are just that: estimates. They are an attempt to quantify something that cannot be accurately known until the resource has been essentially depleted. For that reason, resource estimates should be viewed as assessed at a point in time based on whatever data, information and methodology were available at that time. Resource estimates therefore are subject to continuing revision as undiscovered resources are converted to reserves and as improvements in data and assessment methods occur. Historically, estimates of the quantities of undiscovered oil and gas resources expected to exist within a region or the nation have been prepared for a variety of purposes using 11
  12. 12. several different methods. To make effective use of such estimates, or to compare them with others, one must develop an understanding of how and why they were prepared; the extent and reliability of the data upon which they are based; the expertise of the assessors; the implications and limitations of the methodology used; and the nature of any geographic, economic, technologic, or time limitations and assumptions that may apply [2]. Forbes et al. studied the cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas there are lot of effects on organisms that are caused by changes in the physical environment some of those effects are mentioned here as well. For example, small areas of vegetation have been Contaminated by spills of oil, other petroleum products, and Saltwater, and road dust; vegetation has also been damaged by bulldozers, off-road vehicles, and ice roads; and it has been destroyed where it underlies gravel pads and roads, or where it has been removed to make way for gravel mines, Jorgenson and). Alterations in vegetation can affect other organisms on the North Slope. Physical disturbances can affect fish migrations, the movements of caribou, and in the marine environment migration and distribution of animals, especially bowhead whales and fish. Oil-field activities can affect the number and distribution of predators, which can in turn affect the number and distribution of birds and some mammals [3]. Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment [4]. Glasby and Geoffrey have studied that extensive research into the chemical structure of kerosene has identified algae as the primary source of oil. The a biogenic origin hypothesis fails to explain the presence of these markers in kerosene and oil, as well as failing to explain how inorganic origin could be achieved at temperatures and pressures sufficient to convert kerosene to graphite. It has not been successfully used in uncovering oil deposits by geologists, as the hypothesis lacks any mechanism for determining where the process may occur [5]. 12
  13. 13. James S. Robbins has argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved some species of great whales from extinction by providing an inexpensive substitute for whale oil, thus eliminating the economic imperative for open-boat whaling [6]. Jean-Philippe Nicot studied that Carbon capture and storage, a subset of which involves injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface in a process called geological sequestration (GS), has received renewed interest lately. The decision by the Obama administration to handle climate change and the request for legislation to cap CO2 emissions follows an ever increasing body of work performed by scientists and engineers all around the world, including in the US. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has large programmers in place involving billions of dollars to address this important issue. In Texas, large independents such as Kinder-Morgan and Denbury Resources Inc. have been active partners with scientific institutions, allowing researchers access to data and sites where CO2 is currently injected. In addition, all majors have shown a strong interest in supporting the US GS research community. It is safe to say that West Texas is the world centre of excellence when it comes to CO2 injection. Consequently, Texas has the skilled workers and the technology required to become a major player in this nascent industry [7]. Ruslan Vagapov studied that; in the oil production industry, economic losses and ecological damage caused by corrosion stem from the very large amounts of metal equipment and structures that come into contact with highly aggressive media. The most important tasks in the development of an oilfield are reliable operation and long life of equipment and pipeline systems. The presence of corrosive components in transported fluids negatively affects metal in oil production, refinery, transportation and processing operations. The degree of corrosive damage to oil production equipment is determined by the degree of heterogeneity of the extracted fluid, the content of corrosive gases (carbon dioxide [CO2] and/or hydrogen sulphide [H2S), and the degree of mineralization in the aqueous phase and the variability of the corrosion activity of technological media in the course of exploration of a given deposit. 13
  14. 14. Under such conditions, a technically justified and efficient method of protection is the use of inhibitors that adsorb as protective films on a metal to prevent its corrosion. At the same time, inhibitor protection seems to be one of the most appropriate and cost-efficient ways to address this problem. The inhibitors applied during the operation of oil equipment and pipelines should satisfy a number of engineering requirements: they should be soluble or dispersible in water or brine, they should pass to an organic phase in insignificant amounts only, they should not create emulsions in water and condensates, they should be easily separable, they should ensure a highly protective effect, they should prevent the formation of pitting, they should prevent the hydrogenation of steel (in the case of the presence of (H2S), they should be non-toxic and they should have strong after- effects[8]. Speight, James G have mentioned that the hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as follows [9]. T. Ramjeawon and R. Beedassy studied that The Environment Protection Act (EPA) in Mauritius provides for the application of an EIA license in respect of undertakings listed in its first schedule. Following the promulgation of the Act in June 1993, the Department of Environment (DOE) is issuing an average of 125 EIA licenses yearly. In general, the review exercise of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is terminated once the license has been granted. The aim of this project was to evaluate the EIA system in Mauritius and to identify its weaknesses and strengths. One of the main weaknesses, besides the lack of EIA audits, is the absence of EIA follow-up monitoring. It is necessary to distinguish between monitoring done for regulatory purposes (compliance monitoring) and environmental monitoring related to the EIA. With the growth of the tourism industry on the island, coastal development projects have the potential to cause significant environmental impacts. A sample of EIA reports pertaining to this sector was assessed for its quality and follow-up mechanisms. Proposals for the contents of EIA 14
  15. 15. Prediction Audits, Environmental Monitoring Plans (EMP) and the format for an EMP report are made [10]. Tema Nord has studied that, the amount of various molecules in an oil sample can be determined in laboratory. The molecules are typically extracted in a solvent, then separated in a gas chromatograph, and finally determined with a suitable detector, such as a flame ionization detector or a mass spectrometer[11]. Wen-Shyan Leu, et.al suggested environmental impact assessment (EIA) evaluation model can be used to assess the completeness and effectiveness of EIA systems. This model is based on a consideration of the fundamental components of an EIA. The EIA system in Taiwan has been used as the case study to demonstrate how the proposed EIA evaluation model can be applied. Taiwan is demonstrated to have a comprehensive EIA system, which is clearly defined legally and with guidelines available to assist proponents in implementing the system. A particular strength is the requirement for compliance and enforcement monitoring. Important reservations are the lack of an appeals system and the failure to require the consideration of no-action or alternative-action strategies and the lack of public participation at some key points in the EIA process, particularly at the decision-making stage. Training programs could be more comprehensively available to expand national EIA capability. It is concluded that the proposed EIA evaluation model provides a useful tool for the evaluation of EIA systems. National authorities can apply this model to analyze strengths and weaknesses of their EIA systems. [12]. CHAPTER NO.03 METHODOLOGY 15
