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1 | P a g e
Acknowledgment
We are very grateful to Allah who blessed us the strength and courage to stand by the difficulties
that came in the way and who enabled us to complete this project effectively. As plants cannot
grow without seeds, birds cannot fly without wings. Similarly knowledge cannot be attained
without proper direction and supervision. We are, therefore, also thankful to our respected
Teacher Tariq Hui, because of whose generous co-operation and help, the accomplishment of
this Project became possible.
2 | P a g e
The global financial crises
Introduction
Advanced countries are today in the midst of a serious financial crisis and deep economic
recession, and emerging markets are experiencing a sharp slowdown in economic growth. In this
report we will first examine the financial crisis in U.S happened in late 2007 and also causes,
effects, policies, and prospects for the financial crisis and how the financial crisis led to recession
in other advanced countries as well.
Causes of the Financial Crisis
The present financial crisis started in the U.S. sub-prime mortgage market in 2007 and then
spread to the entire financial and real sectors of the U. S. economy in 2008, and from there to the
rest of the world. The initial causes of the financial crisis are clear huge and increasing amounts
of home mortgages -- often based on weak underwriting including no down payment or checking
credit histories –were given to individuals and families that clearly could not afford them. These
mortgages were made at variable rates when rates were the lowest in 50 years. It was only to be
expected that a rise in interest rates would cause many homeowners to be unable to make their
mortgage payments and default. This crisis may have been avoided if housing prices had
continued to rise at the unrealistic high rates of 2000-2005.
These sub-prime home mortgages were then repackaged into mortgage-backed securities (MBS)
and sold to credit market investors. Rating agencies, such as Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s,
gave some of these financial instruments various credit ratings, sometimes triple ‘A’ ratings,
depending on the tranche. Although the problem of sub-prime mortgages greatly expanded
during the presidency of George W. Bush, the practice started in 1999 during the Clinton
Administration when Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were pushed to grant home mortgages to
people who clearly could not afford these mortgages in order to “promote the American dream”
of owning a home.
3 | P a g e
Effects of the Crisis
However, that is history now. The outcome of the current financial crisis is clearly evident to all.
Stock markets crashed all over the world, with declines ranging from 35-40% over the past 12 to
18 months in developed countries and even more in most emerging markets. The crisis also has
brought significant limitations to investment banking, as we have known it in the United States
during the past decade, and a severe recession in most advanced countries and much slower
growth in emerging markets. This is likely to be the worst economic recession since the 1930s.
With a decline of this magnitude, it almost seems of small consolation for a manager to have
posted strong relative performance or earned a spot in the top quartile among the institutional
and mutual fund peer groups. However, active management skill has helped to shield some
portfolios from the full force of the market’s declines and this approach has the potential to
continue to add value in U.S. equities.
Policies to Overcome the Crisis
The United States and Europe did almost everything possible to avoid the recession, but their
efforts may have only succeeded in preventing a deeper recession or Depression.
The United States:
• Introduced a $168 billion dollar stimulus package at the beginning of 2008, which contributed
to a 2.8% growth of real GDP in the second quarter of last year, but its effect soon faded away
• The Federal Reserve lowered interest rates from 5.25% in September 2007 to 1.0% in October
2008, and to practically zero in December 2008
• The U.S. government brokered a deal to rescue Bear Sterns with a $29 billion debt guarantee
which allowed it to be acquired by J. P. Morgan Chase at a deeply discounted price (to avoid the
accusation of moral hazard -- a situation where profits are private and costs or losses are public)
• Acquired $100 billion of (nonvoting) stock of Fannie Mae, $100 billion of Freddie Mac, and a
total of $145 billion from American Investment Group (AIG)
4 | P a g e
• Encouraged and facilitated the acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of America and approved
the conversion of Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs into commercial banks
• Increased insurance on bank deposits to $250,000 (up from $100,000); and adopted a $700
billion rescue plan, with half of the money spent by the end of the year, to recapitalize the
banking sector and purchase money and commercial paper from firms to make up for the drying
up of this lending activity by commercial banks
More recently, in November 2008, in the most ambitious rescue operation to date, the Treasury
injected another $20 billion of new capital (on top of the $25 billion provided in September) to
Citigroup and together with the Fed provided guarantees against excessive losses on $306 billion
of toxic assets (mostly sub-prime personal and commercial loans owned by Citi) to prevent its
collapse. In January 2009, the Treasury again injected $20 billion of new capital (on top of the
$25 billion injected in September) to Bank of America and Merrill Lynch, and together with the
Fed provided guarantees against excessive losses on $100 billion of toxic assets to prevent Bank
of America from withdrawing from the purchase of Merrill Lynch after it discovered that the
latter had even more toxic assets than it realized at the time Bank of America initially agreed to
purchase it.
