Submitted By:-Aryan Raj
Department of Electronics & Communication
College:- IET , Alwar
Submitted To:- Yash Vardhan Varshney
Department of Electronics & Communication
THEORY & APPROACHES
DESIGN & CONTROL
ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE
CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK
It is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots
whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer.
Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering
discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices
ranging in size from 0.1–10 micrometers and constructed of
nanoscale or molecular components.
Performs task at nanoscale dimensions.
Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines.
Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to
environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surface
textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations;
move, communicate, and work together; conduct molecular
assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even replicate
There are two main approaches for building useful devices from nanoscale components. The
first is based on self-assembly, and is a natural evolution of traditional chemistry and bulk
processing. The other is based on controlled positioning of nanoscale objects, direct application
of forces, electric fields, and so on.
The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible
approach to manufacturing nanobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical
instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology
scale is currently in use in the electronics industry. So, practical nanobots should be integrated as
nanoelectronics devices, which will allow teleoperation and advanced capabilities for medical
Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure
can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices.
This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the
bacterium E- coli. Thus the model uses a flagellum for propulsion
purposes. The uses of electromagnetic fields are normally applied to
control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device.
DESIGN & CONTROL
We use the bottom-up approach, which involves assembling structures atom-by-atom or
molecule-by-molecule which will be useful in manufacturing devices used in medicine.
Nanobots will typically be 0.5 to 3 microns large with 1-100 nm parts. Three microns is the upper
limit of any nanorobot because nanobots of larger size will block capillary flow.
Carbon will likely be the principal element comprising the bulk of a medical nanorobot, probably
in the form of diamond or fullerene nanocomposites largely because of the tremendous strength
and chemical inertness of diamond. Many other light elements such as
hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon, etc. may also be used.
Having nanobots inside the body it is very essential to know the actions done by it. There are
many different ways to do this. One of the simplest ways to send broadcast-type messages into the
body, to be received by nanobots, is acoustic messaging. A device similar to an ultrasound probe
would encode messages on acoustic carrier waves at frequencies between 1-10 MHz
Nanobots consists of :-
Molecular Sorting Rotor
Made up of carbon nanotubes.
Sheet of carbon atom forms a
SWNT’s can be used to generate mechanical motion.
Nano-tubes with nano-gears are responsible for changing direction of movement. It is used
for molecular manipulation.
It is used to drive forward and backward. They are bi-directional propellers.
Fitted along with the propellers used to propel the device. The three fins uses plane surface
Fitted externally and internally with the nanobots to receive the signal for correct guidance
Every living thing needs area to move.
Nanobots use blood flow for its movement.
In order to move the nanobots in blood flow,
• Speed of blood
• Get through the heart without stuck
• React with changes in blood flow rate
• Able to change the direction according to the blood stream
To satisfy this, nanobots should be made with electric motors to turn propeller.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) device
Microwaves & Radio waves
Just like the navigation systems, nanotechnologists are considering both external and
internal power sources. Some designs rely on the nanorobot using the patient's own
body as a way of generating power. Other designs include a small power source on
board the robot itself. Finally, some designs use forces outside the patient's body to
power the robot. Nanobots could get power directly from the bloodstream.
A nanobot's power source depends on its
environment. Medical nanobots working inside
a person could run on glucose taken from the
bloodstream. The nanobot's efficiency and small
size means it would have little impact on the
host person. A free-ranging nanobots could take
energy from sound or radio waves beamed from
An independently powered nanobots would
need to devote most of its bulk to energy storage
in the form of chemicals or other systems.
BIOMEDICAL APPILICATIONS OF NANOROBOTS
3. Blood clots:
4. Kidney stones
6. Burn and wound debriding:
5. Liver stones
7. Remove or break down tar, etc. in lungs:
IN SPACE TECHNOLOGY
Nanobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field
Specialized Mars suit Repair Nanobots (MRN). MRN nanobots operate as space-filling polyhedra to repair damage to a
Measurement of toxic elements in environment
Nanobots could improve the performance of spaceships, spacesuits and equipment used to explore planets and moons.
Protecting the astronauts by including layers of bio-nanobots in their spacesuits. The outer layer of bio-nanobots would
respond to damages to the spacesuit, for example to seal up punctures. An inner layer of bio-nanobots could respond if
the astronaut was in trouble, for example by providing drugs in a medical emergency.
Nanobots can mine garbage dumps. Nanobots are going to make it easier and cheaper to pull out, clean up and create
useful commodities for us to reuse.
Determining toxic substances in nature
Detecting harmful viruses in flues
IN INDUSTRY AND MANUFACTURING:--
To replace heavy machinery with nano-devices.
To replace employees with many nano-robots.
To replace petroleum with whale oil.
To change view of industry in their possible capabilities, their new ideas, their research trend, also mentality of the
It is also called Nanocomputer. Nano-tubes & Nano-wires.
1) Billistic Sensor Disc
3) Smart Dust
Nanobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out
units, a process called self-replication.
The major advantage of nanobots is thought to be their durability, in
theory, they can remain operational for years, decades or centuries.
The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed
Individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate
Speed up of Medical Treatment.
Faster and More Precise Diagnosis.
Verification of Progress and Treatment.
Nano-structuring is expected to bring about lighter, stronger and programmable materials.
Non-degradation of Treatment Agents.
risk of cancer
may affect human health by introducing toxicity in blood
Replication may become out of control
Nanobots, the technology as such, may be very costly.
The technology may take several years to be implemented
CONCLUSION & FUTURE
From this seminar report we conclude that, NANOROBOTICS is one of the emerging
fields in technology and robotics. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or
robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10-9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics
refers to the still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and
building nanobots. Nanobots (nanobots or nanoids) are typically devices constructed of
nanoscale or molecular components. This paper describes the design of nanobots and
application of nanorobot in heart bypass surgery that involves so many risks to the patient.
However, no matter how highly trained the specialists may be, surgery can still be dangerous.
So nanorobot is not only the safest but also fast and better technique to remove the plaque
deposited on the internal walls of arteries. This is also an efficient method to remove these
hard plaques without any surgical procedure involved.
Nanorobot “International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences”.
[Online] Available: http://www.ijpbs.net/51.pdf
"What Nanobots Are Made Out Of." How Nanorobots Are Made.
[Online] Available: http://nanogloss.com/nanobots/how-nanorobots-are-made/
Thompson, Richard E., M.D. "Nanotechnology: Science Fiction? Or Next
Challenge for the Ethics Committee?" Thy Physician Executive. May/June 2007.
A Review in Nanorobotics - US Department of Energy