  16. 16. 3.1 Identification of adverse impacts This section describes the identification of potential adverse impacts. The Environmental impacts are assessed in the following stages: • Identification of potential impacts • Evaluation and quantification (where possible) of potential impacts • Interpretation of the significance of potential impacts. 3.1.1 Identification of Impacts Various studies and guidelines have identified typical impacts of oil and gas production on the environment. For this study, the following guidelines have been used: • Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedure. Section on Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, December 1999. • The World Bank, Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998. Section on Oil and Gas Development (Onshore). • The World Bank, Environmental Assessment Sourcebook, Volume III: Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Energy and Industrial Projects. Section on Oil and Gas Development—Onshore. 1991. • Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Directorate General of Petroleum Concessions, Guidelines for Operational Safety, Health and Environmental Management, Petroleum Exploration and Production Sector, 1996. These guidelines provide general information. More specific information on the environmental impacts of oil and gas production was obtained from Hagler Bailly Pakistan’s previous work on similar projects. 16
  17. 17. 3.1.2 Evaluation of Potential Impacts This step refers to the evaluation and the quantification (where possible), or the qualitative description, of the anticipated impacts of the proposed project on various environmental factors .3.1.3 Significance of Potential Impacts The next step in impact assessment is determining significance of the potential impacts. To determine the significance, both the consequence and the likelihood of occurrence of the impact need to be considered. The consequence of the proposed activity is evaluated on the basis of institutional recognition, public recognition, and technical recognition of the issue or the environmental resource that is affected. Institutional recognition means that the importance of the impact is recognized in laws, development plans, and policy statements of the government. Public recognition means that a segment of the public, especially the community directly affected by the project, expresses concern about the impact. Technical recognition means that the importance is based on scientific or technical knowledge, or on the judgment of critical resource characteristics. The overall assessment of significance is made using a standard risk assessment approach that considers the potential consequences of the impact in conjunction with the likelihood. [13] 17
  18. 18. 3.2 IDENTIFICATIN OF POTENTIAL ADVERSE IMPACTS 3.2.1 Potential Impacts on Physical Environment The project’s potential impact on the area’s geomorphology, soil, water resources, and air are discussed in physical environment and, where applicable, identifies mitigation easures that will reduce, if not eliminate, its adverse impact. If all proposed mitigation measures and monitoring mechanisms are incorporated into the project activities, their impact on the area’s physical environment will be manageable and reversible. 3.2.2 Geology, Soil, and Topography Potential Impacts Impacts on geomorphology and soils may arise when following activities are carried out: • Clearing and leveling of land along seismic lines • Clearing of top soil and vegetation for up-holes drilling • Earthworks, paving and construction during camp site preparation • Vehicular and machinery mobilization • Storage of fuels, oils and chemicals at the camp. Inevitable spillage of fuels, oils or chemicals in the course of work. • The likely impacts of these activities may include: • Physical scarring of the landscape • The loss of top-soil • Accelerated soil erosion • Soil contamination by accidental spillage or leakage from project vehicles and machinery or during regular course of work at the campsite. Assessment of Impact Physical scarring caused by clearing and leveling for seismic lines, access tracks and up holes drilling has the potential to be prominent on the topography of the area. However, it 18
  19. 19. would be more prominent in sand dunes area. Clearing and leveling may also increase soil erosion. The loss of top-soil is only likely to take place along the seismic lines and access tracks, if needed, and at a few other locations, such as the landfill site, within the camp. However, in view of the limited area covered by the seismic lines, access tracks and campsites, this impact is expected to be insignificant. Approximately 30,000 m2 area will be covered in base camp. The spillage and leakage of fuels, oils and other chemicals may lead to soil contamination. Possible contaminant sources include fuel, oil and chemical storage areas at campsites, and vehicles and machinery used in the field. Mitigation Measures The proposed mitigation measures to reduce the impacts on geology, topography, and soil during the proposed seismic survey are General Measures • Thick vegetation clearing will be minimized and felling of trees will be avoided. • Unnecessary clearing of vegetation will be strictly prohibited. • Dozers will not be used to minimize drop damage. Field Camps • Camps will be established in clearings that already exist. • If clearing for establishing a campsite is unavoidable, rootstock will be preserved to minimize damage to topsoil. • No trees will be cut. • The movement of machinery will be restricted to the work corridor. • Roads, Vehicles and Seismic Lines • Existing routes will be used to access the survey lines as far as possible. 19
  20. 20. • The number of routes will be kept to a minimum • The width of seismic lines will be kept to a minimum Residual Impact If the mitigation measures are effectively implemented, the residual impact of the proposed activities on the area’s geophysical environment is expected to be insignificant. This is summarized below: Nature of impact Direct Timing Operation phase Duration Short-to medium-term Likelihood Low, as mitigation measures will ensure that there is no adverse impact Consequences Mild to moderate; the scarring of a small area of land will not have a severe impact Impact significance Low, resulting from low likelihood and mild to moderate Consequences. [13] .3.2.3 Water Resources The total water requirement for the project is estimated to be approximately 10,000 liters/ day during the proposed survey activities. Area’s groundwater from the project area will be used to meet project requirements. Potential Issues Potential environmental issues associated with the use of the area’s groundwater resources for the purposes of the project are as follows: 20
  21. 21. • Long-term impact groundwater extraction over and above the sustainable yield will reduce the volume of groundwater available. • Short-term impact the yield of groundwater in the vicinity of the wells used for project purposes may fall, along with a possible decline in the quality of water in the surrounding wells. Assessment of Impact The extraction of water for project activities can affect groundwater availability in the short term, which implies that the groundwater immediately available to the communities may fall. This should not however, affect the long-term availability of the area’s water resources. Short-term water extraction can affect the quantity and, indirectly, the quality of water available to local communities. In this discussion, ‘short-term’ refers to a time period ranging from a few hours to a few days. OGDCL will not use existing groundwater wells. Water will be extracted from the area’s deep, confined aquifer. It is therefore unlikely that the use of water for project needs will affect the water table of other shallow community wells. The well which will be used by OGDCL, will not be located closer than 100 m from any community resource. Mitigation Measures Based on the discussion above, the following measures are proposed: 1. Water will be extracted only from the deep confined aquifer. 2. Given that water is to be extracted from a confined aquifer whose recharge rate. (Just as the actual volume of water available or its rate of depletion) is not known, the extraction will be monitored to ensure that it does not lead to irreversible environmental damage. 21
  22. 22. 3. As the magnitude of natural variation in water quality and water table depth is not known, it is not possible to establish the trigger value to take corrective measures if a drop in the values of these parameters is seen. A trigger value of 10% is suggested at the moment. This trigger value will be utilized for water extraction wells as well as community wells. In case the monitoring parameters fall below their respective trigger values, the monitoring team will assess water extraction, the discharge rate, and duration of tube well operation. As a response, the discharge will first be reduced progressively to 20% of the average weekly discharge, and the effects on the adjoining wells and aquifer kept under observation. [13] Residual Impact Post-mitigation residual impact on groundwater has been deemed acceptable if it meets the following criteria: Nature of impact Direct Timing Operation phase Duration Long-term, depends on the rainfall pattern and recharge regime of the deep aquifer Reversibility Yes Likelihood Moderate Consequences Low, as monitoring and corrective action will ensure that there is no adverse impact Impact significance Medium 22
