Understanding Culture0 Culture is a group which shapes a person’s values and identity . Cultural identities can stem from the following differences : race, ethnicity, gender, class, religion , country of origin, and geographic origin.0 It is complex system of values, traits, morals, and customs shared by a society.0 It is a system for creating, sending, storing, and processing information.
Dimensions of Culture0 Context0 Individualism0 Communication style0 Time orientation
Context 0 High Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on non-verbal and subtle situational cues in communication. 0 Low Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.
Low-Context Culture High-Context Culture0 Individualism 0 Collectivist 0 Membership, group0 Individual action teams and personal 0 Group value, duties, responsibility and decision 0 Resist independence
Individualism0 An attitude of independence and freedom from control.0 Members of many low-context cultures value independence and freedom from control.0 Tradition, ceremony, and social rules are more important in high-context culture
Time Orientation0 North American tend to correlate time with productivity, efficiency.0 In other cultures time may be perceived as an unlimited resource.
Communication Style0 Westerners value a direct, straightforward communication style.0 Westerners: sound of words0 Asian: meaning of words
Cross Culture Communication0 Intercultural Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background could lead them to interpret verbal and non-verbal signs differently.
Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference
CODES USED IN COMMUNICATION0 Verbal Communication• Words• Voice0 Non-Verbal Communication• Gestures• Postures• Facial Expressions• Eye Contact• Vocal Characteristics• Personal Appearance• Touch
Why Cross Culture Communication is important ?0 Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and data brings more and more cultures into contact with one another and increases the potential of cross culture communication.• Business Opportunities• Job Opportunities• Improves the contribution of employees in a diverse workforce• Sharing of views and ideas• Talent improvisation• An understanding of diverse market
Blocks to Cultural Communication1. Ethnocentrism : Inability to accept another cultures world view; "my way is the best."2. Discrimination : Differential treatment of an individual due to minority status; actual and perceived; e.g., "we just arent equipped to serve people like that."
3. Stereotyping : Generalizing about a person whileignoring presence of individual difference; e.g.,"shes like that because shes Asian – all Asians arenonverbal.4. Cultural Blindness: Differences are ignoredand one proceeds as though differences did notexist; e.g., "theres no need to worry about apersons culture
5. Cultural Imposition: Belief that everyoneshould conform to the majority. e.g., "we knowwhats best for you, if you dont like it you can goelsewhere.“6.Tone Difference : Formal tone change becomesembarrassing and off-putting in some cultures.
Skills To Overcome Differences1. Understanding Body Language.United States of AmericaAmericans tend to refrain from greetings that involve huggingand other close physical contact.When sitting, U.S. citizens often look very relaxed. They maysometimes sit with the ankle of one leg on their knee .Arab CountriesThe left hand is considered unclean in the Arab countries.When sitting, keep both feet on the ground.The "thumbs up" sign is offensive throughout the Arab world.South KoreaBows are used for expressing appreciation, making apologies andrequests, as well as for greetings and farewells.When the Japanese want to give the impression that they are indeep thought, they will sometimes fold their arms.
2. Selecting And Presenting Gifts.Unwrapping gifts Saudi Arabia - Gifts are opened in private. USA - Gifts are opened in public.Appreciated Gifts Indonesia - Gifts, such as tokens memento of your country or your company logo. Turkey - Wine or liquor if you are sure your hosts drink alcohol, Candy, pastries & Roses, Glassware, such as a vase, goblet, or decanter make prized gifts.Gifts to avoid UAE - Alcohol / perfumes containing alcohol and pork and pigskin products to be avoided
3. Handshake How do you do it?0 The handshake should be firm.0 While shaking hands establish eye contact and always smile0 The person who initiates the handshake is the one who closes it.