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Find Your Passion on Your Way to Entrepreneurial Success

This workshop was a one-hour kick-off on how to maintain your entrepreneurial passion throughout your journey.
You will learn how to withstand the volatility of entrepreneurial life, how to enjoy ups and downs equally well.
What is the answer? How do I keep being motivated as an entrepreneur? Behavioural Science has an answer. There is an algorithm for finding The Value.
When something bad happens, you can always turn to your Value to find a solution that goes in line with your core principles to beat the challenge and seize upon the opportunity.
The seminar is conducted by the President of NUS MBA Entrepreneurship Club, founder of 3 companies and a behavioural research fellow at Keio University, Japan.

This workshop conducted for NUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP LAUNCHPAD, Dec, 2017.

Published in: Business
  • @Kaoru Takashima さん おっしゃる通りで、結果が得られるから頑張る、という構造は、結果が得られなかったら頑張らない、ということなので、両方あるのが一番ですね。で、どちらが鶏か卵かでいうと、業務も楽しくて、が先ですかね。
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  • よく仕事の体験話等で、業務は辛いがお客様の感謝の言葉をモベーションにやっているという話をよく見ますが、それよりは、業務も楽しくてお客様に感謝されるもののほうがいいなと思いました。
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  1. 1. Find Your Passion on Your Way to Entrepreneurial Success Ryosuke ISHII President – NUS MBA Entrepreneurship Club Founder – Japan Institute of Cognitive Science Lecture on NUS Entrepreneurship Launchpad 12th Dec. 2017 9.15am~
  2. 2. 1 Passion makes things happen 2 Science helps you find a passion 3 Start your Entrepreneurial Journey Agenda Today + Q&A (at Lunch)
  3. 3. 1 Passion makes things happen
  4. 4. Ryosuke ISHII
  5. 5.  Entrepreneur  Project Manager  Researcher
  6. 6. There are a lot of difficult Projects. “Passion” helps me make it happen!
  7. 7. Started 3 companies education
  8. 8. It was 2nd year, at the University of Tokyo I started my 1st company with Univ. friends. education
  9. 9. We became consultants of the parents. ✔ Educational Service for Parents: ✔ Focus on how to create a learning environment for their children?education
  10. 10.  I enjoyed every aspect of the business.  My Passion in education arose only after I started the business.
  11. 11. I started the 2nd company, when I was 25.
  12. 12. Branding × IT × Japanese Tradition
  13. 13. Before started 3rd company, I became and am a Researcher at Keio University. Behavioral Scientist. Well-being Scientist. System Design and Management
  14. 14. In this world, there are a lot of people suffering from depression. But I believe, people can help themselves if only we have a good process or method.
  15. 15. We invented a mental training method (patent pending) which enables people to self-help.
  16. 16. This one-hour method improves: ✔ depression by 30% over 3 months* ✔ self acceptance by 20% over 6 months** Measured by * Beck Depression Inventory 2 **Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II
  17. 17. We are applying these findings at JICS, my 3rd company. It was started at 2015. System Design and Management
  18. 18. is a company which is based on Well-being Research & Development.
  19. 19. aims to SHIFT people to happiness which we called “Shiawase SHIFT”.
  20. 20. Shiawase - SHIFT. Degree of Happiness Unreliable Society to Safe and secure society Stressful Society to Full of Social Acceptance Competitive Society to Value based Contribution Society Distribution Society to SHIFT SHIFT
  21. 21. Writing a book of “How to train mental toughness” with 7&i publishing
  22. 22. The book will be sold on Next Spring. …in Japan.
  23. 23. I’m also working at Japanese Start-up. As a Senior Manager, I lead a lot of interesting Projects.
  24. 24. I have no experience about Fundraising, or in financing knowledge. But I would like to try it!
  25. 25. I spearheaded $1M fundraising. Today, the company raised $15M+ Raised $1M in 2014
  26. 26. I enjoyed a lot of projects. Because I know my passion, What I LOVE to do. (You may tell, my passion spans across industries)
  27. 27. So, today I will share with you, from my life 10+ years experience in 60 min.
  28. 28. 1 Passion makes things happen 2 Science helps you find a passion 3 Start Entrepreneurial Journey Agenda Today + Q&A (at Lunch)
  29. 29. What is your passion?