In mid-February 2009, Congress passed a $789 billion stimulus package of increased
expenditures on infrastructure, education, health, and the environment, as well as tax reduction
(demanded by Republicans), in an attempt to stimulate the U.S. economy and prevent the current
deep recession (the deepest since the recession in 1982) from becoming a depression. The plan is
to use the remaining $350 billion from the $700 billion rescue plan adopted in September 2008
as a down payment on the purchase toxic assets from banks so that they could resume lending to
businesses -- essential for jumping starting the economy.
At the same time, many European countries adopted similar but less ambitious policies to
stimulate their economies. In January 2009, the European Central bank cut the interest rate to
2.0% (down from 4.25% in July 2007) and indicated that it was ready to cut it again to
1.5% at its next meeting in March 2009, but that it would not follow the U.S. and Japanese
counterparts down the path of practically zero interest rates. The Bank of England cut the interest
rate more drastically to 1.0% in February 2009 (the lowest since its creation in 1694). All of
these measures, however, did not prevent recession in Europe either.
5 | P a g e
When Will the Financial Crisis Come to an End?
We will know the crisis may be reaching its end when certain factors are visible in the market:
• Housing prices stop falling,
• American banks need no further recapitalization,
• Firms start investing again and their profits rise
These events will likely be preceded or anticipated by stock markets becoming less volatile and
rising. This may occur in the second half of 2009, with health care and the consumer-staples
industry leading the way. However, even when growth returns, it is likely to remain slow for
another year or two until the financial excesses experienced during the past decade wind down
entirely. In the meantime, investment banking as we have known it in the United
States during the past decade no longer exists – none of the five large investment banks that
existed in the United States at the beginning of 2008 existed in their original business model by
year end. Going forward, investment banking will be conducted mostly by commercial banks
under more highly regulated and less speculative conditions permitted by the Fed.
The crucial event that led to the demise of investment banks was the failure of Lehman Brothers.
Lehman was allowed to fail presumably because its assets were less solid than those of Bear
Sterns and because there were no buyers after Treasury Secretary Paulson refused to provide $60
billion of loss guarantees to Barclays and Bank of America, firms that had shown interest in
acquiring Lehman. However, he subsequently admitted to having underestimated the size of
Lehman and the problems that its failure would create in the United States and around the world.
At the time of its failure, Lehman had sold nearly $700 billion in bonds and derivatives, of which
about $160 billion was unsecured. Rescuing Lehman would likely have only postponed the
crisis, not prevented it.
6 | P a g e
Reforms to Prevent Future Crises
Important reforms are clearly needed to avoid future financial crises. Reforms need to be
comprehensive but also broad and general. Comprehensive because inadequate regulations on
investment banking and improper application of existing regulations contributed to the current
financial crisis. Regulations, however, also need to be broad and general rather than specific and
pointed because money is fungible and when a specific regulation closes one avenue of creative
financial excess, soon operators find other ways to bypass the regulation. In my opinion,
regulations should also restrict or prohibit the use of exotic derivatives. These are derivatives for
which the correct price is difficult or impossible to determine and which sellers cannot clearly
explain and/or buyer understand how they are supposed to work. Reforms are likely to include
the requirement that credit default swaps be traded on organized exchanges and issuers put up
reserves to cover the risk of default.
TERRORISM, FINANCIAL CRISIS AND GLOBALIZATION
Introduction
In this case study we will analyze to what extent terrorism affects the global economy. In order
to do so, the main task will firstly be to take a closer look at the main economic consequences of
terrorist attacks, focusing on the World Trade Centre attack of 2001. Secondly, a review will be
conducted of the internal economy of international terrorism, with an emphasis on the different
sources of the financing. Thirdly, there will be a focus on the role played by international
terrorism in contemporary globalization.
Terrorism and its implications on contemporary society has been one of the most pressing issues
in the study of International Political Economy over the past decade. Even though it is not a new
concept there has been a particular focus on this issue, especially since the attacks of 11th of
September 2001 (9/11), concerning both its consequences and ways to fight it.