  23. 23. 3.2.4 Contamination of Soil and Water Potential Adverse Impact Effluents released as a result of project activities, if not contained properly, may contaminate the soil. Water quality may deteriorate if pollutants are mixed with surface runoff during rain and carried to water resources in the vicinity, or if pollutants leach into the ground. Potential sources of pollution in such cases may include: • Domestic waste (sanitary and kitchen discharge) • Oil and grease from vehicles and machinery • Sediments from altered land surfaces (campsite) • Stored fuel, oil, and other chemicals • Pollutants can also be transferred through the food chain, thereby affecting community • Health and well-being. Assessment of Impact All wastewater from the kitchens, showers, and laundry will be directed into a soak pit. Gray water from the pit will be pumped out periodically and sprayed along the access road, to reduce dust generation. Gray water from the pit will only pollute the area’s surface water resources if the pit is allowed to fill up, and rain causes it to overflow into the surrounding areas. Periodic emptying of the pit will ensure that this does not happen. Also, the pits will be designed so that water from surrounding areas does not flow into them. Sewage from the camp will go into a concrete septic tank, which will be emptied whenever necessary. The concrete lining will prevent sewage from polluting groundwater. All pits will be larger than the required capacity, to prevent them from overflowing. The pits will have dykes around them to prevent runoff from entering them. All pits will be lined with impervious pit liner to prevent contaminants from seeping into groundwater. Stored fuel, oil, and other chemicals may contaminate the area’s water resources if it 23
  24. 24. rains and they get washed into surrounding areas. The storage and handling of fuels and lubricants may also contaminate surface and groundwater resources, if there are spillages that wash into surrounding areas or seep into the ground. However, the built-in mitigation measures in the project design should ensure that pollutant discharge through run-off is minimal and it may not be necessary to quantitatively determine the deterioration in surface water quality. Mitigation Measures Mitigation measures to reduce the impact of waste effluents produced during project activities are listed below. 1. The camps will be located at least 1 km away to avoid proximity with groundwater wells, maintaining a minimum distance of 1 km from such natural resources. 2. Deep holes should not be located in the vicinity (i.e. within 100 m) of dug wells. 3. Tarpaulin sheets will be placed under generators, compressors, and oil cans in the field. 4. Vehicles and other equipment should not be serviced outside of the designated areas. 5. Vehicles and other equipment should not be repaired outside of the designated areas. 6. No contaminated effluents will be released into the environment without having been treated. 7. Sewage and other waste effluents will be handled to avoid contaminating surface and groundwater. 8. Water from washing areas and the kitchen will be released into sumps. 9. An appropriately designed septic tank will be used to treat sewage and outlets will release treated effluent into sumps. The integrity of the entire system will be maintained and monitored. 24
  25. 25. 10. Septic tanks and sumps will be built at a safe distance from any water hole, stream, or dry streambed, to prevent the entry of surface water, and the bottom of the sump will be kept above groundwater level. 11. Sumps will be located in a position such that they are: a. Fixed in absorbent soil b. Down-slope and away from the camp (and downwind, if practical) c. Downstream from the camp water source and above the high-water mark of any nearby water body (if any). 12. When abandoning sumps, an extra cap of soil will be placed over them to allow for compaction. 13. Solid waste (including food waste) will be segregated and disposed of as follows: a. Materials suitable for recycling will be stored separately and sold to approved recycling contractors b. Combustible waste will be disposed of at a burn pit. c. Non-combustible, non-recyclable rubbish will be disposed of properly d. Medical waste will be transported to the any nearby facility for incineration. e. Solid residue from the septic tanks will be transported to municipal sewage treatment facilities in any near by city. 14. Vehicle and equipment maintenance, including washing, will be allowed only in designated areas underlain with concrete slabs and a system to catch runoff. 15. Fuels, oils, and other hazardous substances will be handled and stored according to standard safety practices. 16. Fuel tanks will be appropriately marked by content and, along with oils and chemicals, will be stored in dyked areas lined with an impervious base. 25
  26. 26. 17. Precautions, such as drip pans, will be used to avoid any spills that may occur during fuel and oil transfer operations. 18. Fuels, oil, and chemical storage facilities will be checked daily for any signs of leakage. 19. Precautionary materials, including shovels, plastic bags, and absorbent materials, will be kept available near fuel and oil storage areas. 20. Vehicles will be refueled daily in order to minimize travel and chances of spills, all operating vehicles will be checked regularly for signs of fuel, oil, or battery fluid leakage. 21. A leak/spill record will be maintained for each vehicle and repairs effected at the earliest opportunity. Vehicles with suspected leaks will not be used until repaired. 22. Soil contaminated by minor spills or leaks (defined as contaminated soil covering an area of up to 0.1 m2 and 75 mm deep) will be collected and sent to burn pit for disposal. 23. Soil contaminated by moderate spills or leaks (defined as the spill or leakage with a volume of up to 200 liters) will be contained using shovels, sand, and soil. The contaminated soil will be removed from the site and disposed of as appropriate. 24. Soil contaminated as a result of a major spill (defined as a volume of more than 200 liters,) will also be removed from the site and may require special treatment, such as bioremediation.[13] Residual Impact The residual impact of project activities on the soil and water quality of the area is expected to be insignificant once the suggested mitigation measures are put into effect. The residual effects are summarized below: Nature of impact Indirect 26
  27. 27. Timing Operation Phase Duration Medium to long term Timing Construction and Operation Reversibility Yes Likelihood Low, as the proposed mitigation measures will ensure that soil and water are not contaminated. Consequences Mild to moderate, as the effluents released into the environment will have been adequately treated Impact significance Low to medium, based upon low likelihood and mild to moderate consequence. 3.2.5 Air Quality Potential Impact Air emissions from project-related activities are likely to include: • Dust emissions produced during earthworks and construction for campsite • Dust raised on dirt tracks by project-related vehicles • Dust from drilling of deep holes • Combustion products (nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine used in the camps to generate electric power • Combustion products from vehicles used for project-related activities • Emissions from the burn pit These are discussed in detail below. The potential sources of air pollution are shown in Table no: 01[13] 27
  28. 28. Assessment of Impact a) Dust Emissions Dust emissions caused by vehicular traffic on dirt track are an important concern, primarily when such traffic passes nearby community settlements. It is not uncommon to see a huge cloud of dust following vehicles traveling on unpaved roads. Where these roads are paved, the problem is usually not as serious. The exception is when two vehicles coming from opposite directions cross on a single-lane paved road two to three meters wide. In such situations, usually one or both the vehicles are partially forced off the paved surface, producing dust emissions since the road shoulder is generally unpaved. Dust emissions cause the amount of particulate matter in the air to increase, and thus become a health concern. Dust clouds also reduce road visibility, creating a traffic hazard. b) Generator Emissions Four generators of approximately 250 KVA capacities will be used during the proposed seismic program. The exhaust emissions produced by the generators was previously been monitored and found to meet the NEQS. Similarly, the ambient air quality was also monitored and was found to have a minimal impact on the air quality. c) Exhaust Fumes from Vehicles and Construction Machinery Emissions produced by vehicles and equipment will be similar to those produced by diesel generators in terms of the resulting pollutants (SO2, NOX, PM, etc.). However, the extent to which they are produced will be considerably lower, since much smaller diesel engines are used in vehicles and construction machinery. 28