  30. 30. How to find your passion?
  31. 31. Passion is an illusion.
  32. 32. Doesn’t make sense? Then, show me your passion Here, right now!
  33. 33. • Speak Loud / Voice tone • Face expression • Big Gesture • Long term / repeated actions • etc… Passion is only a label / summary for a series of Actions / Behaviors.
  34. 34. Action/Behavior is a reality.
  35. 35. Story Teacher: “You are unmotivated… so you are late every day!! You have to motivate yourself… !” How does the teacher know you are unmotivated??
  36. 36. Story Only by “observing your action”, the teacher can interprets you are unmotivated. So, “unmotivated” is just a label/summary of your action. (= you being late every day)
  37. 37. What the teacher says is redundant (tautology) “You are unmotivated… so you are late every day!! You have to motivate yourself… !” Only a label for lateness. This is just paraphrasing of “Don’t be late”
  38. 38. So, if the teacher cannot use the label, she is saying: “You are late every day, so you are late every day!! You don’t have to be late every day“ So, no need to use “motivation”
  39. 39. Another Story: Confidence “I have no confidence about pitch to VCs…, How can I boost my confidence…?”
  40. 40. Another Story: Confidence But, confidence is also a label for a series of actions.  Good Posture  Loud Voice  Speak fluently  Eye Contact  Big Gestures
  41. 41. Another Story: Confidence So, thinking “how to get confidence” is basically, time consuming.
  42. 42. Another Story: Confidence All you need to do is: preparation, practice and learning a concrete skill to presentation.
  43. 43. Another Story: Confidence Confidence doesn’t matter. What matters us most is Taking an effective action or not.
  44. 44. Labels make us confused: “Motivation”, “Passion”, “Mind”, “Confidence”, …
  45. 45. You need to ask “what does Label really mean?”
  46. 46. Let us get rid of labels. Let us focus on “action” or “behavior”.
  47. 47. The question SHIFTs: “What is my passion?” “What sort of Action/behavior I would love to do.”
  48. 48. Behavior Analysis is a science with focus on action/behavior.
  49. 49. B.F. Skinner: Founder of Behavior Analysis Professor of Psychology. Harvard University.
  50. 50. We have an easy tool to analyze behavior: ABC analysis
  51. 51. ABC analysis is a framework you can use to understand ① what is and is not your behavior. ② what drives your behavior.
  52. 52. Overview of ABC Analysis Time B: Behavior Turn-on the aircon C: Consequence It’s cool! A: Antecedents It’s hot… Increase /Decrease Probability Jonas Ramnero, Niklas Törneke The ABCs of Human Behavior: Behavioral Principles for the Practicing Clinician
  53. 53. B: Behavior is our focus. Centre of interest. B: Behavior WHAT What is s/he doing?
  54. 54. B: List of the Behaviors Speaking, Listening, Meeting, Singing, Making, Fighting, Calling, Driving, Wearing, Ordering, Watching, Observing, Researching, Caring, Helping, Swimming, Running, Climbing, Studying, Learning, Analyzing, Forecasting, …
  55. 55. A: Antecedents is a Context, Situation. A: Antecedents WHEN? When does the person do it? In what situation does s/he do it? An event occurs prior to the behavior.
  56. 56. A: List of the antecedents When it is raining…, When teacher scolded you…, In the middle of a serious management meeting…, When you’re in the crowded MRT…, When you are taking a bath…, When you are in the pool…,
  57. 57. C: Consequence is a result you perceived. C: Consequence What happens What happens after? What is the function of the behavior? “C” should be near to the “B” in time and space.