Terms use in case study
7 | P a g e
Terrorism is commonly defined as violent acts (or threat of violent acts) intended to create fear
terror, perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal, and which deliberately target or
disregard the safety of non combatants(e.g., neutral military personnel or civilians)
Financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial assets
suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world
views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and
telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the
Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and
cultural activities
Economic consequences of terrorism
Terrorist attacks, whether local or international, cause immediate human, economic and
psychological repercussions of differing intensity. However, their impact does not stop there
since most costs come from the indirect impact, which can be seen to vary greatly, as “the
indirect costs of terrorist attacks vary in their distribution across activities, sectors, countries and
time. In order to get a better idea of the amplitude of the consequences of international terrorist
attacks, there is a need to take a look at the primary impacts they have on the economy.
 The psychological impact
The most striking consequence of international terrorist attacks is the human loss. Terrorism
causes heavy civilian mortalities: The more victims caused by a terrorist attack, the greater a
psychological effect it will have on the population. This might not seem like a direct economical
consequence but panic actually influences the economy dramatically.
Panic affects the patterns of consumption and investment behavior of individuals and companies
and can then lead to distinct market disturbances. Therefore, one of the most important short
term effects of terrorist attacks is this feeling of insecurity having is much wider. Therefore, the
8 | P a g e
perception of a terrorist attack plays a big part in the impact on the economy. It can for example
lead to drops in demand in the tourism area. Indeed, “hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and
other tourism-related businesses confronted a sharp drop in demand (immediately after 9/11
 Insurance impact
The economic consequences of international terrorism on the insurance sector is one of the most
likely to remain a medium to long term issue, as insurance coverage for terrorist-related activities
is more difficult to obtain and premiums have markedly increased.
 Security and military reinforcement
Finally, the consequence of international terrorist attacks that appears to be the most likely to
have a medium to long-term duration is the change in policy, and especially the reinforcement of
security and military sectors.
Both these aspects have a prominent impact on the economy of the country which enforces them.
On the one hand, increasing the budget of the military sector is an important and long term
investment that needs to be carefully monitored:
On the other hand, security reinforcement also imposes costs on the economy. Indeed,
“immediately after the attacks (9/11), the US Administration and (to a lesser extent) other OECD
governments increased public spending to help reconstruction, strengthen domestic security and
combat terrorism. In order to defend themselves better, these countries continue to tighten
security policy and border control, which is likely to lead to spiraling costs. Moreover, security
measures also have a direct effect on trade: “Stronger security regulations, however, imply that
trade becomes more expensive, such as by increasing delivery times. For instance, after
terrorist’s attacks on 11th September 2001, US borders were temporarily closed, trucks on the
border between Canada and the United-States had to wait up to 20 hours for a crossing that
normally takes minutes”
9 | P a g e
[Title]Terrorism and globalization
The parts of this have shown how international terrorism creates a range of economic
consequences for countries and for the global economy in general and how it has a highly
developed internal economy. When looking closely at international terrorism, it is striking how
its organization and network fit in the pattern of globalization. In effect, especially for the past
decades, terrorism has become more and more a global phenomenon.
The birth of transnational terrorism
Three factors led to the birth of transnational terrorism
 The growth of commercial air travelling
 The evolution of the media
 Developments of broad political and ideological interests among extremists
Indeed, the evolution of air travel gave terrorist groups a new level of mobility and the new
media gave them a platform to spread their capacity and message. As globalization spreads and
societies become increasingly interconnected,
The consequence of international terrorism, within the framework of globalization, still remains
lower than local terrorism. Indeed, the pattern of terrorism in general remains more local than
international, as 88% of the time, terrorist attacks occur in the group’s country of origin: “a
typical terrorist attack is thus not like those on September 11th, when people from foreign
countries came to the United-States to commit an attack.
Conclusion
There is still an ongoing debate about whether or not international terrorism has a small or big
effect on the global economy of today. Some argue that it is still a peripheral disturbance, and
those cities, which are the main targets of the attacks, tend to recover quickly and efficiently.
International terrorism manages to have long-term effects on certain industries, such as tourism,
and these consequences are likely to have a domino effect on other industries. Moreover,
10 | P a g e
people’s reactions to international terrorist attacks can be so disproportionate that it is difficult to
anticipate the possible impact it might have on stock markets or consumption.
