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Chestnuts : Packing, Transporting And Risk Factors


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Chestnuts : Packing, Transporting And Risk Factors

  1. 1. General: Product information Packaging Transport Container transport Cargo securing Risk factors and loss prevention: Temperature Odor Humidity/Moisture Contamination Ventilation Mechanical influences Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health Gases Shrinkage/Shortage Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases
  2. 2. Product information Product name German Maronen (Esskastanien), Edelkastanien English Chestnuts, sweet chestnuts French Marrons Spanish Castañas Scientific Castanea sativa CN/HS number * 0802 40 00 (* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)
  3. 3. Product description Sweet chestnuts are edible nuts which grow on trees of the genus Castanea in the beech family (Fagaceae). Chestnuts are native to the Black Sea area. They have an spiky, external husk (cupule) which spontaneously breaks open when ripe to reveal the actual fruit. The outer husk may contain 1 - 3 fruits. The fruit consists of the light colored nut kernel, a thin skin and a red-brown to brown pericarp. The base of the nut has a light colored spot, also known as the quot;navelquot;. Chestnuts are of a round to oval shape. Their flavor may be described as nutty. Boiling or roasting imparts a still stronger aroma to chestnuts. Cooking also makes it easy to remove the skin and shell from the nut kernel. The nut kernel predominantly consists of starch, protein, minerals and chestnut oil. For a nut, its vitamin C content is relatively high. The oil content of chestnuts is 1 - 2% (chestnut oil). There is a very large number of different varieties of chestnuts, just one of which is the quot;keepingquot; chestnut, which remains on the tree longer than normal chestnuts and must be picked by hand.
  4. 4. Quality / Duration of storage Chestnuts exhibiting mold growth on acceptance of a consignment must be rejected. If, on unloading, they exhibit mold growth, they should not be placed in full sunshine as this does not delay decomposition, but instead encourages it. Once mold growth has started, it cannot be stopped. The fruits must not exhibit any mechanical damage either. Various sources state maximum duration of storage as follows: Temperature Rel. humidity Max. duration of storage Source 0°C not stated 6 months [5] -3 - 0°C 65 - 75% 12 months [18] Due to their poor keeping qualities (high water content), chestnuts are sold not as nuts, but instead as fresh fruit, unless they have been sun-dried.
  5. 5. Intended use Boiled chestnuts are served as an accompaniment to various meat dishes or are pureed. Roast chestnuts sold as a snack during the cold winter months. Before boiling or roasting, chestnuts are provided with a crosswise nick at the tip and either boiled for five minutes and then shelled or are roasted, after which the shells easily burst open. Figures Figure 1 Figure 2
  6. 6. Countries of origin This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive. Europe Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Turkey Africa Asia Japan, Korea, China America USA Australia Packaging Chestnuts are mainly transported in Jute bags, PP Files, boxes or drums.
  7. 7. Transport Symbols General cargo Temperature-controlled Means of transport Ship, truck, railroad Container transport Refrigerated container with fresh air supply
  8. 8. Cargo handling Since chestnuts are sensitive to impact, they must be handled with appropriate care. In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since it may lead to mold growth. The required refrigeration temperature must always be maintained, even during cargo handling. Stowage factor 3.34 - 3.48 m3/t (in boxes) [11] 5.02 - 5.57 m3/t (in bags) [11] 3.96 m3/t (in bags) [1]
  9. 9. Stowage space requirements Cool, dry, well ventilated Segregation Fiber rope, thin fiber nets Cargo securing Because of its considerable impact- and pressure-sensitivity, packages of this cargo must be secured in such a way that they are prevented from damaging each other. Spaces between packages or pallets must be filled, to prevent slippage or tipping. By selecting the correct packaging size or cargo unit (area module or area module multiple), holds can be tightly loaded (without spaces). Care must be taken during stowing to ensure that the cargo is not only well secured but is also very well ventilated.
  10. 10. Risk Factors and Loss Prevention RF Temperature Chestnuts require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions). A written cooling order must be obtained from the consignor before loading is begun. This order must always be complied with during the entire transport chain. The following Table merely constitutes an estimate of appropriate temperature ranges. Temperatures may deviate from these values, depending on the particular transport conditions. Temperature Designation Source range 1 - 3°C [1] Favorable travel temperature range 0°C [5] -3 - 0°C [18] Excessive heat during storage causes chestnuts to germinate.
