Distance Matters: An Exploratory Analysis of theLinguistic Features of Flickr Photo Tag Metadata in Relation to Impression Management Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed & Shion Guha Department of Information Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Data From The Society: Social Data Social Influence Social Contagions Group Formations Collaboration Patterns Self-Expressions Impression Management etc.
Socializing DatabasesSELECT persons FROM societyWHERE personsare “emotional”SELECT emotions FROM society WHEREcommunities are “vulnerable to emotionalcascades” Is Social Data hiding behind the Data from the Society?
An image hosting and video hosting website, web services suite, andonline community that was created by Ludicorp in 2004 and acquired byYahoo! in 2005. [Wikipedia, May 19, 2011]Yahoo reported in June 2011 that Flickr had a total of 51 million registered me
Why Do People Tag Photos ?Helping SearchCategorizationSelf Identityand ...
Impression ManagementGoal-directed conscious orunconscious process in which peopleattempt to influence the perceptionsof other people about a person,object or event.They do so by regulating andcontrolling information in socialinteractions.
Dramaturgy Theory By Erving GoffmanDramaturgy is a sociologicalperspective starting fromsymbolic interactionism, andcommonly used in microsociologicalaccounts of social interaction ineveryday life. Human actions are dependent upontime, place, and audience.The goal of this presentation of selfis acceptance from the audiencethrough carefully conductedperformance.
Back StageSmartGorgeousFun LovingWiseKnowledgeableFunnyPhilanthropicetc.
Invisible Audience: Who? We analyzed Flickr Tags to investigate this. We used LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word to analyze the Counts) linguistic features of these tags
Informational Words The words which contains information or facts. Emotional tags of a photo contain the facts about the contents of the photo. Example: Eiffel Tower, Grand Canyon, Taz Mahal, 500 feet, etc.
Emotional WordsThe words, whichcontain emotionsExample: Happy,Enjoy, Sad, Boring,Disgusting, Hate,Love, WoW, etc.
Relative FeatureThis is LIWC classof words thatcontains all wordsexpressing space,time, etc.Example: Day, Place,Year, Faster, Slower,etc.
Affect FeatureLIWC class of wordswhich containemotion.Example: Joy, Sad,Love, Hate, etc.
Emotion and DistanceIs physical distancehas any effect onpsychologicaldistance ?
Tagging An “away” Photo User’s Home Location: San Diego, CA, USA. Photo taken at: Paris, France Distance: 5698 miles Tags: “Paris”, “France”, “Europe”, “TourEiffel”, “Eiffel Tower”, ‘Travel 2009”.
Tagging a “Local” PhotoUser’s Home Place: Paris, FrancePhoto taken at: Paris, FranceTags: “night”, “city”, “lights”, “at”,“winter”, “event”, “street”, “trade”,“leisure”, “iPhone”, “Eiffel”,“entertainment”, “iphonography”,etc.
Hypothesis 1Distance will be negatively correlated with theamount of “affect” contained in the photo tags.Example: People are less expected to say“bored”, “happy”, etc. when they are on a travelto a place far away from their place.People generally post more information whenthey are traveling away from their place.
Hypothesis 2Distance will be negatively correlated with theamount of “affect” contained in the photo tags.Example: People are less expected to say “day”,“night”, “car”, etc. when they are on a travel to aplace far away from their place.Did you notice people almost always upload thephoto of their cars, when the cars are aroundtheir place?
Hypothesis 3Distance will be positively correlatedwith the interaction effect betweentags and relativity contained in phototags.Example: People talk about “ABeautiful House”, “A HorribleRestaurant”, when they are far awayfrom their place.
Experiment48 thousandgeotagged FlickrphotosTaken in 20112 thousand photosper month
What We Gotdistance = 3718.7147 - 18.3245 * affect - 8.4009 *relativity + 0.8276 * affect * relative + ep < 0.01
DiscussionMost of the time, the invisible audience isconsisted of the people living around the user.When they share something around them, theyshare less information and more emotion.When they share a photo taken far away fromtheir places, they try to introduce their audienceto the new things they see.
Social Recommendations Get Information from someone who lives far away from the place. Get quality, emotion, etc. from someone who lives around that place.
InfluenceHow do influentialpeople manage theirimpression in thesociety?How does leadershipgrow?
Predict Social Contagions How do the revolutions form? How does a new fashion spread out?