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about, environmental toxins. there effect on organs, types preventions and solution.

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  1. 1. TOXINS BS(ES)-1
  2. 2. What are Toxins  They are defined as chemical compounds that can cause some disorder in human health and generations are known as toxins.
  3. 3. “Classes Of TOXINS”  There are various classes of Toxins with respect to there nature occurrence and diseases or disorders caused by them, including….. Cosmetics Metals Agricultural Chemicals (Pesticides) h
  4. 4. Metals  Increased human exposure to metals have made things a little complex Usage of metals has increased and so is their exposure to human beings Despite the wide range of metal toxicity and toxic properties, they have a property to penitrate the cell. If the metal is in a lipid-soluble form such as methylmercury, it readily penetrates the membrane; Protien soluble metals such as cadmiummetallothionein, the metal is taken into the cell by endocytosis; or by passive diffusion. The toxic effects of metals usually involve interaction between the free metal and the cellular entity.
  5. 5. Agricultural Chemicals (pesticides)  Chemicals used to kill un wanted living organisms from crops and trees. Properties  They kill the damaging entities and being sprayed on crops and trees Disadvantages    Targeted element dies instead or escaping. There they also affect the consumers afterwards Pests got immune until we need a stronger pesticide
  6. 6. Food additives and contaminants   Those substances which are added to food to enhance its life and form. Includes “Colors” and “preservatives” History   These substances were used since when toxicity checking was not practiced. And people keep on using them without even knowing its consequences Tragedy  A lot of them are toxins themselves
  7. 7. Solvents In addition to cutaneous effects, such as defatting and local irritation, many have systemic toxic effects, including effects on the nervous system or, as with benzene, on the bloodforming elements. Commercial solvents are frequently complex mixtures and may include nitrogen- or sulfur-containing organics— gasoline and other oil-based products are examples of this. Examples Aliphatic hydrocarbons i.e hexane.  Aliphatic alcohols i.e. methanol ethanol.  Benzene.  Chloroform. 
  8. 8. Drugs All drugs have toxins in them up to some extent.  They are harmful and ultimately fatal.  Constituents     Muscle relaxant. i.e. Marijuana CNS depressant, i.e. Ethanol CNS stimulant, i.e. Cocaine And many other like caffeine, nicotine, heroin,diethylamide (LSD), and “XTC” Another reason for being unhygienic is that all of these are illegal So they are prepared in a poor way and with the material of bad quality
  9. 9. Combustion  A process in which compounds are burned in the presence of oxygen.  Release of gasses  CO and Co2 majorly  Infects lungs and blood.
  10. 10. Cosmetic  The most common effects of modern cosmetics are occasional “allergic reactions”  The highly toxic or carcinogenic dyes are no longer in use.  Bromates, used in some cold wave neutralizers, may be acutely toxic if ingested  Sodium hydroxide used in hair straighteners are also toxic on ingestion.  Used as directed, cosmetics appear to present little risk because a little part is absorbed.
  11. 11. Organ Toxicity It is the acute or chronic problems caused by different toxins in human body. They can be avoided for the first place But some of them are eliminated by Different medications only. Following are different problems caused by Toxins in our body
  12. 12. Organ Toxicity Following are the Problems caused by different toxins in various Organisms.
  13. 13. Hepatotoxicity      This is explained as the damage caused to Liver. This damage could be due to over dose of numerous medicines Up to 900 medicines have been extracted from markets for causing hepatotoxicity Drug-induced liver injury is responsible for 5% of all hospital admissions and 50% of all acute liver failures. Troglitazone, bromfenac, tro vafloxacin are few examples.
  14. 14. Nephrotoxicity  Poisonous effect of substances on kidney.  They could be both toxins and medicines.  Caused by substances called nephrotoxins.  Heavy metals interfere with enzymes of energy metabolism are involved  It is usually diagnosed by changes in excretory function, such as increases in urinary glucose, amino acid, or protein excretion, changes in urine volume, osmolarity, or pH.