  11. 11. RF Humidity/Moisture Chestnuts require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions). Humidity/water Designation Source content 70% [1] Relative humidity 65 - 75% [18] Water content 25 - 30% [1] Maximum equilibrium 85% [1] moisture content According to [15], the water content of chestnuts may be as high as 50.1%, as a result of which they are constantly releasing water vapor. Fresh chestnuts release particularly large quantities of water vapor due to vigorous respiration, so causing self-heating and mold growth. Chestnuts must be protected from all forms of moisture (seawater, rain and condensation water) to prevent mold, rotting, fermentation and sprouting.
  12. 12. RF Ventilation Chestnuts require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions). Recommended ventilation conditions: circulating air, 10 - 20 circulations/hour with continuous supply of fresh air (airing). In order to reduce the risk of germination and sprouting, water vapor and CO2 must be removed continuously and an adequate supply of fresh air must be ensured. Packaging must be constructed so as to ensure adequate ventilation. Where possible, the cargo should be stowed so as to leave trenches. RF Biotic activity Chestnuts display 2nd order biotic activity. Chestnuts are living organs in which respiration processes predominate, because their supply of new nutrients has been cut off by separation from the parent plant.
  13. 13. Care of the cargo during the voyage must be aimed at controlling respiration processes (release of CO2, water vapor, ethylene and heat) in such a way that the cargo is at the desired stage of ripeness on reaching its destination. Inadequate ventilation may result in fermentation and rotting of the cargo as a result of increased CO2 levels and inadequate supply of atmospheric oxygen (see Ventilation). RF Gases CO2 evolution Chestnuts (especially when fresh) constantly release CO2 . Upper limit of permissible CO2 0.8 vol.% content If ventilation has been inadequate (frost) or has failed owing to a defect, life- threatening CO2 concentrations or O2 shortages may arise. Therefore, before anybody enters the hold, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out. The TLV for CO2 concentration is 0.49 vol.%.
  14. 14. RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Chestnuts have a tendency towards self-heating under the influence of moisture RF Odor Active Chestnuts release a slight, behavior unpleasant odor. Passive Chestnuts are sensitive to behavior unpleasant or pungent odors. RF Contamination Active Chestnuts do not cause behavior contamination. Passive The cargo is sensitive to dirt, fats behavior and oils. The holds or containers must accordingly be clean and in a thoroughly hygienic condition before loading.
  15. 15. RF Mechanical influences Because of their high mechanical sensitivity, chestnuts must be treated with great care during cargo handling, transport and storage, since otherwise they may suffer a reduction in quality. RF Toxicity / Hazards to health If ventilation has been inadequate (frost) or has failed owing to a defect, life- threatening CO2 concentrations or O2 shortages may arise. Therefore, before anybody enters the hold, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out. The TLV for CO2 concentration is 0.49 vol.%. RF Shrinkage/Shortage Loss of weight must be expected due to the release of water vapor, especially from fresh chestnuts.
  16. 16. RF Insect infestation / Diseases Chestnut blight: Chestnut blight (Endothia parasitica) attacks and destroys the bark and wood of the chestnut tree. Ink disease: Infection with ink disease (Phytophthora cinnamoni), which attacks the roots of the tree, is manifested externally by leaf yellowing and die-back of branches. Maggot infestation: Chestnuts are sometimes infested with maggots, one common culprit being the insect Carpocapsa splendam. Mold growth: Once mold growth has started, it cannot be stopped and the damage is thus irreversible. The quarantine regulations of the country of destination must be complied with and a phytosanitary certificate may have to be enclosed with the shipping documents. Information may be obtained from the phytosanitary authorities of the countries concerned. Source : The Transport Information Service (TIS) from the German Insurance Association (GDV e.V.)
  17. 17. If you are looking for serious supplier of Red Round Marrons Type Chestnuts, we are your right partner in Origin.
  18. 18. Our Commitments & Values Our Commitments to our esteemed Customers : We believe that our customers come first, and that you are entitled to expect excellent customer service from us. We strive to give you this through personal accountability and professional commitment, working with you to ensure that our products and services meet your needs. Our Corporate Values are: • Guaranteed Product Qaulity • Multi-Level Reliabilitiy • Flexibility with Customers needs • Competitive prices • Timely delivery • Accurate service before and after sale
  19. 19. Please contact us now! Attn: Mr. Aytac SAMRIOGLU (Int’l Sales) Tel: +90 212 863 01 74 Fax: +90 212 8631719 Mail: