Dear Readers,This presentation is the compilation of data & details from Internet aswell as few good books. The intent is to spread the awareness amongmasses about the facts about ‘Our Universe’ and to eradicate all mythsabout same.Using this presentation approximately 3oo nos. of sessions have beenconducted by me, addressing more than 50000 audience, whichincludes students, teachers & other general members of public. Allthese session were free of cost with only interest of ‘ScienceCommunication’ & No financial gain in any form has been made by meor any related social organization.For additional details please refer the mentioned websites or books. --- Santosh Takale
AstronomyKgaaolaXaas~ ho iva&anaacyaa sava- ksaaoTyaaMvar p`yaaogava p`icatIWaro isadQa Jaalaolao Xaas~ Aaho. AstrologyjyaaoitYa hI svaPnao ivakNyaacaI klaa Aaho. ho Xaas~ navho,karNa iva&anaacyaa ekhI ksaaoTIvar p`yaaoga va p`icatIWaro toisadQa hao} Xakt naahI.
• What we are Looking for in Night Sky ? – Constellations ( tarkasamaUh ) : 88 Nos. – Nakshtras ( naxa~ ) : 27 Nos. – Sunsigns ( raXaI ) : 12 Nos. – Planets ( ga`h ) : 8 Nos. – Notable Stars ( taro ) : 5500 Nos. – Meteor Shower ( ]lka vaYaa-va ) : 10 to 12 Nos. – Galaxies, Dwarf Galaxies, Nebulae, Messier Objects, Star Clusters etc. ( idiGa-ka tojaaomaoGa ) – Special Cases : Eclipse (ga`hNao )
What is Constellation (Sagittarius & Scorpion) ?
Constellation (Orion the Hunter) ( maRga tarkasamaUh )
flajyaaoitYaaMcao gaRihtk :AakaXasqa ga`hgaaolaaMcaa maanavaI jaIvanaavar satt pirNaama haotao : Aaxaop / ivasaMgatI saUya- ha ga`h naahI. caMd` ha ga`h naahI. rahU va kotU ho vastU Aqavaa ga`h mhNaUna Aist%vaat naahIt. pRqvaIlaa kuMDilat sqaana naahI. Non existence of Fixed frame of reference for observation. P`a%yaok ga`hacaa ekTyaacaa p`Baava XaaoQaNao AXa@ya. pRqvaIcyaa praMcana gatIbaabat AnaiBa&ta. raXaI / naxa~ yaaMcao gauNaQama- va %yaacaI AaQaarhInata.
Relative distribution of the two types of PlanetsGas giant worlds are far from the Sun Rocky worlds are close to the Sun
Bruno was burned alive for speculating that the stars are similar sun,perhaps having planets and some of them may even harbour life. Todayit is no longer a mere speculation. In fact till now more than460 exso-planets that is planets of other stars have been discovered.Many of them are massive like Jupiter. What an irony!
ivaSvaacaI ]%p<aI ( Origin of Universe ) : Time starts now ………
About 460 crore years ago there was a very big and colossal gas cloud-primordial solar cloud. The cloud rotated about itself due to self gravityand began to shrink. In the center the mass accreted and becamedense. Most of the mass in the cloud concentrated at the centerresulting in the birth of sun. As the core of this sun became moremassive and denser the temperature rose to an extent thatthermonuclear reaction – fusion could take place. Sun started to shine.
While the rest of thematerial went aroundand around the centralmass. Small dustparticles were attractedinitially by electrostaticattraction. Once thesmall rocks becamesufficiently bigger gravityalso played a part.Slowly the proto planetswere formed.
Proto planets fused to gather toform planets like Mercury, Earthand so on. Gas giants like Jupiterand Saturn were formed by theaccretion of the light elements.The icy materials and gases likemethane became Uranus andNeptune.
The leftover proto planets became the kuiper cloud while the left overoriginal material became the Oorth cloud. The materials that failed toaccrete into a planet due to the gravitational perturbation of Jupiterbecame asteroid belt.Initial phase of solar evolution was full of bombardments. One result ispockmark like craters on Moon, Mercury and so on. As most of thespace rocks in the inner region got exhausted the bombardmenttapered off around 3 billion years ago.On such bombardment resulted in the formation of moon. Once it waspostulated that moon could have formed due to accretion of materialsaround Earth, could have been captured or could have split from EarthRecent studies indicate that Mars like proto planet impacted onEarth and moon resulted from the debris that was thrown out.
saaOrmaalaocaI inaima-tI ( Origin of Solar System ) :
The formation of solar system is not pure guess work. Looking at thenight sky one can clearly see evidence of gas cloud accreting, starformation, accreting disk, planet formation.
Activity opportunity: Powers of 10 Surface Body Radius Volume Area Earth 1 1 1 Jupiter 10x  100x  1000x  Sun 100x 10,000x 1,000,000x
Dwarf PlanetsThe IAU currently recognises five dwarf planets—Ceres, Pluto, Haumea,Make make, and Eris.Ceres is in the asteroid belt others in the Kuiper belt.Many Kuiper Belt objects, exist in what is believed to be a vast shell oficy and rocky objects that live at the very edge of our solar system.
After moon brightest celestial object in the night sky is Venus.
Ptolemys system Copernicus’s systemGalileo Galilee used telescope to observe Venus. Onseeing the waxing and waning phases of Venus, justlike that of Moon, Galileo concluded heliocentric solarsystem.
Galileo discovered the four largest moonof Jupiter on Jan 7, 1610?.In his telescope the moons appeared astiny dots. The position of the dotschanged over days and he found thatthey were orbiting Jupiter.
During July 1994 a comet named Shoemaker Levy was captured byJupiter and crashed on its surface.
Shani has beenmuch malignedplanet in Hindutradition.Actually it is oneof the beautifulplanets with itsmajestic rings.
Actually when Galilio looked at Saturn in1610 through telescope he was stunned.He perceived Saturn to have twostructures on both side.With improved telescope in 1616 heperceived it to structure like ears to aface.1655 Huygens could discern it to be aring like structure.It was Cassani who in 1676 distinguish itto be number of rings
Uranus also has rings, butno so grand as Saturn.13 March 1781 Uranus wasdiscovered by William Hersheland his sister Carolina. It wasthe first planet that found noplace in any bible, puran orreligious texts.
In olden days the suddenappearance of Comets wasconsidered bad omen.Comet was called Dumketu andin various civilisations it wasimagined to be various scaryobjects.Norman king William consideredthe appearance of comet in1066 as good omen. A new stara new king was his slogan. Hefought his enemies and becamethe king of England.
As the sun rays evaporate andmakes the tail of the comet the tailis prominent when it is nearer tosun and it always points against thesun
flajyaaoitYaaMcao gaRihtk : (Revisiting the assumption after knowing Universal facts) AakaXasqa ga`hgaaolaaMcaa maanavaI jaIvanaavar satt pirNaama haotao : Aaxaop / ivasaMgatI »saUya- ha ga`h naahI. »caMd` ha ga`h naahI. »rahU va kotU ho vastU Aqavaa ga`h mhNaUna Aist%vaat naahIt. »pRqvaIlaa kuMDilat sqaana naahI. » Non existence of Fixed frame of reference for observation. »P`a%yaok ga`hacaa ekTyaacaa p`Baava XaaoQaNao AXa@ya. »pRqvaIcyaa praMcana gatIbaabat AnaiBa&ta. »raXaI / naxa~ yaaMcao gauNaQama- va %yaacaI AaQaarhInata.
Moon goes around in elliptical orbit, tiltedat about 5 degree. Apogee is at 357200km and perigee is 407100 km.Light will take about 1.25 seconds to reachEarth from moon. It takes about 27 ½ days togo around Earth, but the period between eachfull moon is about 30 days.
The relative position of Earth, Moon and Sun results in the phases.Though every new moonday moon is in line withSun, due to the tilt of itsorbit, it will not causeeclipse every new moonday.
Eclipse seen from another planet ! Two moons ofMars occasionally cause partial eclipse andPathfinder mission captured the eclipse that tookplace in 2004.
