S1180190 1


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S1180190 1

  1. 1. Influence of nucleus SW3
  2. 2. All radiation is not harmful There are two types of radiation. They are non-ionizingand ionizing. Non-ionizing radiation includes infraredradiation, radio waves, cellphone radiation and theradiation we use to cook food in a microwave. Suchradiation does not break chemical bonds. If it is veryintense, it can heat up tissues; otherwise, it does not havesignificant effects. It is not believed to causecancer. Ionizing radiation is much more dangerousbecause it does break chemical bonds and thus doescause cancer. Examples of this kind of radiation includeX-rays, gamma rays and the alpha or beta particlesemitted by radioactive elements as they decay.
  3. 3. Something that happens when body is exposed to ionizing radiation It is changed from how long you are exposed. The initialsymptoms are identical to those suffered by a personundergoing radiation therapy for cancer. The first signsinclude nausea and fatigue, then vomiting. After thatcomes hair loss and diarrhea. For radiotherapy fortumors, the exposure generally stops after that point andthe symptoms are controlled. But with heavier exposure,the next stage is generally destruction of the intestinallining and worse diarrhea and dehydration, then centralnervous system damage. After that comes loss ofconsciousness and, inevitably, death.
  4. 4. Difference between radiation andnuclear bomb released from nuclear plants There are difference between them. A nuclear explosionhas two types of radiation that have lethal effects. Theblast itself produces X-rays and gamma rays that irradiateanyone near the site, usually with a lethal or near-lethaldose of radiation. Most of the 166,000 Japanese whodied at Hiroshima in the first four months after the atomicbombing suffered from this type of radiation, which killedthem directly or aggravated other injuries suffered in theblast.
  5. 5. It also produces clouds of radioactive ash that includescesium-137, iodine-131, radioactive strontium and a host ofother long-lived byproducts of the explosion -- knowncollectively as fallout. This material can collect on skin andclothing, where it can emit radiation that pierces the skin. Moreimportant, it can accumulate in food, milk, water and otherproducts that are ingested. It is not clear how many Hiroshimaresidents died of cancer from this source, but some estimatesput it at more than 100,000. But Fukushima is not emittinggamma or X-irradiation. Most of the radioactivity is in the formof radiocesium and radioiodine, which are byproducts of thefission of uranium in the fuel rods.
  6. 6. Cesium-137 and Iodine-131 Cesium-137 and iodine-131 are dangerous for human. We canabsorb preferentially Iodine-131 in the thyroid gland, where itcan cause tumors. It has a half-life of eight days and is mostdangerous to children because it damages rapidly dividingcells. The problem can be substantially ameliorated by takingtablets of ordinary iodine, which bind to the thyroid and preventthe radioactive iodine from binding. Cesium-137 is moreserious. It is a salt that acts like potassium and goeseverywhere in the body. It is absorbed into soft tissues, causingsarcomas. It contaminates food, water and milk and gets intothe body when those things are ingested. Contamination withcesium-137 is one of the main reasons large areas of land hadto be abandoned in the wake of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
  7. 7. Radiation in Japan The levels of exposure are not told in detail. Radiation levels werereported to have jumped to about 400,000 microsieverts per hourinside the Fukushima plant after an explosion Tuesday, although thelevels subsided rapidly. Sustained exposure to this level of radiationwould be extremely hazardous. Levels outside the plant would havebeen substantially lower. Civilians who have been exposed toradiation have been treated by simply getting their clothes washed andbeing given showers because the exposure has been sominimal. Workers in the plant will receive the highest exposure, butthey are outfitted with full protective gear, wear radiation badges andwork for shifts of only an hour or two at a time. According to newsreports, radiation levels in Tokyo have been 10 times normal, which isstill very low.
  8. 8. s1180190Ryo Namekatahttp://articles.latimes.com/2011/mar/16/health/la-he-japan-quake-radiation-20110316/2