What is undeniable however is the fact that international terrorism has managed to maximize its
capacities through the dynamics of globalization and that is where the main danger lies. Indeed,
whether one considers this phenomenon to be a minor disturbance or a major actor of the global
economy today, the one thing that is sure is that it has conducted a shift in people’s perception of
the world and that there is a need to gather more data in order to inhibit international terrorist
groups’ use of financial networks.

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Report of mangerail

  • 1. 1 | P a g e Acknowledgment We are very grateful to Allah who blessed us the strength and courage to stand by the difficulties that came in the way and who enabled us to complete this project effectively. As plants cannot grow without seeds, birds cannot fly without wings. Similarly knowledge cannot be attained without proper direction and supervision. We are, therefore, also thankful to our respected Teacher Tariq Hui, because of whose generous co-operation and help, the accomplishment of this Project became possible.
  • 2. 2 | P a g e The global financial crises Introduction Advanced countries are today in the midst of a serious financial crisis and deep economic recession, and emerging markets are experiencing a sharp slowdown in economic growth. In this report we will first examine the financial crisis in U.S happened in late 2007 and also causes, effects, policies, and prospects for the financial crisis and how the financial crisis led to recession in other advanced countries as well. Causes of the Financial Crisis The present financial crisis started in the U.S. sub-prime mortgage market in 2007 and then spread to the entire financial and real sectors of the U. S. economy in 2008, and from there to the rest of the world. The initial causes of the financial crisis are clear huge and increasing amounts of home mortgages -- often based on weak underwriting including no down payment or checking credit histories –were given to individuals and families that clearly could not afford them. These mortgages were made at variable rates when rates were the lowest in 50 years. It was only to be expected that a rise in interest rates would cause many homeowners to be unable to make their mortgage payments and default. This crisis may have been avoided if housing prices had continued to rise at the unrealistic high rates of 2000-2005. These sub-prime home mortgages were then repackaged into mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and sold to credit market investors. Rating agencies, such as Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s, gave some of these financial instruments various credit ratings, sometimes triple ‘A’ ratings, depending on the tranche. Although the problem of sub-prime mortgages greatly expanded during the presidency of George W. Bush, the practice started in 1999 during the Clinton Administration when Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were pushed to grant home mortgages to people who clearly could not afford these mortgages in order to “promote the American dream” of owning a home.
  • 3. 3 | P a g e Effects of the Crisis However, that is history now. The outcome of the current financial crisis is clearly evident to all. Stock markets crashed all over the world, with declines ranging from 35-40% over the past 12 to 18 months in developed countries and even more in most emerging markets. The crisis also has brought significant limitations to investment banking, as we have known it in the United States during the past decade, and a severe recession in most advanced countries and much slower growth in emerging markets. This is likely to be the worst economic recession since the 1930s. With a decline of this magnitude, it almost seems of small consolation for a manager to have posted strong relative performance or earned a spot in the top quartile among the institutional and mutual fund peer groups. However, active management skill has helped to shield some portfolios from the full force of the market’s declines and this approach has the potential to continue to add value in U.S. equities. Policies to Overcome the Crisis The United States and Europe did almost everything possible to avoid the recession, but their efforts may have only succeeded in preventing a deeper recession or Depression. The United States: • Introduced a $168 billion dollar stimulus package at the beginning of 2008, which contributed to a 2.8% growth of real GDP in the second quarter of last year, but its effect soon faded away • The Federal Reserve lowered interest rates from 5.25% in September 2007 to 1.0% in October 2008, and to practically zero in December 2008 • The U.S. government brokered a deal to rescue Bear Sterns with a $29 billion debt guarantee which allowed it to be acquired by J. P. Morgan Chase at a deeply discounted price (to avoid the accusation of moral hazard -- a situation where profits are private and costs or losses are public) • Acquired $100 billion of (nonvoting) stock of Fannie Mae, $100 billion of Freddie Mac, and a total of $145 billion from American Investment Group (AIG)
