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Music In Buddhism


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Music In Buddhism

  1. 1. Temple Beth El Comparative Religion Lecture Series Music in Buddhism Role and Uses of Music in Buddhism
  2. 6. Sutras were originally recited from memory <ul><li>Oldest parts of the sutras are believed to be the gatta sections – verse </li></ul><ul><li>Later when writing was applied to the sutras they were expanded upon and the prose sections were used to enhance or expand upon what was contained in the gatta sections </li></ul>
  3. 7. Sutra in Chinese <ul><li>Yellow Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Order of Characters </li></ul><ul><li>This version is considered to be the most sacred </li></ul>
  4. 8. Sutra with Romanji Notation <ul><li>Romanji – Romanization </li></ul><ul><li>Red Triangles – Bell Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Red Dots – Mokusho </li></ul><ul><li>Furigana </li></ul><ul><li>American Priests </li></ul>
  5. 9. Sutra with Romanji <ul><li>Used by Lay believers </li></ul><ul><li>Considered by Japanese to be the only correct way to reproduce the sutra into another language – contains the Kanji characters </li></ul>
  6. 10. Romanji Version <ul><li>Used to chant the entire sutra by non Japanese speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into days to facilitate chanting the entire sutra in 32 days (Based on Minobu) </li></ul>
  7. 11. Rituals and Formalities <ul><li>Initially very few </li></ul><ul><li>As Buddhism moved into monasteries rituals were established </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism moved away from lay practitioners </li></ul>
  8. 12. First Major Split in Buddhism <ul><li>Monastic traditions commonly referred to as Hinayana though now only Therevadan exists of all the original Hinayana schools </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana a response to monastic traditions was lay focused – less emphasis on priests </li></ul>
  9. 13. Development of Mahayana Buddhism <ul><li>Different schools formed – sects or denominations </li></ul><ul><li>Each sect adopted sutras that were believed to represent the Buddha’s important teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Within each denomination rituals were created and orders of service established </li></ul>
  10. 14. Major Nichiren Denominations <ul><li>Nichiren Shu </li></ul><ul><li>Rissho Kose Kai </li></ul><ul><li>Nipponzan Myohoji </li></ul><ul><li>Kempon Hokke Kai </li></ul><ul><li>Nichiren Shoshu </li></ul><ul><li>Soka Gakkai – lay only </li></ul><ul><li>Reiyukai – lay only </li></ul>
  11. 15. Lotus Sutra <ul><li>Primary sutra in all Nichiren Denominations </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremony in the Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Stupa appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Treasures Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of Bodhisattvas from Underground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most important Chapter 16 – Life Span Chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Second Most important Chapter 2 - Expedients </li></ul>
  12. 16. Services in Nichiren Shu <ul><li>Primarily the order and contents of a service in its most simplest form is the re-enactment of the Ceremony in the Air </li></ul><ul><li>More complicated and fancy services recreate the entire sutra in an abbreviated form </li></ul>
  13. 17. Buddhism is primarily experiential <ul><li>Place ourselves at the Ceremony in the Air as Bodhisattvas from Underground </li></ul><ul><li>The assembly for us has not been dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding our relationship to what is taught in the Sutra </li></ul><ul><li>Deepening our relationship enables us to better understand what our actions and behaviors should be </li></ul><ul><li>Attainment of Enlightenment </li></ul>
  14. 18. Musical Elements in the Lotus Sutra <ul><li>Preaching – without the teaching nothing happens – everything is in response to the Dharma being taught </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavenly drums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells and gongs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavenly music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragrant incense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers raining down from the heavens </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Three Treasures <ul><li>Many songs, parts of services, and service manner relate to the Three Treasures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha – our teacher who attained enlightenment and teaches how to become Buddhas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma – the teaching of the Buddha which enable us to become Buddhas as the Buddha did </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sangha (Samgha) – community of believers, practitioners who in community follow and encourage others in the teachings of the Buddha </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Buddhist Service as a Participatory Experience <ul><li>Eastern or Asian Traditions – culturally Buddhist ceremony and services are done by priests and lay people observe and benefit by experiencing the spirituality of the service </li></ul><ul><li>Western adoptions – culturally lay people whish to actually participate in the services </li></ul>
  17. 21. Sutra Recitation <ul><li>Before the rise of what are called “New Religions” not uncommon for lay people to not even know how to read or recite the sutras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incense offering is commonly done during the sutra recitation portions because people can’t say the sutra and so it gives them something to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the West most people learn to recite the sutra and do so during service so the incense offering occurs during the mantra chanting </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Adaptations in the West <ul><li>More instruction is given in how to read and recite the Sutras </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction in how to sing and perform Shomyo (Buddhist Hymns) </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of Sutras and use of native language (also being done more in Japan as well) </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of Shomyo to be sung in English </li></ul><ul><li>Training lay people to assist in ceremonies and services </li></ul>
