What does this cartoon say about working conditions during the Industrial Revolution?
Britain’s textile industry would be the first to be transformed. By 1800, several inventions had modernized the cotton industry. 1733 – John Kay – “Flying Shuttle” A shuttle sped back and forth on wheels. The flying shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weaver could do in a day.
1787 – Edmund Cartwright - “Power Loom” Run by water-power. Sped up weaving.
1779 – Samuel Crompton – “Spinning Mule” Combined the features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to make thread that was stronger and finer.
1769 – Richard Arkwright – “Water Frame” Used water-power from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels.
1764 – James Hargreaves – “Spinning Jenny” A spinning wheel used to weave yarn. It allowed a spinner to work 8 threads at a time.
James Watt 1765 – ___________ – “Steam Engine”Need for a cheap, convenient source of power was met with the invention of the steam engine.
Road Transportation John McAdam – Paved Roads – Early 1800sEquipped roadbeds with a layer of large stones for drainage. On top, he placed a smoothed layer of crushed rock. Previously, rain and mud often made roads impassable and men were known to drown in potholes. Steam Locomotives George Stephenson – “The Rocket” - 1829
Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport material and finished products. Railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners. The railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities. By making travel easier, railroads encouraged people to take distant city jobs.
Factory Work Was Harsh: long hours and few breaks• There were rigid schedules with _______________________• Work was the same day after day, week after week. (Ex: lost limbs in machines)• There were high injury rates. Frequent accidents ___________________________ job security• There was no ___________. Workers were fired for being sick, working too slow, or for no reason at all. paid less than men• Women and children were _________________• Wages were low
Urbanization:• Cities became more common and more populated – some doubled or tripled in size ______________________• People migrated to cities looking for work, especially unemployed Enclosure Acts farmers due to the ______________.• Cities were dirty and dangerous. There was a lack of sanitation laws, no fire and police departments, no running water.
I. Change in Social Structure Traditional elite A. The ______________ Aristocratic nobles and landowners were still in control B. The Capitalist Upper Class entreprenuers They were ____________ who used their money to buy and build factories and run large businesses. C. The New Middle Class Professionals, investors, merchants aspired They were financially stable, educated, and they _______ to become upper class. D. The New Working Class uneducated workers Lowly, unskilled, mechanical, poor, __________________
III. Labor movements • Formed seeking better wages and working conditions. • Workers organized into unions and threatened to strike. • Eventually, laws limiting child labor, shorter working hours, and safer working conditions were introduced.IV. New economic structures • Emerge to address the new industrial society.V. New government functions • School compulsive until age 12, and even beyond • Wider welfare measures and regulatory roles Reform Bill of 1832 • __________________ – Gave the Parliamentary right to vote to most middle-class men
VII. New directions in artistic expression _____________ – Artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the late Romanticism 18th century and stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions.The Wanderer above the Snowfields by Caspar David Friedrich
Urbanization: The movement of people to the cities The Industrial revolution brought rapid urbanization.
The enclosure movement pushed people off the farms and into the cities
• Factory work was difficult and dangerous• Typical shifts lasted 12 to 16 hours• If you complained, you were fired.• If you got sick, you were fired.• If you got hurt and could no longer work, you were fired.
Factory owners hired women because they could pay them less Women with families worked 12 hours a day and were still expected to cook, clean, etc. when they finally got home.
Families needed the income working children could provide. Children could be hired at very low wages Children worked in the same dangerous factories, for the same long hours
1) Workers protested their conditions These protests were put down violently by the British government
David Ricardo “The Iron Law of Wages” Workers should be paid only enough to survive If they make more money, they will have more children, become poor & die off from starvation
Robert Owen: Set up ideal working community called “New Harmony.” Workers worked less, children were taken care of while parents worked… productivity and profits increased.
A change in the way work was done. A change from making goods by hand, to using machines.
How Did It All Start? I. It began with an Agricultural Revolution in the 1700s. New ways of planting and growing crops were introduced. A. Charles Townshend – Learned that crop rotation led to longer lasting fertile soil. B. Jethro Tull – Invented a seed drill – a cart with a dropper that would plant seeds more efficiently. The Seed DrillOld way of planting seeds Improved Seed Drill
C. Enclosure Movement: Rich landowners bought land of village farmers and enclosed it with fences. This led to: 1. Discovery of more productive farm methods ______________________________ to increase production 2. Larger profits for wealthy farmers __________ ___________________ 3. _____________________________to Small farmers now unemployed – move the cities to find work 4. Cities grew - Urbanization ______________________________
III. Why was England the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution? harbors coal iron workers A. England had resources - ________, _______, _______, ________ and _______________. a good climate B. England had a wealthy upper class and bourgeoisie that used their capital to build mines and factories and buy machines and large farms for profit. C. England’s economy was strong because it had colonies that supplied resources. D. England’s naval superiority was an advantage because it protected trade routes.