  • 4. 4 | P a g e • Encouraged and facilitated the acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of America and approved the conversion of Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs into commercial banks • Increased insurance on bank deposits to $250,000 (up from $100,000); and adopted a $700 billion rescue plan, with half of the money spent by the end of the year, to recapitalize the banking sector and purchase money and commercial paper from firms to make up for the drying up of this lending activity by commercial banks More recently, in November 2008, in the most ambitious rescue operation to date, the Treasury injected another $20 billion of new capital (on top of the $25 billion provided in September) to Citigroup and together with the Fed provided guarantees against excessive losses on $306 billion of toxic assets (mostly sub-prime personal and commercial loans owned by Citi) to prevent its collapse. In January 2009, the Treasury again injected $20 billion of new capital (on top of the $25 billion injected in September) to Bank of America and Merrill Lynch, and together with the Fed provided guarantees against excessive losses on $100 billion of toxic assets to prevent Bank of America from withdrawing from the purchase of Merrill Lynch after it discovered that the latter had even more toxic assets than it realized at the time Bank of America initially agreed to purchase it. In mid-February 2009, Congress passed a $789 billion stimulus package of increased expenditures on infrastructure, education, health, and the environment, as well as tax reduction (demanded by Republicans), in an attempt to stimulate the U.S. economy and prevent the current deep recession (the deepest since the recession in 1982) from becoming a depression. The plan is to use the remaining $350 billion from the $700 billion rescue plan adopted in September 2008 as a down payment on the purchase toxic assets from banks so that they could resume lending to businesses -- essential for jumping starting the economy. At the same time, many European countries adopted similar but less ambitious policies to stimulate their economies. In January 2009, the European Central bank cut the interest rate to 2.0% (down from 4.25% in July 2007) and indicated that it was ready to cut it again to 1.5% at its next meeting in March 2009, but that it would not follow the U.S. and Japanese counterparts down the path of practically zero interest rates. The Bank of England cut the interest rate more drastically to 1.0% in February 2009 (the lowest since its creation in 1694). All of these measures, however, did not prevent recession in Europe either.
  • 5. 5 | P a g e When Will the Financial Crisis Come to an End? We will know the crisis may be reaching its end when certain factors are visible in the market: • Housing prices stop falling, • American banks need no further recapitalization, • Firms start investing again and their profits rise These events will likely be preceded or anticipated by stock markets becoming less volatile and rising. This may occur in the second half of 2009, with health care and the consumer-staples industry leading the way. However, even when growth returns, it is likely to remain slow for another year or two until the financial excesses experienced during the past decade wind down entirely. In the meantime, investment banking as we have known it in the United States during the past decade no longer exists – none of the five large investment banks that existed in the United States at the beginning of 2008 existed in their original business model by year end. Going forward, investment banking will be conducted mostly by commercial banks under more highly regulated and less speculative conditions permitted by the Fed. The crucial event that led to the demise of investment banks was the failure of Lehman Brothers. Lehman was allowed to fail presumably because its assets were less solid than those of Bear Sterns and because there were no buyers after Treasury Secretary Paulson refused to provide $60 billion of loss guarantees to Barclays and Bank of America, firms that had shown interest in acquiring Lehman. However, he subsequently admitted to having underestimated the size of Lehman and the problems that its failure would create in the United States and around the world. At the time of its failure, Lehman had sold nearly $700 billion in bonds and derivatives, of which about $160 billion was unsecured. Rescuing Lehman would likely have only postponed the crisis, not prevented it.
  • 6. 6 | P a g e Reforms to Prevent Future Crises Important reforms are clearly needed to avoid future financial crises. Reforms need to be comprehensive but also broad and general. Comprehensive because inadequate regulations on investment banking and improper application of existing regulations contributed to the current financial crisis. Regulations, however, also need to be broad and general rather than specific and pointed because money is fungible and when a specific regulation closes one avenue of creative financial excess, soon operators find other ways to bypass the regulation. In my opinion, regulations should also restrict or prohibit the use of exotic derivatives. These are derivatives for which the correct price is difficult or impossible to determine and which sellers cannot clearly explain and/or buyer understand how they are supposed to work. Reforms are likely to include the requirement that credit default swaps be traded on organized exchanges and issuers put up reserves to cover the risk of default. TERRORISM, FINANCIAL CRISIS AND GLOBALIZATION Introduction In this case study we will analyze to what extent terrorism affects the global economy. In order to do so, the main task will firstly be to take a closer look at the main economic consequences of terrorist attacks, focusing on the World Trade Centre attack of 2001. Secondly, a review will be conducted of the internal economy of international terrorism, with an emphasis on the different sources of the financing. Thirdly, there will be a focus on the role played by international terrorism in contemporary globalization. Terrorism and its implications on contemporary society has been one of the most pressing issues in the study of International Political Economy over the past decade. Even though it is not a new concept there has been a particular focus on this issue, especially since the attacks of 11th of September 2001 (9/11), concerning both its consequences and ways to fight it. Terms use in case study