  29. 29. d) Emissions from Burn Pit The emissions produced by the burn pit will be composed of combustion products including CO2, CO, and PM. Not much NOX or SO2 is expected to be present because of the low combustion temperature and the absence of any sulfur or its compounds in the combustible waste, respectively. Mitigation Measures None of the potential effects discussed above are expected to exceed acceptable limits. The mitigation measures given below will further reduce their impact, and ensure that they remain within acceptable limits. 1. The campsites will be located at least 200 m from any settlements. 2. All equipment, generators, and vehicles used during the project will be properly tuned and maintained in good working condition in order to minimize exhaust emissions. 3. Vehicle speed will be reduced on track passing through or close to settlements. 4. Imposing speed limits and encouraging more efficient journey management will reduce the dust emissions produced by vehicular traffic. Water will be sprinkled where necessary to contain dust emissions. 5. All project vehicles will be checked regularly to ensure that engines are in sound working condition and are not emitting smoke. [13] Residual Impact After implementing the mitigation measures listed above, the residual impact of the proposed activities on ambient air quality is expected to be insignificant, as shown below: Nature of impact Direct 29
  30. 30. Duration Short term Timing Seismic operation Reversibility Not applicable Likelihood Low (unlikely) as mitigation measures will ensure that air pollution remains within acceptable limits. Consequences Mild, as pollutant levels in the ambient air will be well within acceptable limits. Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild to moderate consequence. 3.3 Impact on Biological Environment 3.3.1 Potential Issues of natural vegetation Project activities that may affect the area’s natural vegetation include the establishment of camps, and access roads, and clearing of vegetation for the seismic lines. Assessment of Impact A significant impact will be interpreted if unnecessary or excessive removal and burning of plants for fuel wood is observed. The vegetation on of the area is facing increasing pressure from live stock. Signs of habitat degradation caused low rain fall and by grazing are visible. Woody species are being exploited for fuel and fodder purposes. No rare, sensitive or vulnerable species are recorded or reported in the project area. Most of the plants present in the area have the properties to grow in more than one habitat and have populations large enough to ensure their genetic diversity. The removal of a small portion of vegetation is not likely to harm the overall diversity of plant communities and the genetic diversity of species. 30
  31. 31. Mitigation Measures The following mitigation measures will reduce any adverse impact on vegetation: 1. The clearing of vegetation along the seismic lines and campsite will be minimized as far as possible. 2. Dense vegetation and tree clusters will be avoided. 3. Open fires will not be allowed anywhere outside the campsites. 4. Fuel-wood and shrubs will not be used as fuel during project activities. 5. Unnecessary damage to vegetation in will strictly be avoided. 6. When clearing a campsite, disturbance to topsoil and vegetation rootstock will be avoided to the greatest possible extent. Residual Impact Given the current state of the vegetation, and proper implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, no significant residual impact on the natural vegetation of the area is anticipated, as shown below: Nature of impact Direct Duration Short-to medium-term Timing Operation phase Reversibility Possible Likelihood Low (unlikely), as the mitigation measures will ensure that vegetation clearing is minimized 31
  32. 32. Consequences Mild, as no rare plant species are present in the areas where vegetation will be cleared Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild consequence 3.3.2 Wildlife Potential Impact The project activities that may affect the wildlife of the area include the improvement and construction of the access road, clearing of vegetation for seismic lines, and campsite preparation. The following aspects of these activities are expected to disturb the wildlife during these activities: • Presence of people in the area • Noise and movement of seismic vehicles and machinery • Physical damage to the habitat • Displacement of wildlife for a short period. Assessment of Impacts on mammals Mammals The large mammals of the area include hyena, wolf, and Chinkara. These animals are counted as species of special significance of the area. Most carnivores, including hyena and wolf, are nocturnal; hence, barring direct damage to their dens, project impact on these species is expected to be insignificant. Chinkara, though not nocturnal, will temporarily leave the specific area of the project activity, and will come back once the activity level decreases. None of the area’s small mammals are included in the species of concern discussed in Though areas with dense vegetation will be avoided while clearing the seismic lines and 32
  33. 33. explosions, there will however be some impact on the small mammals of the area, such as damage to their burrows and dens that cannot be mitigated. Assessment of impacts on Birds Birds, being highly mobile and therefore capable of avoiding project activity areas, are generally the least susceptible of an area’s wildlife to the long-term impacts of such temporary activities as seismic surveys. Two avian species, the houbara bustard and the partridge are included in the project area's species of special significance. The houbara bustard is a winter visitor, whereas the partridge is a resident of the area, will also have adverse effects on the avian species of the area, particularly the bustard, as it is dependent upon the vegetation for nesting and feeding. Although steering clear of large bushes and areas of dense vegetation will reduce the impact of the project on these avian species; there will nonetheless be some residual impact which cannot be completely avoided. Assessment of impacts on Reptiles and Amphibians The project activities’ impacts on the reptiles and amphibians of the project area will be similar to those on the small mammals discussed earlier. The leveling and explosions may destroy the burrows of these animals. Though avoiding areas of dense vegetation will reduce this impact, a certain degree of residual effects are expected. However, in view of the abundance of these species in the area, the unmitigated residual impacts are considered insignificant. Mitigation Measures The following mitigation measures will reduce the adverse impact of the project activities: 1. Areas with concentrated colonies of active burrows and dens will be avoided. 2. Discharging firearms will be explicitly prohibited. 33
  34. 34. 3. Waste of any kind will not be discharged in open areas. 4. A ‘no-hunting, no-trapping, no-harassing’ policy will be strictly enforced. 5. The project staff’s movement will be strictly restricted to the work area. 6. The project staff will be educated and instructed to avoid killing or chasing wild animals. 7. Safe driving practices will be observed to minimize the accidental killing of reptiles or small mammals crossing the road. 8. Camp waste will be disposed of in such a manner that animals are not attracted to it. 9. Off-road driving will not be allowed. 10. Unnecessary damage to the natural topography and landscape will be kept to a minimum to the extent possible. 11. As dolphins are more active at night (Pilleri, 1971), the project activities will be restricted to diurnal hours only so that the operation may not interfere in their peak activity hours. 12. The explosive activity will be restricted to a distance of 25 m away from the river banks. 13. There will be no equipment movement across the river through boats. River crossings through boats will be minimized. [13] Residual Impact Due to the proper implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, no significant residual impact on birds, mammals, reptiles, or amphibians are anticipated, as shown below: 34
  35. 35. Nature of impact Direct Duration Short- to medium-term Timing Operation phase Reversibility Possible Likelihood Low (unlikely) Consequences Mild, as the project area does not fall in any more sensitive habitat Impact significance Low, based upon low likelihood and mild consequences 3.4 Impact on Social and Cultural Environment 3.4.1 Assessment of Impact Conducting seismic activity in the QADIRPUR GAS FIELD and subsequent project- elated activities have several implications. Seismic activities are bound to utilize community resources including land, labor, water, and common property, such as traditional grazing areas when constructing access routes. This section discusses the framework in which the seismic activities proposed in this project affect the community’s utilization of resources. a) Community Well-being Parameters In the course of this study, a set of parameters for the assessment of the well-being of the affected poor (World Bank, 2000) was used to assess the social, economic, and cultural impacts of the project. The surveyors used a nonlinear and multidimensional model of analysis to assess the current status of community well being. This model allows for the recognition of non economic factors in determination of the well being of the affected 35