  58. 58. C: List of the Consequences. The place becomes cool, Feel relief, Get angry, Many people come to you, They break up, Other people listen to you with interest, Other people laugh at you,
  59. 59. ABC Analysis: framework for analyze actions. Time B: Behavior WHAT C: Consequence What happens A: Antecedents WHEN
  60. 60. The Consequence could strengthen or weaken the Behaviors /Actions B: Behavior WHAT C: Consequence Result you perceived. Increase /Decrease Probability
  61. 61. The Consequence could weaken the Behaviors /Actions B: Behavior Make presentations C: Consequence No one listen to you. Sad! Weaken We call this “C” as Negative Reinforcer
  62. 62. The Consequence could strengthen the Behaviors /Actions B: Behavior Make presentations C: Consequence People listen and praise you Strengthen We call this “C” as Positive Reinforcer
  63. 63. There are 4 patterns of affecting B’s likelihood Likelihood of “B” “C” is called When C is Increase ↑ Positive Reinforcer Added + Negative Reinforcer Removed – Decrease ↓ Positive Reinforcer Removed – Negative Reinforcer Added +
  64. 64. Pattern1: Positive Reinforcer Added (+) Time B: Pitch to VCs, investors. C: Funded (+) SGD 100K A: When you are running start- up. Increase Strengthen
  65. 65. Pattern2: Negative Reinforcer Removed (–) Time B: You said “You’re fired!” C: The bad guy left (–). A: Your staff is very bad to the company. Increase Strengthen
  66. 66. Pattern3: Positive Reinforcer Removed (–) Time B: You bring Durians C: Fined (–) SGD XXX. A: When you ride the MRT. Decrease Weaken
  67. 67. Pattern4: Negative Reinforcer Added (+) Time B: You ask her/him out C: S/he refuses you. A: When you talk to a very attractive girl/guy. Decrease Weaken
  68. 68. Which one is most important? Likelihood of “B” “C” is called When C is Increase ↑ Positive Reinforcer Added + Negative Reinforcer Removed – Decrease ↓ Positive Reinforcer Removed – Negative Reinforcer Added +
  69. 69. Driven by positive reinforcer is most important. Likelihood of “B” “C” is called When C is Increase ↑ Positive Reinforcer Added + Negative Reinforcer Removed – Decrease ↓ Positive Reinforcer Removed – Negative Reinforcer Added +
  70. 70. If you do something to avoid Negative Reinforcer, It will lead you nowhere. If you are an entrepreneur, your goal cannot be avoid something!
  71. 71. “Happiness does not lie in the possession of positive reinforcers; It lies in behaving because positive reinforcers have then followed.” B.F. Skinner said… What does it mean?
  72. 72. Think about “I love fishing” guys. Time B: Do fishing C: Get a big fish! Increase Strengthen
  73. 73. Time B: You may say “thankiw... .” C: They say “You’re welcome!” Not relevant To fishing A: Someone gives you a Big Fish Imagine, you love fishing, and you are given a Big Fish. Will you feel happy? Just possessing a “positive reinforcer” or Big Fish Does not make you happy. And never strengthen or “motivate” you to do fishing.
  74. 74. The lesson is: ① Having a positive reinforcer – money, wealth, reputation, whatever – is different from your entrepreneurial passion. Because these are not actions/behaviors.
  75. 75. “Passion” in behavioral science: Time B: Do fishing C: Get a big fish! Increase Strengthen You feel happy, when you are in the middle of fishing. Sometimes, the fish, positive reinforcer follows.
  76. 76. This is why Entrepreneurs could work hard Time B: Work Hard C: Success! Increase Strengthen Entrepreneurs feel happy, in the middle of working. Sometimes success follows, sometimes not.
  77. 77. The lesson is: ② If you have a passion about what you are doing, you’ll keep doing regardless of success or not.
  78. 78. The lesson is: ③ If you feel happy only when you succeed and you don’t feel happy to do your business itself, it implies that something is wrong, and you need to change.
  79. 79. What is behavior? what is not behavior?
  80. 80. Everything you can do is a behavior. It could be internal and external.
  81. 81. Behaviors can be internal /external internal behavior external behavior  Feeling  Thinking  Analyzing  Speaking  Running  Fighting
  82. 82. What is NOT a behavior?
  83. 83. What is NOT a behavior? The “dead man test” “If a dead man can do it, it isn’t a behavior. If a dead man can‘t do it, then it is a behavior.” Ogden Lindsley, 1965
  84. 84. Deadman test makes you tell what is not behaviors Passive Voice Negative form  Be loved  Be respected  Be scolded  Be accused  Do not study  Do not move  Do not speak  Do not fail These are verbs. But not actions/behaviors
  85. 85. So, you cannot: “My passion is to be respected” “What I love to do is not to study”
  86. 86. Above all, is a belief explanation of Behavioral Science.
