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  1. 1. Submitted By:-Aryan Raj Department of Electronics & Communication Roll No.:-10EIAEC020 College:- IET , Alwar Sem :-8th Submitted To:- Yash Vardhan Varshney Department of Electronics & Communication
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  It is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer.  Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1–10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.  Performs task at nanoscale dimensions.  Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate, and work together; conduct molecular assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even replicate themselves.
  4. 4. THEORY & APPROACHES There are two main approaches for building useful devices from nanoscale components. The first is based on self-assembly, and is a natural evolution of traditional chemistry and bulk processing. The other is based on controlled positioning of nanoscale objects, direct application of forces, electric fields, and so on. Biochip The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry. So, practical nanobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow teleoperation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.
  5. 5.  Nubot Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices.  Bacteria based This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the bacterium E- coli. Thus the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. The uses of electromagnetic fields are normally applied to control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device.  Open technology  Nanorobot Race
  6. 6. DESIGN & CONTROL TECHNIQUE USED We use the bottom-up approach, which involves assembling structures atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule which will be useful in manufacturing devices used in medicine. SIZE Nanobots will typically be 0.5 to 3 microns large with 1-100 nm parts. Three microns is the upper limit of any nanorobot because nanobots of larger size will block capillary flow. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Carbon will likely be the principal element comprising the bulk of a medical nanorobot, probably in the form of diamond or fullerene nanocomposites largely because of the tremendous strength and chemical inertness of diamond. Many other light elements such as hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon, etc. may also be used. COMMUNICATON Having nanobots inside the body it is very essential to know the actions done by it. There are many different ways to do this. One of the simplest ways to send broadcast-type messages into the body, to be received by nanobots, is acoustic messaging. A device similar to an ultrasound probe would encode messages on acoustic carrier waves at frequencies between 1-10 MHz
  7. 7. Nanobots consists of :-  Molecular Sorting Rotor  Made up of carbon nanotubes.  Sheet of carbon atom forms a  Carbon nanotubes.  SWNT’s can be used to generate mechanical motion.  Nano-tubes with nano-gears are responsible for changing direction of movement. It is used for molecular manipulation.  Propellers  It is used to drive forward and backward. They are bi-directional propellers.  Fins  Fitted along with the propellers used to propel the device. The three fins uses plane surface for navigation.  Sensors  Fitted externally and internally with the nanobots to receive the signal for correct guidance
  8. 8. NAVIGATION  Every living thing needs area to move.  Nanobots use blood flow for its movement.  In order to move the nanobots in blood flow, • Speed of blood • Get through the heart without stuck • React with changes in blood flow rate • Able to change the direction according to the blood stream  To satisfy this, nanobots should be made with electric motors to turn propeller. Technique:- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) device  Ultrasonic signals  Radioactive dye  X-rays  Microwaves & Radio waves
  9. 9. POWERING Just like the navigation systems, nanotechnologists are considering both external and internal power sources. Some designs rely on the nanorobot using the patient's own body as a way of generating power. Other designs include a small power source on board the robot itself. Finally, some designs use forces outside the patient's body to power the robot. Nanobots could get power directly from the bloodstream. A nanobot's power source depends on its environment. Medical nanobots working inside a person could run on glucose taken from the bloodstream. The nanobot's efficiency and small size means it would have little impact on the host person. A free-ranging nanobots could take energy from sound or radio waves beamed from outside. An independently powered nanobots would need to devote most of its bulk to energy storage in the form of chemicals or other systems.
  10. 10. APPLICATION BIOMEDICAL APPILICATIONS OF NANOROBOTS 1. Tumors: 2. Arteriosclerosis: 3. Blood clots: 4. Kidney stones 6. Burn and wound debriding: 5. Liver stones 7. Remove or break down tar, etc. in lungs:
  11. 11. IN SPACE TECHNOLOGY  Nanobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field  Specialized Mars suit Repair Nanobots (MRN). MRN nanobots operate as space-filling polyhedra to repair damage to a Mars suit  Measurement of toxic elements in environment  Nanobots could improve the performance of spaceships, spacesuits and equipment used to explore planets and moons.  Protecting the astronauts by including layers of bio-nanobots in their spacesuits. The outer layer of bio-nanobots would respond to damages to the spacesuit, for example to seal up punctures. An inner layer of bio-nanobots could respond if the astronaut was in trouble, for example by providing drugs in a medical emergency. ENVIRONMENTAL USE  Nanobots can mine garbage dumps. Nanobots are going to make it easier and cheaper to pull out, clean up and create useful commodities for us to reuse.  Determining toxic substances in nature  Detecting harmful viruses in flues IN INDUSTRY AND MANUFACTURING:--  To replace heavy machinery with nano-devices.  To replace employees with many nano-robots.  To replace petroleum with whale oil.  To change view of industry in their possible capabilities, their new ideas, their research trend, also mentality of the industrial man. IN SUPERCOMPUTER:-- It is also called Nanocomputer. Nano-tubes & Nano-wires. It includes, 1) Billistic Sensor Disc 2) Spintronics 3) Smart Dust
  12. 12. ADVANTAGE  Nanobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out  units, a process called self-replication.  The major advantage of nanobots is thought to be their durability, in  theory, they can remain operational for years, decades or centuries.  The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed  Individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate  Speed up of Medical Treatment.  Faster and More Precise Diagnosis.  Verification of Progress and Treatment.  Nano-structuring is expected to bring about lighter, stronger and programmable materials.  Non-degradation of Treatment Agents.
  13. 13. DISADVANTAGE  risk of cancer  may affect human health by introducing toxicity in blood  Replication may become out of control  Nanobots, the technology as such, may be very costly.  The technology may take several years to be implemented practically.
  14. 14. CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK From this seminar report we conclude that, NANOROBOTICS is one of the emerging fields in technology and robotics. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10-9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanobots. Nanobots (nanobots or nanoids) are typically devices constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. This paper describes the design of nanobots and application of nanorobot in heart bypass surgery that involves so many risks to the patient. However, no matter how highly trained the specialists may be, surgery can still be dangerous. So nanorobot is not only the safest but also fast and better technique to remove the plaque deposited on the internal walls of arteries. This is also an efficient method to remove these hard plaques without any surgical procedure involved.
  15. 15. REFERENCE  Nanorobot “International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences”. [Online] Available:  "What Nanobots Are Made Out Of." How Nanorobots Are Made. [Online] Available:  Thompson, Richard E., M.D. "Nanotechnology: Science Fiction? Or Next Challenge for the Ethics Committee?" Thy Physician Executive. May/June 2007.  Nanorobotic_Info_Center_ETHZ (  A Review in Nanorobotics - US Department of Energy (  Wikipedia
  16. 16. ANY QUESTIONS…