  36. 36. communities. Thus the model was strengthened by integrating gender, economic welfare, and other sociocultural factors. b) Primary Health: Health indicators, such as infant mortality rates, access to community health services (public and private), and the general life expectancy in a region represent the sate of general well-being of a certain community. Health is also closely correlated with labor productivity and efficiency. Improving the overall health of a community enhances its income-earning potential. c) Primary Education: Education is also directly related to income-level; the higher the income level, the more likely the presence of educational facilities. People below the poverty line, on the other hand, are less likely to have access to education. In general, education strengthens human and social capital and enhances gender equality. In the long run, access to education is instrumental in enhancing the level of awareness that provides the intellectual tools to analyze evaluate and adapt to new situation with exit opportunities. It gives empowerment, increased political participation, and reduced birthrates, addressing the long-term needs of an entire community and particularly its women. d) Availability of Drinking Water: Groundwater is used in the area for irrigation as well as for drinking and sanitary purposes. Availability of fresh water for these purposes is important for the wellbeing of the primary stakeholders i.e. the villagers in the project area. The effect of project on the area’s water resources is important in measuring the impact of the project on the socioeconomic environment of the area. e) Land Use: land in project area is used for irrigation and wood collection. As in most pastoral societies, loosely defined communal ownership of cultivated areas plays a major role in defining individual social status and tribal power dynamics. f) Employment: Employment is largely restricted to the urban centers like Sukkur and GHOTKI .Men from the project area migrate seasonally and in the years of drought to avail unskilled labor. Most of these men come from the poorest strata of the local society. 36
  37. 37. g) Gender Equity: Gender equity, or the lack of it, reflects women’s access to and control of natural resources, public health, and education services, their participation in decision- making and political processes, and their ownership of productive assets in comparison with men. Gender roles in the project area are largely determined by the social relations prevalent between men and women in the area. After marriage, a woman’s assets are transferred to her husband’s and cannot be disposed of without his permission. h) Social Institutions: Tribal social institutions flourish when the presence of the state is minimal, as in this case. It is therefore imperative to include these institutions in any analysis of community well-being in the project area. The kinship based structure of traditional tribal institution can potentially stifle the freedom of less influential and marginalized groups including women and poorest people. Civil society institutions if allowed to flourish will increase the possibilities of gender equity and inclusion of marginalized in the mainstream social life. i) Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms: The indigenous conflict-resolution mechanism of the project area is completely patriarchal and hierarchical. This mechanism helps to demarcate tribal zones of influence, water-sharing arrangements, and has recently been used to determine political representation as well. Any project activity challenging the local system of conflict-resolution and decision-making could result in conflicts between the major tribes and OGDCL. Presence of civil law and modern institutions of conflict resolution will reduce the monopoly of tribal institutions. j) Vulnerability: Vulnerability was viewed in two dimensions sensitivity (the magnitude of a system’s response to an external event) and resilience (the ease and rapidity of a system’s recovery from stress). In the project area, ‘vulnerability’ implies the ability of the population to deal with natural disasters such as droughts. It also determines the percentage of migrants and the proportion of people in the study area living below the poverty line before and after the occurrence of such natural shocks. If the issues cited above that impede the well being of the communities are not properly addressed, the level of vulnerability will automatically increase. 37
  38. 38. k) Assessment Methodology The positive and negative effects of the project were analyzed based on their intensity and permanence, as well as in light of the well-being parameters set out above. Mitigation measures were then identified through a consultative process that involved a team of social analyst, ethnographers and anthropologists, as well as community respondents. The short-term effects of project activities, along with relevant mitigation measures, reset as the use of groundwater have been addressed in this document. In general the project activities will not have long term adverse impacts on the lives of locals. The following two methodologies were used to assess the livelihood and vulnerability of the communities visited: • Stakeholder consultation • Qualitative studies and focus groups 3.4.2 Potential Impact After screening all potential issues through the scoping process it is concluded that the following issues merit detailed assessments: • Community conflicts • Land use and acquisition of productive land • Livelihood • Gender issues and interaction with local communities • Community disturbance • Community health and safety • Local employment Community Conflict and Management The likelihood and the possibilities of a multitude of conflicts was assessed in order to identify the most effective patterns of interaction, management and resolution of the 38
  39. 39. conflict to increase the effectiveness of the project in addressing the needs of the poorest of the poor. Conflict analysis was conducted in consultation with primary stakeholders. The following criteria were used: • The relative power and interest of each stakeholder (Freeman, 1984) • Their importance and influence (Grumbler and Willard, 1996) • Their various roles • The networks and coalitions to which they belong (Freeman and Gilbert, 1987). In conflict assessment, four types of stakeholders are expected to emerge: those with claims to legal protection, those with political clout, those with power to block negotiated agreements, and those who command respect and have the public sympathizes (Susskind and Cruikshank, 1987). Impact According to the field survey, one of the reasons for conflict could be unrealistic expectation on the part of local communities in terms of the benefits they could derive frm the project. Conflicts could arise on the following issues: • Local employment • Land and other natural resource acquisition, utilization and compensation.Based on the assessment of conflict over natural resources and the tribal distribution of the area, it becomes evident that due to numerical strength of their respective tribes the elderly of Mahar and Lund tribe enjoy slightly higher influence than the rest of the tribal leaders who can potentially influence the decision making in a conflict situation. Although this does not automatically translate into a conflict situation between tribes, it does show that some of these tribes are better placed in terms of access and utilization of resources. As a result of their stronger presence, these relatively influential tribes could manipulate the situation to unilaterally usurp the potential benefits from the project. 39
  40. 40. In this specific case, the key players in the resolution of potential conflicts are the leaders of Mahar tribes. They hold the power1 and influence to negotiate agreements with the tribes of the project area. Mitigation Measures Conflict mitigation can be addressed through: 1. Joint decision-making 2. Negotiation 3. Mediation Given the possibility that the project activities can potentially trigger a conflict situation worsening the relationship between the proponents and tribal leadership, it is vital for the proponents to adopt a joint decision-making approach. To help build trust and confidence between tribal leaders, and OGDCL it is crucial to recognize the proportionate representation of all interest groups in the process of the dialogue between community and the project proponents. Furthermore in compliance with the policy of information disclosure enshrined in international conventions on responsible business OGDCL will share information with the concerned tribal leaders and communities regarding: • Project activities, especially the usage of the access track • Information on and verification of land claims if any and issues of tribal ownership of water sources and pastoral areas. • Planned community development programs in the area • OGDCL has to evolve a social cultural and economic cost mitigation policy that is acceptable to the locals. 40