  87. 87. Q: Isn’t Behavioral Science for Animals? A: Yes. Correct. It originates from research of rats and pigeons. But it can explain large part of our behavior. Because we are also animals.
  88. 88. Summary of animal behavior:
  89. 89. Animal behavior is all about: Time B: Behavior You take an action. C: Consequence You perceive the results. A: Antecedents In the specific condition Learn from experience “Learning from experience.” (or “operant conditioning”)
  90. 90. Human Behavior = Animal Behavior + Verbal Behavior
  91. 91. 10B 1B 100M 10M 1M 100K 10K 1K 100 10 ・Birth of the Universe ・Birth of the Earth ・Birth of fishes ・Birth of mammalian Behavior Analysis explains 200M years of behavior ・Birth of Homo Sapiens ● Cognitive Revolution Verbal behavior explains 50K years of behavior
  92. 92. Human Behavior = Animal Behavior + Verbal Behavior Just add-on
  93. 93. Verbal behavior What is added to animal behavior?
  94. 94. Verbal behavior is explained by RFT: Relational Frame Theory
  95. 95. Steven C. Hayes: Founder of RFT and ACT Professor of Psychology. University of Nevada, Reno Relational Frame Theory Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
  96. 96. Verbal behavior has Light side and Dark side
  97. 97. Light Side Dark Side  Communicate  Plan  Problem solving  Forecast future  Work together  Remember Bad things.  Too much emphasis on rules  Depression / Anxiety
  98. 98. “Verbal rules” could be “A” Time B: Study Hard A: “You should study hard, otherwise you’ll fail exam” Strengthen
  99. 99. Verbal behavior has great power: By following rules, You can learn things (=change your “B”) without experiencing results(“C”).
  100. 100. But this great power is a “double edged sword.” In the middle of following rules, you will ignore “C” – your real feedback.
  101. 101. The “pitfall” of verbal rules #ex1 Time B: Study hard. A: “NUS is the best university! I will study hard to be admitted!” C: Actually, you do not like to learn… ignore the real feedback Strengthen
  102. 102. The “pitfall” of verbal rules #ex2 Time B: Work hard in the industry. A: You heard “It’s really good to work in financial industry” C: Actually, you feel very tired. ignore the real feedback Strengthen
  103. 103. Ignoring a real feedback (C), could lead you die.
  104. 104. Your passion does not lie in obeying verbal rules. So, ignoring your real feedback is a way to Hell.
  105. 105. “Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become.”
  106. 106. Feedback from “C” is your heart. TimeB: A: Other people’s thinking C: This is your heart It’s not your heart
  107. 107. To know our passion, we need to be free from the verbal behaviors.
  108. 108. But, Human beings are doing Verbal behavior Every single second. And, cannot stop it.
  109. 109. Your Verbal Behavior “B”, happens every single second: Time B: Your mind says something. A: Something happens C: You feel better/worse
  110. 110. The mind says… : “My parents will be proud of me” , “It has a risk”, “My friends will envy me” , “I could pretend I enjoy it” , “I am totally useless” , “I have anxiety to my future” , “It is boring” , “Is it relevant for me?” , “I have no hope” , “I cannot win” , “I am not good at this… .” , “I hate it.” “I am superior than him” , “I want to be loved” ,
  111. 111. This Verbal Behavior is totally different the “TRUTH” Time B: Your mind says “I am very bad at this…!” A: Made tiny mistakes C: You feel worse
  112. 112. What your mind says, or your verbal behavior, is basically different from the reality.
  113. 113. Also, Verbal Behavior has a power Not only to change your behavior(B) But also to change consequences(C).
  114. 114. Verbal Behavior also has a power to change (C). Time B: Buy the product A: You heard “This product is limited” C: You get a product. Strengthen Strengthen Strengthen
  115. 115. Verbal behavior has a power to make the illusion a reality.
  116. 116. Verbal behavior has a power to make the illusion a reality. We can Enjoy and be excited by reading books.
  117. 117. Verbal behavior has a power to make the illusion a reality. But, books only consist of ink on the paper.
  118. 118. Our brain is a great device Decoding ink on the paper (symbols) into exciting magical story
  119. 119. But sometimes, this device interprets an awful illusion of the reality.
  120. 120. To find your passion, Be free from the verbal world first. ① Verbal behavior makes you ignoring real feedbacks(C). ② Following verbal rules does not make you happy.