Zodiac signs are mere constellation falling around Sun Path
Real Solar Zodiac Dates - Sun Sign Dates Sun Sign Real Sun Signs Conventional Sun Signs1 Pisces 12-Mar 18-Apr 19-Feb 20-Mar2 Aries 19-Apr 13-May 21-Mar 19-Apr3 Taurus 14-May 19-Jun 20-Apr 20-May4 Gemini 20-Jun 20-Jul 21-May 20-Jun5 Cancer 21-Jul 9-Aug 21-Jun 22-Jul6 Leo 10-Aug 15-Sep 23-Jul 22-Aug7 Virgo 16-Sep 30-Oct 23-Aug 22-Sep8 Libra 31-Oct 22-Nov 23-Sep 22-Oct9 Scorpius 23-Nov 29-Nov 23-Oct 21-Nov10 Ophiuchus 30-Nov 17-Dec11 Sagittarius 18-Dec 18-Jan 22-Nov 21-Dec12 Capricornus 19-Jan 15-Feb 22-Dec 19-Jan13 Aquarius 16-Feb 11-Mar 20-Jan 18-Feb
Vastness of Universe………………….. Distances & Units • mm, cm, inch, feet, meter, yard, km, miles . • AU, LY, Parsec. • Pico, nano, micro, mili, Kilo, mega, giga, tera. • Avg. Human Height : 1.5 to 2 meter. • Plane fly at : 10 kms. (Mt Everest 9 kms) • India : 3000 EW x 2700 NS (kms x kms) • Diameter of earth : 12700 kms. • Dia of Geosta. satellite orbit : 70 000 kms. • Dist to moon from earth : 3 84 000 kms. • Dia of Sun : 13 92 000 kms • Distance to sun from earth: 15 00 00 000 kms (ie. 1 AU) • Distance to sun from Jupiter : 1 00 00 00 000 kms (ie. 7 AU)
Distances & Units• Distance to sun from pluto : 40 AU.• Distance to sun from kupier belt : 700 AU (100 billion kms)• Oort’s cloud is up to : 20000 AU• One Light year (1 Ly) : 63271 AU• One parsec (Pc) : 3.26 Ly = 206265 AU• The nearest star to us : 4.3 Ly• 10 Parsec : 32.6 Ly• Center of galaxy from us : 30000 Ly• Dia of Milky way : 1 Lac Ly• Dia of Andromeda : 1.8 Lac Ly• Dist bet Andromeda & MW : 22 Lac Ly• Dia of Local Cluster of galaxy : 1 Mpc• Span of Universe : 15 billion Ly
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References & Thanks to : • Mumbai University & Nehru Planetarium Astro-Course Notes. • Marathi website : www. Avakashvedh.com by ‘ Sachin Pilankar • Wikipedia website : http://en.wikipedia.org
Good Books to be read….• Astronomy for Amateurs…………….…. Pradeep Nayak.• Kgaaola pircaya ……………………………… p`idp naayak.• duiba-NaI AaiNa vaoQaXaaLa …………………… AanaMd GaOsaasa.• taraMgaNa …………………………………… p`idp naayak.• AakaXaaXaI jaDlao naato ………………… Da^. jayaMt naarLIkr.• kRYNaivavar ………………………………… maaohna AapTo.• vaoQa ivaXvaacaa maanavaI XaaOyaa-caa ……………… p`a. p. ra. AaDo-.• Astonomical Calculation ………….…..… Mohan Apte.• A Brief History of Time ………………..…. Stephen Hawking.• AMtraL AaiNa iva&ana ………………… Da^. jayaMt naarLIkr.
Details of Additional free Lectures delivered bySantosh Takale :(Few lectures will be with Slide shows. Duration is 45 to 75 minutes)• Understanding the Universe ( ivaSvaacao AMtrMga).• Career Guidance ( kiryar maaga-dSa-na).• Snakes- Myths & Facts. ( saap : samaja - gaOrsamaja).• Sky Observation with naked eye & Telescope ( AakaSa inarIxaNa).• Human Society : Myths & Facts (maanavaI samaaja : samaja - gaOrsamaja).• Management techniques & Time Management.• Being true Citizen of Country with vast diversity-India.• NDT for All ( Students & Professional)• Communication skills & Personality Development (saMBaaYaNa klaa va vya@tIma%va ivakasa).
Santosh Takale is senior Scientific Officer at Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai. He has done B. Tech in Mechanical Engineering & advance studies in Nuclear Engineering at BARC, Mumbai. He has also obtained many certification in the field of Welding, Non Destructive Testing & Radiation Safety, which includes IWE (International Welding Engineer), Radiation Safety Officer & ISNT, ASNT Level III in Ultrasonic Testing & Level II in Radiographic Testing, Eddy Current Testing, Dye Penetrant testing, Visual Inspection & Magnetic Particle Testing.He is Founder of ‘TAKALE CHARITABLE TRUST’ & ‘Institute for Computer & InformationTechnology-Panvel. He is President of Sky Watcher’s Association of Raigad. He is alsohonorary member of many reputed, regional and national oraganisations in technical &social field.He has been honoured with many prestigious award which includes ‘VISHESHGAURAVARTHI’ ‘PANVEL BHUSHAN’, ‘PANVEL GUNIJAN, PANVEL GAURAV’‘MAHARASHTRA GAURAV’, ‘YASHWANT GAURAV’ & ‘RASHTRA GAURAV’ for hisoutstanding contribution in the field of science & technology as well as social field.Contact Details : firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com Ph-09967584554. Website : www.takalecharitabletrust.org