Instrument s for access cavity preparation NameBursFunctionseveral types of burs will be used to accomplishgood access preparation Fissure burs are used inthe initial stage of access preparation to establishthe correct outline form ,Round burs are used tolift the roof of the pulp chamber and eliminateoverhanging dentine ,Tapered Non end-cutting bur isused to lift lid of pulp chamber and refine cavity.
Instrument s for access cavitypreparation Front surface mirror
Instrument s for access cavity preparation NameFront surface mirrorFunctionis best suited for visibility deep within the pulp chamber.
Instrument s for access cavity preparation root canal explorer
Instrument s for access cavity preparationNameprobe/root canal explorerFunctionUsed to probe and detect canal openingswithin the pulp chamber
Instrument s for access cavity preparation NameEndo excavatorFunction"larger than conventional excavator" itsshape allows curettage of the pulp chamberwhen conventional one will not reach thefloor of the chamber, and used as surgicalaid to excavate periapical lesion.
Extirpation Instrument NameBarbed broachesFunctions• Used to remove the intact pulp• ‘Barbs’ on the broach snag the pulp to facilitateremoval.Retrieve a paper point or cotton pellet trapped inthe canal. Loosen debris in necrotic canal..
Extirpation InstrumentThe braded broach comes in different sizes, and theselection of suitable size is very important, it shouldfit loosely inside the canal, when braded broach size islarger than the canal size, the hooks of B.B engaged inthe dentinal wall of the canal and stick there "Jammedbroach" and with drawing it becomes difficult andmight fracture inside the canal, if the dentist faced byJammed broach, the broach should be removedvertically without twisting. The B.B must only beused in the straight part of the canal, and insertion ofthe broach (not exceed 23) of the canal length of theideal way to use it is
ISO standardization endodonticBefore a standardized configuration was adopted,instrument varied greatly from one manufacturer toanother. The configuration adopted is that set by theInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO), AllISO hand instruments, along with paper points, silverpoints and standardized gutta-percha points, conform tothis system. ISO standardized files have a cutting length of16 mm, have a specified diameter at the tip (termed D1) andincrease in diameter by 0.02 mm for each millimeter alongthe file, so that at the end of the cutting part (16 mm alongthe file) the diameter (termed D2) is 0.32 mm greater thanat D1. This is called an .02 taper. Files may vary in length,any extra length is provided by a ‘blank’ portion. Thenominal size of the instrument is based on the diameter ofits tip (the diameter at D1) expressed in hundredths of amillimeter. Thus an ISO size 50 file will have a tip diameterof 0.50 mm.
ISO standardization also uses a color for each size, as shown below: Color Nominal Size Pink 06 Grey 08 Purple 10 White 15 45 90 Yellow 20 50 100 Red 25 55 110 Blue 30 60 120 Green 35 70 130 Black 40 80 140The amount of increase in diameter from one inst. to the next is 0.05 mmin inst. from size 10 – 60, and 0.1 mm in inst. from size 60 – 140.
Instruments for root canalpreparation K- reamer
Instruments for root canalpreparation K- reamer
Instruments for root canalpreparationK-reamerinstruments can be manufactured bytwisting a square or triangular blank bymachine . reamer used in shaping thecanalAction oclock wise quarter –turn twist ..
Instruments for root canalpreparation K- file
Instruments for root canalpreparationK- fileinstruments can be manufactured by twisting a squareor triangular blank by machine the blank is twistedinto a tighter series of spiral than reamer also K- fileare more flexible than reamer .K -Files with a triangular cross-section tend to havesuperior cutting characteristics and are moreflexible, and hence less likely to transport the canalduring preparation. .Actionoclock wise half –turn twist ..
Instruments for root canal preparationK-Flex filesare produced from a blank that is rhomboid incross-section; this forms both cutting and non-cutting edges. The files are more flexible than anequivalent-sized K-file .Actionoclock wise half –turn twist ..
Instruments for root canal preparationFlexofilehave a triangular cross-section and are manufacturedfrom flexible stainless steel. Flexofiles are more efficient at cutting andremoving dentine than an equivalent K-file, because the blade has asharper angle and there is more room for debris. The tip of thefile is non-cutting. This is an advantage when preparing curved canals, asthe file is guided along the canal curvature, avoiding excessivecutting into the outer curve of the root canal or transportation. Anyflexible, triangular cross-sectioned file, such as a Flexofile, can beused with the balanced force actionAction oclock wise half –turn twist ..