  121. 121. How to be free from “Verbal World”?
  122. 122. Name your mind. George
  123. 123. Take some space from the mind. George No one loves me! Thank you George, for giving me a great opinion.
  124. 124. Naming is an easiest way to take some space from verbal behaviors.
  125. 125. Living as an Entrepreneur brings you Ups and DOWNs. You can use this techniques, when mind says something unworkable.
  126. 126. 3 Start Your Entrepreneurial Journey
  127. 127. “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle.”
  128. 128. What you love to do =Valued Behavior
  129. 129. Finding your passion = Finding and defining your “Valued Behavior”
  130. 130. Valued Behavior is a combination of: ① behavior, which itself is a positive reinforcer. ② verbal behavior that strengthen the behavior and “C”.
  131. 131. Time B: You do your valued behavior. A: I know my value is “This” C: You are happy to keep doing. Strengthen Strengthen Strengthen Valued Behavior
  132. 132. If know “valued behavior” yourself consciously and you’ll seize chances to take valued behavior.
  133. 133. Let me share with you, my Valued behavior
  134. 134. My valued behaviors are: “Explaining”, “Designing a process” “Researching or Reading(input)”
  135. 135. I did a lot of projects. Whenever I feel my passion, all I had done is just keep doing these 3 things, my valued bahavior.
  136. 136. I created a method to improve mental state. Method is all about designing process based on research.
  137. 137. I realize that: I love Physics and Economics 𝑃 𝑄 20 Demand curve 20 10 10 MR 𝑀𝐶 = 2𝑄 5 15 𝐷𝑊𝐿 𝐹 = 𝑚 𝑥
  138. 138. Both subjects have a power to explain the world beautifully. 𝑃 𝑄 20 Demand curve 20 10 10 MR 𝑀𝐶 = 2𝑄 5 15 𝐷𝑊𝐿 𝐹 = 𝑚 𝑥 For me, mathematics is too much metaphysical.
  139. 139. Also, I realize that: I spent a lot of time using Power Point. (not a Excel and Word)
  140. 140. And for me, Power Point is a tool to explain and to design an process (for understanding.)
  141. 141. My hobby is… making slide decks.
  142. 142. Logical Thinking Mastery
  143. 143. 33K + Views. Top views ranking “Logical Thinking” categories in Japan.
  144. 144. Math-Physics Mastery course
  145. 145. 488 slides. You’ll understand basic physics and mathematics in one day.
  146. 146. I made lecture on Economics to MBAs 3 times in semester 1. 91 + 84 + 128 = 303 slides
  147. 147. Before I realize my value, I did live my value. Because my life represents my value.
  148. 148. But After I realize my value consciously, I could utilize my value and I could select my daily behavior.
  149. 149. Also, After I realize my value consciously, I change how I learn, and I became more fast learner.
  150. 150. Knowing your value means maximizing your happiness. Like today, I could seize the chance to make presentation (= Explaining) And I can prepare slides deck full of passion (= designing a process)
  151. 151. Value is your compass
  152. 152. Value is a direction you want to go. While verbal rule requires you to obey something. Life, controlled by verbal rules Value is a direction Which you want to go
  153. 153. Valued behavior is expressed by “verb” or “-ing”
  154. 154. B: List of the Behaviors Speaking, Listening, Meeting, Singing, Making, Fighting, Calling, Driving, Wearing, Ordering, Watching, Observing, Researching, Caring, Helping, Swimming, Running, Climbing, Studying, Learning, Analyzing, Forecasting, …
  155. 155. How to find / verbalize your value?
  156. 156. First, it is important that you can select your value.
  157. 157. Selection is different from decision
  158. 158. Selection Decision  Just select. No reason  What you believe important without justification.  Compare options and choose the best one.  Sometimes need to justify.
  159. 159. Value will be freely selected by you, based on your “Want to do” Not based on “Should, or “MUST” So, you need not “justify” your value.
  160. 160. You have already selected your value unconsciously in your daily life. All you have to do is to know what you are enjoying to do
  161. 161. Questions for finding values:
  162. 162. Q1: What subject interests you more than the others? And what is a function of the subject? (explaining, showing, ordering…,)
  163. 163. Q2: What is your daily action in the team? - want to communicate online? - try to ask others? What you ask? - want to lead people? - make a plan? or want to analyze?