  19. 23. Translations <ul><li>Sutras into English – presents little difficulty when used in services except generally the English is longer </li></ul><ul><li>Shomyo into English – very challenging because of the use of abbreviations in the Shindoku (The liturgical language - Japanese pronunciation of Chinese Characters) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Bu’ standing in for Butsu meaning Buddha, we cannot just say Bu in English and have an understanding occur automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where one syllable is used in a song may require several in English </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Movements <ul><li>Clockwise direction </li></ul><ul><li>Bowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular bow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raihai – deep bow – forehead touching the floor, hands raised from the floor to above ears alongside head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gassho, never half Gassho – appreciation and respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sashu – left hand over right </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. Instruments <ul><li>Kanamaru – large bell </li></ul><ul><li>Inken – hand bell </li></ul><ul><li>Kei – plank bell </li></ul><ul><li>Mokusho – wooden drum </li></ul><ul><li>Mokugyo – fish drum </li></ul><ul><li>Taiko – large drum </li></ul><ul><li>Uchiwataiko – hand held drum </li></ul><ul><li>Nyo – cymbals – generally only used for Shu San </li></ul><ul><li>Hachi – gong – generally only used for Shu San </li></ul>
  22. 26. Use of Instruments <ul><li>Kanamaru – signal bell for everyone in hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rings – Dai Sho Dai – hard, soft, hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 rings – Dai Dai Sho Sho Dai – hard, hard, soft, soft, hard (less frequent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inken – signal bell for priests movements and singing </li></ul><ul><li>Kei – signal bell for priests demarcating sections of service – same bell pattern for 3 rings, 2 or 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Mokusho & Mokugyo – wooden percussion for keeping the rhythm (Mokugyo is used during memorial services generally or for in home visits by priests) </li></ul><ul><li>Taiko – large drum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening/Beginning – demonstrate to illustrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accompanies the mokusho during service omitting first beat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uchiwataiko – used during service when chanting Odaimoku and when marching – again first beat is omitted </li></ul>
  23. 27. Major/Main Shomyo <ul><li>Dojoge – Invitation and welcome of Buddhas </li></ul><ul><li>Sanborai – Offering/Praising Three Treasures </li></ul><ul><li>Kirisange – Flower strewing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanki – Taking Refuge in the Three Treasures </li></ul><ul><li>Buso – Parting of the Buddhas, sending the Buddhas to where they wish to be </li></ul>
  24. 28. Special Occasion Shomyo <ul><li>Shu San – special incantation directly from the Lotus Sutra, always pronounced or sung in Sanskrit – offered for protection (portion of Atandai) </li></ul><ul><li>Taiyo – song of prayer used in special ceremonies, accompanied by special offerings such as incense and water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Versatile song as special sections are added or left out depending upon the service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special sections or verses are added especially when a priest dies </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Format of Shomyo <ul><li>Solo introduction to each verse </li></ul><ul><li>Joint or group singing of ending of verse </li></ul><ul><li>Sagaru - first note tone is approached gradually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese consider it unpleasing to the ear to begin harshly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual even if only slight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embai – slight single note trill, hiccup </li></ul><ul><li>Oru – rapid drop to lower note </li></ul><ul><li>Joe no kiri – “I” in Shu San </li></ul><ul><li>Kirazu – no breath during pause </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing is very regulated – only at specific spots </li></ul>
  26. 30. Other Ceremonial Items <ul><li>Chukei - fan </li></ul><ul><li>Hossu – whisk </li></ul><ul><li>Egoro – handheld incense burner </li></ul><ul><li>Hanazra – flower petal tray </li></ul>
  27. 31. Perhaps the oldest Buddhist Song <ul><li>Tisarana </li></ul><ul><li>Sung the same in all countries </li></ul><ul><li>Buddham saranam gacchami </li></ul><ul><li>Dharmman saranam gacchami </li></ul><ul><li>Sangham saranam gacchami </li></ul><ul><li>I take refuge in the Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>I take refuge in the Dharma </li></ul><ul><li>I take refuge in the Sangha </li></ul>
  28. 32. Demonstration of Shomyo
  29. 33. San Bo Rai
  30. 34. San Bo Rai – Musical Notation
  31. 35. San Ki <ul><li>English translation </li></ul><ul><li>Taking Refuge </li></ul><ul><li>A bit awkward </li></ul>
  32. 36. Kiri Sange <ul><li>Flower tossing </li></ul><ul><li>L – R – C </li></ul>
  33. 37. Shu San <ul><li>Dharani </li></ul><ul><li>Magical Incantation </li></ul><ul><li>Only recited in Sanskrit </li></ul>
  34. 38. Robes - Dress <ul><li>Juban – short undershirt </li></ul><ul><li>Hakue – longer undergarment </li></ul><ul><li>Hakuma – pleated skirt </li></ul><ul><li>Dofuku – informal robe over street clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Wagesa – folded kesa worn with Dofuku </li></ul><ul><li>Kojie – formal robe with long sleeves </li></ul><ul><li>Kesa – Buddhas garment – 5 panel and 8 panel </li></ul><ul><li>Zori – slipper shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Tabi – special socks </li></ul>