  15. 15. Toxicity of nervous system    stimulatory effect of a cup of coffee relax our brain.many Other effects can be much more insidious metabolic poisons (e.g., cyanide) disrupt cellular respiration, which ultimately prevents the brain from getting sufficient oxygen and energy. Nerve agents and metabolic poisons also appear to have serious long-term neurological effects, including neurodegeneration e.g. poison of king cobra.
  16. 16. Reproductive system Many toxins have a strong effect on reproductive system.  E.g cigarette smoking decreases fertality  In humans along with renal and heart diseases.  This is due to presence of cadmiun Cd  It also causes abnormalities in embryo. 
  17. 17. Respiratory toxicology    The respiratory system represents a unique target for the potential toxicity of toxi- cants due to the fact that the lungs are the primary portal of entry for inhaled gases and particles. In addition, the lungs receive the entire cardiac output, and therefore, toxicants that enter the bloodstream also have the potential to cause lung injury. Different type of toxins produced by burning e.g CO traces od lead and different gasses can harm respiratory track .
  18. 18. Immune system toxicology  Pollens in air  Secretions of different fungi  Bacrial action  Infactions causes immune system affected
  19. 19. Environmental Toxins  Those toxins which are produced and then get exposed to the “Environment” The study of Environmental Toxins is known as “Environmental toxicology” Environmental toxicology is defined as the study of the fate and effects of chemicals in the environment. Including toxic chemicals naturally found in the environment (i.e., animal venom and microbial and plant toxins), Environmental toxicology is typically associated with the study of environ- mental toxins
  20. 20. Environmental Toxins Environmental toxicology can be divided into two subcategories: Environmental health toxicology & Ecotoxicology Environmental health toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of environmental chemicals on human health, while Ecotoxicology focuses upon the effects of environ- mental contaminants upon ecosystems and constituents thereof (i.e., fish and wild- life etc).
  21. 21. Environmental Persistence  Many abiotic and biotic processes that function in order to eliminate (i.e., degrade) toxic chemicals exist in nature.  Accordingly, many chemicals released into the environment having less hazards because of their limited life span in the environment.  Chemicals that are difficult to degrade persist in environment for a very long time.  Trace metals represent an extreme case of persistence because as elements, metals cannot be broken down in the environment.  Continued disposal of persistent chemicals into the environment can result in their accumulation to environment cause toxicity.
  22. 22. How To Degrade…??  These Elements are being degraded by following two processes
  23. 23. Degradation of Toxins with the help of Nonliving things
  24. 24.  Degradation with the help of living things This is the degradation of elements from complex to simple By certain living organisms like Algae Fungi Bacteria Protozoans And other uni or multicellular organisms
  25. 25. What is Toxicity…?? :o  When organisms are exposed to toxins the effect of that toxin on that organism is known as toxicity. Types of toxicity…..  There Are Two Types Of Toxicity.  Acute Toxicity.  Mild Toxicity.
  26. 26. Acute Toxicity  Acute toxicity is defined as toxicity caused due to short-term exposure to a toxicant.  Incidences of acute toxicity in the environment are commonly associated with accident (e.g., derailment of a train resulting in leakage of a chemical into a river)
  27. 27. Chronic Toxicity  Chronic toxicity is defined as toxicity elicited as a result of long-term exposure to a toxicant.  Sublethal end points are generally associated with chronic toxicity.  These include reproductive, immune, endocrine, and developmental dysfunction.  However, chronic exposure also can result in direct mortality not observed during acute exposure
  28. 28. Transport and Fate of Toxicants in the Environment  More than 100,000 chemicals are released into the global environment every year through their normal production, use, and disposal.
  29. 29. Transport and Fate of Toxicants in the Environment  Toxicants are released into the environment in many ways, and they can travel along many pathways during their lifetime..