  • 7. 7 | P a g e Terrorism is commonly defined as violent acts (or threat of violent acts) intended to create fear terror, perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal, and which deliberately target or disregard the safety of non combatants(e.g., neutral military personnel or civilians) Financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value. Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities Economic consequences of terrorism Terrorist attacks, whether local or international, cause immediate human, economic and psychological repercussions of differing intensity. However, their impact does not stop there since most costs come from the indirect impact, which can be seen to vary greatly, as “the indirect costs of terrorist attacks vary in their distribution across activities, sectors, countries and time. In order to get a better idea of the amplitude of the consequences of international terrorist attacks, there is a need to take a look at the primary impacts they have on the economy.  The psychological impact The most striking consequence of international terrorist attacks is the human loss. Terrorism causes heavy civilian mortalities: The more victims caused by a terrorist attack, the greater a psychological effect it will have on the population. This might not seem like a direct economical consequence but panic actually influences the economy dramatically. Panic affects the patterns of consumption and investment behavior of individuals and companies and can then lead to distinct market disturbances. Therefore, one of the most important short term effects of terrorist attacks is this feeling of insecurity having is much wider. Therefore, the
  • 8. 8 | P a g e perception of a terrorist attack plays a big part in the impact on the economy. It can for example lead to drops in demand in the tourism area. Indeed, “hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and other tourism-related businesses confronted a sharp drop in demand (immediately after 9/11  Insurance impact The economic consequences of international terrorism on the insurance sector is one of the most likely to remain a medium to long term issue, as insurance coverage for terrorist-related activities is more difficult to obtain and premiums have markedly increased.  Security and military reinforcement Finally, the consequence of international terrorist attacks that appears to be the most likely to have a medium to long-term duration is the change in policy, and especially the reinforcement of security and military sectors. Both these aspects have a prominent impact on the economy of the country which enforces them. On the one hand, increasing the budget of the military sector is an important and long term investment that needs to be carefully monitored: On the other hand, security reinforcement also imposes costs on the economy. Indeed, “immediately after the attacks (9/11), the US Administration and (to a lesser extent) other OECD governments increased public spending to help reconstruction, strengthen domestic security and combat terrorism. In order to defend themselves better, these countries continue to tighten security policy and border control, which is likely to lead to spiraling costs. Moreover, security measures also have a direct effect on trade: “Stronger security regulations, however, imply that trade becomes more expensive, such as by increasing delivery times. For instance, after terrorist’s attacks on 11th September 2001, US borders were temporarily closed, trucks on the border between Canada and the United-States had to wait up to 20 hours for a crossing that normally takes minutes”
  • 9. 9 | P a g e [Title]Terrorism and globalization The parts of this have shown how international terrorism creates a range of economic consequences for countries and for the global economy in general and how it has a highly developed internal economy. When looking closely at international terrorism, it is striking how its organization and network fit in the pattern of globalization. In effect, especially for the past decades, terrorism has become more and more a global phenomenon. The birth of transnational terrorism Three factors led to the birth of transnational terrorism  The growth of commercial air travelling  The evolution of the media  Developments of broad political and ideological interests among extremists Indeed, the evolution of air travel gave terrorist groups a new level of mobility and the new media gave them a platform to spread their capacity and message. As globalization spreads and societies become increasingly interconnected, The consequence of international terrorism, within the framework of globalization, still remains lower than local terrorism. Indeed, the pattern of terrorism in general remains more local than international, as 88% of the time, terrorist attacks occur in the group’s country of origin: “a typical terrorist attack is thus not like those on September 11th, when people from foreign countries came to the United-States to commit an attack. Conclusion There is still an ongoing debate about whether or not international terrorism has a small or big effect on the global economy of today. Some argue that it is still a peripheral disturbance, and those cities, which are the main targets of the attacks, tend to recover quickly and efficiently. International terrorism manages to have long-term effects on certain industries, such as tourism, and these consequences are likely to have a domino effect on other industries. Moreover,
  • 10. 10 | P a g e people’s reactions to international terrorist attacks can be so disproportionate that it is difficult to anticipate the possible impact it might have on stock markets or consumption. What is undeniable however is the fact that international terrorism has managed to maximize its capacities through the dynamics of globalization and that is where the main danger lies. Indeed, whether one considers this phenomenon to be a minor disturbance or a major actor of the global economy today, the one thing that is sure is that it has conducted a shift in people’s perception of the world and that there is a need to gather more data in order to inhibit international terrorist groups’ use of financial networks.