  41. 41. OGDCL will ensure that it establishes contact and dialogue with local communities and the local and tribal leadership of the area before commencing project activities. This strategy will develop consensus, avoid conflict, and evolve a positive long-term relationship between the community and the project proponent. Land use and acquisition of productive land Land use in the project area is categorized as fertile alluvial land. Most of the land is being used for irrigation. The area gets flooded through part of the year and is cultivated only when flood waters recede. Only one wheat crop is planted through the year. Impact No agricultural, settled, or historically significant land will be appropriated for this project during the seismic survey. OGDCL will establish the campsites on land affected by water logging and salinity just outside the seismic block. Upgrading the access track is not expected to have a significant impact because the road that will be utilized during the project is the main access road to project area from GHOTKI and is already in use by the local community. This is a carpeted road constructed to facilitate the access between QADIRPUR AND GHOTKI For the seismic survey, each category of land use may be utilized for short periods. In cases where land is covered by settlements, whether large villages or hamlets, the seismic survey will be diverted to maintain a minimum acceptable distance. Mitigation Measures OGDCL is likely to face the grievances over compensation payments because the land is owned by the private owners. To avoid such circumstances it is advised that OGDCL acts in concert with the local land owner and Chief Sardar of the Mahar Tribe Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Mahar. OGDCL’s Party Chief will ensure that complaints regarding perceived threat to cultivated parts of project area are addressed in a timely manner.[13] 41
  42. 42. a) Impact on Livelihood Community livelihood is primarily dependent on Irrigation and Land Cultivation. The impact of project activities on community livelihood is discussed below. b) Impacts on Agriculture Although no grazing land will be appropriated for the project (campsites and widening of access track), seismic lines may be aligned such that they, on occasion, traverse pastoral areas near the wells. In order to minimize the impact of project activity on pastoral land he seismic survey can be conducted after the crop has been cut. The permitting team will survey the damage after the project with local representatives and compensate the grieved parties accordingly. c) Local Economy There is likely to be significant demand for goods and services to supply the daily needs of the crew. Because of the size, scale, and nature of these goods and services, most of these goods, including food items, will be procured in city centers and transported to the field camps on a regular basis. In order to undertake this activity the company will have to employ local manual labor thus creating employment opportunity. As a result short term disposable income of the community will increase. d) Use of Local Resources The influx of a large group of people in an area with scarce natural resources could have significant repercussions on the local ecology. The most significant impacts are likely to be on the use of fuel-wood and water. The management of the campsite itself, which will accommodate a large number of people, will have to ensure that unsustainable resource exploitation does not occur. 42
  43. 43. e) Fuel Wood No vegetation clearing will be required to conduct the seismic survey. Moreover, the use of fuel-wood at campsites will be prohibited, and all fuel requirements will be met through natural gas cylinders. f) Water Water is a common resource that is communally owned by tribes in the project area. People or groups of people own many of the existing water sources, all of which are operated according to local community norms, especially water for drinking purposes. With the onset of project deviation from established customs on the use of water should be avoided and the pattern of local water distribution should be recognized as an established law governed by community needs. OGDCL will install their own wells just outside the project area. These wells will be deeper than the 40 ft. deep community wells. Water from the community tube wells and hand pumps will not be used for the project. e) Employment Employment by OGDCL is clearly in high demand among the local communities since people are often forced to migrate to areas outside the project area to find employment. However, the seismic survey requires the employment of skilled labor, almost all of which will come from outside the project area. Opportunities for employment of the local population are likely to be restricted to unskilled labor only such as watchmen at the campsites. Some unskilled labor may be required during road leveling operations, but this will probably be very short-term. f) Gender Issues and Interaction with Local Communities Gender roles are strictly defined in rural, tribal societies. The women of the areas visited during the survey do not observe strict purdah, and are mobile to the extent of traveling 43
  44. 44. within village limits or even outside the settlement area to fetch fuel wood or water. However, they are generally not exposed to strangers, particularly when their men-folk are not present. The seismic survey will, in all probability, lead to some additional restrictions on female mobility in areas where the survey is being carried out within a radius of 1 km from settlements. This will hold particularly true when the survey is being conducted in areas adjoining main water sources or areas where fuel-wood is collected. Gender roles are strictly defined in rural feudal and tribal societies. Women in the project area perform traditional activities like fetching water, and collecting fuel wood. The mobility of women in the project area may be hampered due to the presence of men during the proposed seismic survey. However, as explained above, the survey team’s presence in an area will be for a short span of time, ie, one to two days. Interaction between locals and OGDCL employees who do not belong to the project area will be strictly reduced to project specific needs. The impact on the mobility of women therefore, is not expected to be significant. There will be no impact on gender roles and responsibilities relating to collection of fuel wood given that: • The alignment of the proposed access track is such that it will not increase the workload of women because of detours to access wood collection areas. • Alternative fuel wood collection options are available for the community near their homes. • To avoid gender issues the following measures will be adopted: • It will be ensured during the seismic survey that field crews do not enter settlement areas unless accompanied by local men-folk. • Field crews will avoid going near springs and hand pumps. • A minimum distance (approximately 300 m) from settlements, water points, and culturally significant areas will be maintained during the seismic survey. • A locale should accompany the project team during their trips to the settlements, watering points, and culturally significant areas. • The seismic permitting staff will inform village leaders of the location and time of all major activities. 44
  45. 45. There is expected to be very little interaction between seismic crews and local communities, except for the local people who are hired for the project. However, the influx of outsiders may affect the mobility of local women. As the seismic survey workers will not remain in one area for more than a few days, so the impact will be temporary. Seismic workers will be instructed to avoid interacting with local people when outside the enclosure. g) Community Disturbance Community disturbance is likely to become an issue if seismic work is conducted close to the scattered settlements. Various field activities, such as transportation of heavy machinery, materials, equipment and personnel will cause noise and vibration along the roads and the seismic lines, which may disturb people in nearby houses. Access roads passing close to villages will also result in disturbance. Shooting and recording will not result in disturbance, since only a single, muffled thud is heard on the surface when the explosive is detonated. To minimize the disturbance and noise impacts, the following mitigation measures will be implemented for conducting work close to settlements: 1. Communities will be informed about the project activities and possible disturbance in advance. 2. All project drivers will adopt safe driving practices and special care will be taken while passing through the settlements, and speed will be reduced as required. 3. Any new tracks, if required, will be aligned a minimum of 500 m from the settlements, if possible. If this is not possible, the tracks will be restored after completion of work in the area. 4. If alternative routes exist, existing tracks passing close to settlements will not be used. 45