  30. 30. Transport and Fate of Toxicants in the Environment  Environmental contamination and exposure resulting from the use of a chemical is modified by the transport and transformation of the chemical in the environment.  Dilution and degradation can decrease its harms.
  31. 31. Categories of Environmental Sources  Environmental sources of toxicants can be categorized as either
  32. 32. Point sources are discrete discharges of chemicals, that are usually identifiable and measurable, such as industrial or municipal effluent outfalls, chemical or petroleum spills and dumps, smokestacks, and other stationary atmospheric discharges. Nonpoint sources are more diffuse inputs over large areas with no identifiable single point of entry such as agrochemical (pesticide and fertilizer) runoff, mobile source emissions (automobiles), atmospheric deposition, desorption or leaching from very large areas (contaminated sediments or mine tailings), and groundwater inflow.
  33. 33. How To avoid Toxins  Different companies, Law making Institutes and Governments are trying there best to reduce toxins on national and international levels but…  Followings steps should be made by each common person to avoid toxins in our daily life.
  34. 34. Sodium nitrate makes them red and appetizing, but this additive can also cause the formation of nitrosamines in your system, which can lead to cancer. 2. Stick to low-mercury fish like Trout instead of swordfish or tuna. Overexposure can cause memory problems, fatigue, and other health issues.
  35. 35. Cans are commonly lined with bisphenol-A, an organic compound that, according to the Lang study, may be associated with diabetes and heart disease. These animal products may contain trace amounts of harmful contaminants used as a food supplement by them Although many of these toxins have been banned, they are still present in the soil. Reducing your intake of animal products is also more friendly to the environment.
  36. 36. chemical additive in these products, can lead to nerve cell damage, dizziness, and headaches. Besides, anything that gives rats brain tumors is worth avoiding in my book. The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy discovered traces of arsenic in non-organic chickens. Exposure to this dangerous chemical can lead to cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Another study also found numerous antibioticresistant bacteria in conventional poultry.
  37. 37. Only drink milk that says “no rBGH” on the carton because recombinant bovine growth hormone has been linked with breast cancer. Hydrogenated oils are used to lengthen the shelf life of products like crackers and cookies, but they are also associated with diabetes and heart disease. Another reason to stay away from the middle aisles: snack foods are generally loaded with salt, corn syrup and other unhealthy ingredients.
  38. 38. Stay away from artificially-colored foods like candy, maraschino cherries, and gelatin. Mice and rats experimentally exposed to blue 1 and 2, red 3 and yellow 6 suffered from brain, adrenal gland, thyroid, and kidney tumors. Use stainless steel or cast iron cookware to prepare your meals. The Teflon used to create nonstick surfaces can release noxious gases when exposed to high temperatures, which puts you at risk for heart disease.
  39. 39. Never microwave food in plastic bowls, containers, or dishes. Exposure to heat causes the bisphenol-A found in plastics to break down and potentially contaminate your food. Also, make sure to hand wash them.
  40. 40. Conclusion  Regulatory agencies should enhance efforts to incorporate toxicogenomic data into risk assessment.  Develop specialized bioinformatic, statistical, and computation al tools and approaches to analyze toxins.  Actions should be taken to facilitate the technical and regulatory validation of toxicogenomics.
  41. 41. Conclusions  Continue to use toxicogenomics to study differences in toxicant responses between animal models and humans and continue to use genotyped and genetically altered animal model strains as experimental tools to better extrapolate results from animal tests to human health.
  42. 42. Conclusion  Address the ethical, legal, and social issues that affect the use of toxicogenomic data and the collection of data and samples needed for toxicogenomic research.  Develop education and training programs relevant totoxicogenomic applications to predictive toxicology.
  43. 43. Introduction to Environmental Sciences Mr.Umair. An apple a day keeps the doctor away
  44. 44. Made By Saad Ali Mughal, Subscribe at