Instruments for root canalpreparation Hedstom file
Instruments for root canalpreparation Hedstom file
Instruments for root canal preparationHedstom fileare machined from a tapered cylindrical block. In cross-section they have the appearance of a series of intersectingcones. Hedstroem files are highly efficient at removingdentine on the outstroke when used in a filing motion, buthave poor fracture resistance in rotationActionwithdrawal stroke ..
NiTi (Nickel titanium) rotary instrumentsThese files are used to flare the coronal aspect of the rootcanal. Although they are manufactured from nickel-titaniumthe files are relatively inflexible, as the cross-sectionaldiameter is larger than that of a standard file (ISO). The useof these instruments is therefore best restricted to therelatively straight parts of the root canal to avoid stripperforation. It is recommended that they are used in a handpiece driven by an electric motor at 150-300 rpm
Gates-Glidden drillsSmall flame-shaped cutting instrument used in theconventional hand piece Different sizes – coded by rings orcolored bands on shank Are slightly flexible and will followthe canal shape but can perforate the canal if used too deeplyfunctions : Preparing the coronal two thirds of molars canals. Removing gutta-percha from the canal during post space preparation or during retreatment. Widen the canal when an instrument has fractured within it.
Peeso reamers drillsSmall flame-shaped cutting instrument used in theconventional hand piece Different sizes – coded by rings orcolored bands on shank, Peeso reamers are not flexible oradaptable, if not used with care can perforate canalfunctions : Removing gutta-percha from the canal during post space preparation or during retreatment.
Instruments for root canalpreparation Disposable irrigating syringe and disposable needle
Instruments for root canal preparationNameDisposable irrigating syringe and disposable needleFunction, features and precaution• Used with an irrigant to clean and disinfect thecanal during endodontic treatment• A blunt needle with side exiting delivery willreduce the risk of the needle bindingwithin the canal
Instruments for root canalpreparation Absorbent paper points
Instruments for root canalpreparationNameAbsorbent paper pointsFunctions• To absorb any moisture in the canal(i.e. blood, pus and saliva)• To carry medicaments into the canal
Instruments for root canal Filling Gutta - percha
Instruments for root canal FillingNameGutta percha pointsFunction and features• Non-soluble, non-irritant points that are condensedinto the pulp chamber during obturation• Standardized type: follows same ISO classification asendodontic files• Non-standardized: have a greater taper than thestandard ISO type
Instruments for root canal Filling Hand spreader
Instruments for root canal Filling Finger spreader
Instruments for root canal FillingNameFinger spreaderFunction, features and precaution• Finger instrument with a smooth,pointed, tapered working end• Used to condense gutta percha laterallyinto the canal during obturation
Instruments for root canal Filling Hand Plugger
Instruments for root canal Filling Finger Plugger
Instruments for root canal FillingNameEndodontic pluggerFunctionWorking end is flat to facilitate plugging orcondensing the gutta percha vertically afterthe excess has been removed by melting offwith a heated instrument
Instruments for root canal Filling Lentulo spiral Drill
Instruments for root canal FillingNameLentulo spiral filler/rotary paste fillerFunction and features• Small flexible instrument used to placematerials into the canal• Fits into the conventional hand piece• Use with caution as it can be easily broken
Transfer sponge or Endodontic blockFunctions• An endodontic block is a sturdy block used to organize andhold endodontic finger and rotary instruments duringprocedures;• Reduces the possibility of percutaneous injuries whenhandling endodontic finger and rotary instruments
Endo locking tweezersEndo – locking pliers or (endo locking tweezers):it has lock "latch" that permits materials to be heldwithout continuous finger pressure, it has a groove atthe tip, the grooved tip facilitate holding absorbentpoints and gutta – percha cones.
Electronic Apex LocatorsNameApex locatorFunctions• An electronic instrument used to determinethe distance to the apical foramen• The screen allows the operator to visualizethe file movement during instrumentation
Electric pulp testerNameElectric pulp testerFunction and directions for use• Used to test the vitality of a tooth using electric stimulus• Electric stimulus is increased in small increments until thepatient can feel the stimulus• Toothpaste or prophy paste is used to conduct the currentfrom the pulp tester to the tooth
operating microscope LoupesIllumination and magnification are vital forthe location of root canals. The endodontist would use asurgical microscope while a general dental practitionermight have loupes and a headlight that give excellentmagnification and illumination .