  46. 46. 5. No activity will be undertaken at night. 6. Use of horns will be prohibited. h)Community Health and Safety i) Health People from the project area regularly travel to other cities, and thus cannot be considered isolated from the rest of the country. They are regularly exposed to illnesses common to urban populations, and have similar levels of immunity. The seismic crew will undergo medical examinations before being hired, and will be screened for communicable diseases. The project is therefore very unlikely to lead to an epidemic of any sort among local communities. ii) Safety Project activities, such as the handling of explosives, could become a hazard if conducted in populated areas where local people, especially children, are likely to gather around to watch the activity. The other safety issue is that of traffic, especially along access roads close to settlements. To reduce the hazards, the following mitigation measures will be implemented: 1. Local people will be informed in advance when work is about to start in an area. This may result in people keeping young children away from work areas. Seismic contractor will also be responsible to ensure that any person not related to the survey is not allowed to come close to the work area without permission of the seismic crew. 2. Compressors and other machinery will never be left unattended. 3. Safe driving practices will be adopted, particularly while passing through settlements. Non-Local Labor and Local Employment 46
  47. 47. Skilled or unskilled labor brought in from outside the project area is likely to cause resentment among local communities. This may cause dismay and resentment among locals against the non local labor. The presence of a large number of non-local men in the project area may impact the mobility of women who need to leave their homes to fetch water and collect fuel wood. During the seismic activity, expectations of opportunities for paid work will increase sharply. Employment not fairly distributed between the tribes of the project area will cause inter-tribe conflict resulting in project delays. Moreover, assuming the potential engagement of men in project-related activities, the role of male family members in irrigation and household activities is expected to decline further and the pressure of work on women to increase accordingly. Although limited, one positive impact of the seismic survey will be a marginal improvement in the income level of the local people. Mitigation Measures Although the seismic activity is not expected to generate many jobs, OGDCL will ensure, that maximum of the unskilled jobs (watchmen), local guards, manual laborers, and the ‘green team’ utilized for restoration activities) are reserved for locals. The locals will be hired through labor contractors. Based on data collected during the field survey, there is currently a potential workforce of more than 1,000 males in the project area. Where possible, semi-skilled jobs will also be provided to individuals from the project area. For this project, the term ‘local’ will be defined as ‘individuals living in the project area, with preference given to people directly affected by the project activities. In order not to raise expectations, the proponent will maintain regular contact with locals through its Party Chief, who will provide realistic numbers and categories of employment opportunities. Interaction between non-local employees and locals not employed by OGDCL will be discouraged. Project staff will be instructed to stay away from areas frequented by women. Village elders will be informed at least two weeks prior to the commencement of project activities in an area. 47
  48. 48. OGDCL will do the local hiring through contractors. Semi skilled tasks—tanker drivers for the transport of water to campsites can also be distributed among local if such skills are found. In a typical seismic operation, regardless of the gender relations in the project area, it is practically impossible to employ women from the project area. However, the major beneficiaries of OGDCL’s community development projects in the area are expected to be women and children. Cause inter-tribe conflict resulting in project delays. Moreover, assuming the potential engagement of men in project-related activities, the role of male family members in irrigation and household activities is expected to decline further and the pressure of work on women to increase accordingly. Although limited, one positive impact of the seismic survey will be a marginal improvement in the income level of the local people. 3.5 Stack Gaseous Emission From the environmental monitoring data, as reported in TABLE 3.10, it is evident that CO and NOx stack emissions from both the generators (one diesel fired & one gas fired), stack emissions of NOx from turbine No 1, emission of CO from gas heater, flare and water pump emission of SO2 from main Flare, and stack emission of NOx from fire water pump are in violation of the NEQS. H2S Emission from the turbine stacks as measured by the plant in October 2008 was found to be almost nil. Emission of stack particulate matter, as reported in table are in compliance with the NEQS limiting value. 3.5.1 Assessment Of Impact All the six stack emission show that they emit one or the other gaseous emissions in excess of the NEQS limiting values. 3.5.2 Mitigation Measure 48
  49. 49. For Air Emissions a double chamber-four electrostatic precipitator (ESP) may be employed for treatment of flue gas from each boiler. The de-dusting efficiency of ESP will be 99.52%. The flue gas would be desulphurised by passing it through the flue gas desulphurization efficiency of above 90%. The level of dust emission would be 90 mg/Nm3, and the total emission 164.473 t/h. The SO 2 emission concentration would be 750 mg/Nm3, while the total SO2 emission would be 1367.118 kg/h, which will be well within the NEQS limits of 500 tons/day.[13] 3.6 NOISE LEVEL Noise levels monitored data reported in Table-3.2 and 3.3 show that the noise levels at reference point No 6 near Turbine-1, Reference point No 7 Fin Fan Coolers Train-1, Reference point No 11 Compressor near plant operator room and Reference point No13 inside Gas Field Generator Room are in violation of the NEQS limiting value. 3.6.1 Assessment Of Impact It assess that during the monitoring data that at the boundary level the noise level is right and less than 85 (db) at showing in the Table. But at the plant boundary some areas where the noise level is greater than the Required NEQS. It showing at the Table No.3.3 3.6.2 Mitigation Measure In areas identified with high noise levels within the plant site entry of the people should be restricted to those attending to the job staff to work at these places should use proper safety gears/apparels along with ear muffs/plugs as the case may be. However, it is recommended that proper high noise level control techniques such as the use of noise mufflers, sound absorbing materials, vibration damping materials etc, should be adopted. Since the matter requires detailed study and investigations, hence a separate proposal can be submitted by NESPAK to OGDCL, if desired. 49
  50. 50. At the same time, possibilities to reduce the noise levels from the primary plant sources should also be explored, such as proper lubrication of the machine parts and also suitable covering of the noisy parts can be helpful in reducing the noise level. [13] 50
  51. 51. 3.7 WASTEWATER ANALYSIS The wastewater laboratory test data as shown in TABLE 3.8 and 3.9 indicate that two sewage samples one each collected from workers plus Assistant-2 Mess and Assistant-1 and officers Camp are in violation of the NEQS with respect to COD, BOD 5 and oil and Grease. The wastewater samples from the produced water Tank are in gross violation of the NEQS limiting values of TDS, COD, BOD5, Oil and Grease with minor violation of sulphides while the wastewater samples from Retention Pond are in violation of COD, BOD5, Oil and Grease and Sulphides. 3.7.1 Assessment Of Impact It is recommended that wastewater from the entire source. Sewage (two source), Produced water and plant Waste water ( retention Pond Water ) should be treated in a treatment plant and than either it should be discharged into the canal or be used for irrigation outside the plant area by farmers and / or on site as the case may be. 3.7.2 Mitigation Measure “Raw sewage” generated from the plant/camp area could be used for irrigation/cultivation of vegetables. It would be responsible for pollution/bacterial contamination specially of leafy vegetables consumption of such contaminated vegetables can cause viral/bacterial diseases among their consumers this tendency should therefore, be avoided at all costs. Sewage from the plant site is pumped into an open drain wherefrom it evaporates into the environment under the Sun. This could spread bacteria in the environment around thus slowly polluting the air and such polluted air being inhaled by the people around can cause a variety of diseases. This practice should be discontinued.[13] 51