  164. 164. Q3: Count your time, What software you tend to touch most? - PowerPoint - Excel - Word - Photoshop - or…
  165. 165. Q4: What typed of products or services are you spending your money and time on it? What does it mean for you?
  166. 166. Q5: What is an action or behavior you want to keep doing, after you got big money and after you got a good reputations.
  167. 167. Q6: If you had boyfriends/girlfriends which trait you loves them most? And the trait contribute to what?
  168. 168. Q7: Your friends are surprised by what sort of action you are taking?
  169. 169. Seeing answers of Q1-7, you could select a verb (-ing).
  170. 170. Please select and write down in 10 sec. Your value right now. My value is ing. If you need more than 10 sec, You want to make a decision.
  171. 171. At the beginning I wrote down “My value is modeling.”
  172. 172. And it was gradually reshaped to “My value is explaining.” “My value is designing a process.”
  173. 173. If you find, or select a verb or –ing, for your valued behavior, keep trying to live with the word and check your true feedback(C).
  174. 174. Your true feedback(C) is the only one who knows the answer.
  175. 175. ✔ Check Points for Value.
  176. 176. Value is different from goal
  177. 177. Value is different from goal Life, controlled by verbal rules Value= Direction Goals are checkpoints
  178. 178. Value is different from goal Life, controlled by verbal rules Designing process recycling Olympic medals Self help method For anxiety and depression.
  179. 179. Value Goal  The Direction  You could live value every day  Want to achieve on the way to the direction  Goal will be achieved at one time. And be eliminated from the list.  Becoming a rich, get married.
  180. 180. ✔ Valued behavior can be done every day. So, if it cannot be done every day, it’s not a value “Happiness” is not a value, because you cannot “Do happiness”
  181. 181. ✔ Valued behavior is your action, behavior. If, it can be done by “dead man”, it’s not a value. Passive Voice, or Negative form is not a value. So, your value cannot be “Be respected.”
  182. 182. As an Entrepreneur, follow your Value. Don’t follow verbal rules, other people’s or society’s thoughts.
  183. 183. Closing Remarks The truth of emotion.
  184. 184. Everyone want to: avoid bad emotion. feel good emotion. You can enjoy every emotion
  185. 185. Roller coaster is a machine to enjoy “fear”
  186. 186. Theater is a place where You will pay money to experience EVERY emotion.
  187. 187. Romance movie makes you feel sadness and loneliness. Before the happy end.
  188. 188. If you get more irritated to the enemy, the action movie becomes more interesting and exciting
  189. 189. So, you can enjoy every emotion in a theater. And if you select to do so, You can enjoy every emotion in your life.
  190. 190. Life as an entrepreneur brings your life every Ups and Downs.
  191. 191. Your member might betray you. You might lose your money. You might get angry to your VCs.
  192. 192. But you know how to deal with “Verbal behavior.”
  193. 193. And you can enjoy your emotion including negative one.
  194. 194. Following your Value means “I will enjoy my value in my life regardless of there are Ups or Downs”
  195. 195. Thank you!
  196. 196. Further learning resources… Japanese(日本語教材) English materials ●Lecture on Economics ✔ 1:Consumer Theory ✔ 2:Market Theory ✔ 3:Game Theory ●Get adopted your Proposal! How to create a slide deck to make it happen? ●Math-Physics mastery ✔1:function, equation, speed ✔2:differentiate and quadratic ✔3:May the F=ma be with you ● Logical Thinking Mastery ●Lecture on venture corp. “De-framing between Science and Business”
  197. 197. References • Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. Guilford Press. • Ramnero, J., & Törneke, N. (2008). The ABCs of human behavior: Behavioral principles for the practicing clinician. New Harbinger Publications. • Torneke, N. (2010). Learning RFT: An introduction to relational frame theory and its clinical application. New Harbinger Publications. • Luoma, J. B., Hayes, S. C., & Walser, R. D. (2007). Learning ACT: An acceptance & commitment therapy skills-training manual for therapists. New Harbinger Publications. • Mental Brakes to Avoid Mental Breaks | Steven Hayes | TEDxDavidsonAcademy