  52. 52. 3.8 Wastewater from scavenger Waste generated from the scavenger after reaction with H2S is an aqueous solution of Amine complex, which is pale white in color and has a pungent odor. Average quantity of scavenger waste generated is 2300-2600 liters/day. The waste contains acid and stable organic sulphur compounds as well as a little quantity of liquid hydrocarbons. This liquid waste is then passed through a corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) to absorb the liquid hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons free liquid waste thus generated is transferred into the produced well storage from where it is injected into the disposal well. This practice can seriously deteriorate the quality of groundwater. Therefore, it is recommended that the disposal of scavenger waste into the ground should be stopped immediately. Proper chemical treatment of the scavenger waste should be carried out through usually the chemical treatment proves expensive. After removal of the toxic chemicals, it can be disposal of suitability. An alternative to the chemical treatment can, therefore, be to incinerate the waste in a specially designed incinerator. “Produced water”, exceeding permissible units of some parameters as per NEQS, is being pumped into a deep well on plant site without any treatment. At a later stage, this water can cause pollution of the underground sweet water being used for irrigation and drinking by human beings and animals. In such a case, it will be a great loss to the national resources. Pakistan is already hard hit for fresh water and as such cannot afford to allow this practice, which needs to be discontinued. According to the staff at the plant, “plant wastewater (Retention pond water)” after only CPI treatment is being discharged into the nearby feeder canal through about 6km long R.C.C pipe line. This water like other wastewaters being generated at the plant is also highly polluted. As such, it should not be discharged into the canal or any other water 52
  53. 53. body. This is an illegal practice and is in violation of the Pakistan Environment Protection Act-1997 3.9 Assessment of Impacts of Ambient Air Quality within Plant Boundary The results of CO, NOx, SO2 and H2S monitoring are given in TABLE-3.7 and 10 when compared with OSHA standards, these values are within the acceptable limits for ambient air within the plant area. The results of PM monitoring are given in TABLE-3.6. The values range between 10 to 58 mg/NM3 . None of the documents referred in the Terms of Reference of the OGDCL provides standards for ambient air quality assessment with regard to PM inside the plant boundary. Additionally, it is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring as in the present case, for assessing the quality of ambient air in the plant or to look for the environmental adverse effects of PM emissions from the plant. The result can not be conclusive about the true state of environment until annual mean basis is carried out. However, the results can be considered as acceptable for preliminary evaluation and can be compared with WHO Guidelines for Air Quality. It is seen that the results are within the permissible limits. 3.9.1 Mitigation Measures Ambient Air Quality within Plant Boundary Spot monitoring as carried out in the present study, though shows the level of pollutants are OK with regard to OSHA, yet it cannot be considered as conclusive and it is suggested that the pollution levels can turn out to be high if comprehensive time targeted monitoring is done. It is therefore, extremely important that monitoring on hourly basis for 24 hours and yearly mean basis should be carried out to determine the real picture of the ambient air vis a vis State of the Environment (SoE). Based on these findings, actions to manage the environment should be chalked out. 53
  54. 54. 3.10 Assessment Of Impact 3.10.1 Ambient Air Quality within Three Kilometers around the Plant Boundary The ambient air monitoring values within 3km around the plant are shown in TABLE-5. None of the documents referred in the Terms of Reference of the OGDCL, provides standards for the ambient air quality assessment outside the plant boundary. Additionally, it is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring as in the present case, for assessing the quality of ambient air around the plant or to look for the environmental adverse effects of the emissions from the plant. Ambient air profile should be prepared on the basis of hourly monitoring for 24 hours (hourly mean for 24 hours) or annual mean basis. Therefore, assessment of the ambient air quality on the basis of one time grab monitoring can be considered as preliminary. As compared to WHO Guidelines for Air Quality, the ambient air condition is considered as satisfactory for preliminary evaluation. 3.10.2 Mitigation Measures Ambient Air Profile within Three Kilometers around the Plant Boundary It is not conclusive to consider, one time grab monitoring, as in the present case, for assessing the quality of the ambient air around the plant or to look for the environmental adverse effects of the emissions from the plant. However, based on WHO Guidelines for Air Quality, the results can be treated as satisfactory for preliminary evaluation. Ambient air profile should be prepared on the basis of hourly monitoring for 24 hours or annual mean basis. Therefore, assessment of the ambient air quality on the basis of one time grab monitoring can be considered as preliminary. Accordingly, it is recommended that following the proper methods of ambient air quality monitoring. Environment profile should be prepared based on which the required environmental management should be carried out.[13] 54
  55. 55. Table No.3.1 AIR POLLUTION SOURCES Nature of Pollutant Period and Nature of Class Source Classification Period and Nature of Emission Emission Particulate matter Periodically ranging in size from5 throughout the day 1 Dust from earthwork and clearing micron to 50 micron during project period (30-90) days Vehicle exhaust fumes on roads SO2, NOX, CO, and Periodically near communities Periodically Unburned throughout the day 2 throughout the day during project during project period period (60-90) days (60-90) days Particulate matter Periodically Dust from traffic on unpaved ranging in size from 5 throughout the day 3 loads near communities clearing micron to 50 micron during project period Hydrocarbons (30-90)days clearing Table No. 3.2 NOISE LEVEL AT BOUNDARY LEVEL Average REFERENCE DATE LOCATION POINT dB 1 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT 54.16 2 14.11.2009 BOUNDARY WALL A 64.20 3 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL 65.41 BOUNDARY WALL B 4 14.11.2009 64.15 55 5 14.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL 53.12 6 15.11.2009 BOUNDARY WALL C 67.6 7 15.11.2009 COMMON POINT BOUNDARY WALL C+D 60.10
  56. 56. Table No. 3.3 NOISE LEVEL MONITORING DATA WITHIN PLANT BOUNDARY AVG: REFERENCE DATE LOCATION POINT dB 1 14.11.2009 OUTSIDE CONTROL ROOM 83 2 14.11.2009 MAINTAENANCE SITE OFFICE 79.30 3 14.11.2009 OUT SIDE WARE HOUSE 81.55 4 14.11.2009 INSIDE CONTROL ROOM 67.15 5 14.11.2009 INSIDE LABORATORY 69.60 6 15.11.2009 NEAR TURBINE 94.20 7 15.11.2009 FIN FAN COOLERS TRAIN 1 96.50 8 15.11.2009 SLUG CATCHER 73.00 9 15.11.2009 RETENTION POND 75.70 10 15.11.2009 COMPRESSOR NEAR PLANT OPERATOR 89.00 11 15.11.2009 PLANT OPERATOR ROOM 66.85 12 15.11.2009 INSIDE GAS FIRED GENERATOR 95.40 13 15.11.2009 SAFETY SITE OFFICE 65.05 56
  57. 57. Table NO: 3.4 Socioeconomic Impact, Potential Mitigation Options, and Monitoring Indicators 57
  58. 58. Potential Link to Project Monitoring Impact Parameter Potential Impact Mitigation Activities Indicators Options 1- Appropriation of Construction of Dissatisfaction with Payment of agreed Compensation and privately-owned access routes, level of compensation lease payments land. campsites and compensation paid. Minimize use of paid by OGDCL well site. private land for and project activities The bases of Company payments received compensation by affectes. policy to include List of people paid Compensation for full and fair The use of compensation Community If damage to property Community Community property takes consultation. place. 2-Influx of non Skilled labor Dissatisfaction Balanced local migrant labor. Required for the among local employment to Percentage of non project. Communities over Local communities. Local labor in Loss of income Hiring of locals for unskilled, opportunities semi-skilled jobs, semi-skilled jobs Intercultural where available. Number and origin tensions Sensitization of of laborers Dissatisfaction with non-local labor to Employed Wages project proponent Local culture and Paid Number of Gender mobility norms. Training sessions issues. held on local 3- Inequitable Unskilled labor Inter-tribal tensions. Consultation with norms. distribution of required by project. tribal leaders of the Proportion of local employment. area Balanced labor employed. employment among Tribal affiliation tribal groups of labor employed Balanced Proportion of distribution of semi-skilled and 58 Semiskilled and Unskilled jobs. Unskilled jobs as Per local human
  59. 59. Table No: 3.5 59