Assignment 1 Ryland Head 11416716


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  • My parents were the first people that started to ignite my future love of sports, health and fitness. This was done by simply taking time to teach me about two main sports which were football and cricket. This was done in two ways, the first was by watching it played on television and later on taking me to live games, which involved explaining how the game works and the rules so I could understand what was happening. The second was by taking the time when I was very young to teach how to kick a football, or hold a cricket bat or bowl and just general play in the backyard involving these sports. My parents didn’t just stick to these two sports they provided me with a wide variety of different sporting opportunities and toys to play with and explore playing and movement at a very young age. This included things like bikes, different ball sports, skateboards, rollerblades and just about anything affordable that I showed interest in.So my parents positively promoted my early involvement in most physical activity I showed interest in.
  • The next influence I came across in my life in terms of PDHPE came at primary schoolMost of my primary school education was based on the developmental education model outlined by Kirk (Kirk, 1996, pg 93) as mostly made up of a short units of games and sports, athletics, gymnastics, fitness activities, dance and swimming. This continued to build on my love of physical activities through games and sports that were new to me and broadened my knowledge that had been started off by my parents. There was a downside to this approach which I found later on in primary school, that is supported by Kirk (Kirk, 1996), that I found this type of education model for PDHPE got repetitive at times. For instance every year before the school athletics carnival a few weeks would be dedicated to athletic skills like discuss, long jump, shot put etc that after having been covered in previous years became slightly monotonous. A long with the fact that games and sports needed to be mixed up regularly enough to not become monotonous.
  • The next part of my PDHPE experience was when it moved outside of family or school settings. From an early age I was involved in junior football and cricket clubs in Melbourne and continued when I moved to the country, but my passion for some of these sports diminished with the move to the country.Organization and people running organised sport in the country were parents of the children involved most of the time and didn’t have any qualifications besides having the time and passion to get involved. Which does not diminish the effort put in by them at all, but lead to things like favouritism of their own children, training that was monotonous and didn’t teach anything, poor organisation etc.Where as in Melbourne, coaches I was used to having had certificates in coaching and a vast experience base at a high level in that particular sport. Which meant that there was always good direction to things like training and great support from coaches who were able to teach you skills and give advice that would make playing more enjoyable and lead to development of better skills.This then lead me towards riding bikes with my friends at the skate park a lot in my teenage years as it was devoid of things like coaches expectations, time frames of when you have to train or play, and the lack of competition made it an environment where there was no pressure, which can come in competitive sport, but more about enjoyment and having fun with friends.
  • I now am still heavily involved in a lot of aspects of PDHPE. I play football and cricket at a senior level and enjoy it as much as I did when I first started playing them, although now there is a heavier focus on things like preparation, recovery. Training is also focused more, especially at football, on fitness compared to when I played at junior levels. Competitions for spots in sides is also a major difference to junior sport where everyone got a go and it was about having fun, and not winning which becomes a focus at senior competition.The earlier mentioned focus on training and preparation for sport means that I now also attend the gym to try and keep my body in better shape to be able to compete in these sports and also for general health along with taking supplements like protein, magnesium etc to further enhance my bodies chance to be able to perform, recover and be at its optimum level to perform at sport, and still be able to pursue leisure activities without being hampered by the effects of playing sport.I still also ride my bike as it is a good way to get away from the competitiveness of senior sport that can put a lot of pressure on you and just relax and enjoy some physical activity with friends.
  • As a PDHPE teacher looking back on my own experiences I can see that it was the positive early experiences I had in PDHPE that set me up for a life time of love for sport and physical activity into my later life and seeing the importance of being healthy and active.Besides the health benefits it has also lead to a huge amount of friendships through sports and leisure activities that I will have for the rest of my life, I have also had with some of my greatest memories in my life while participating in sports and leisure activities.This alone illustrates to me how important the role of PDHPE is in the primary school for students to develop a positive mindset about PDHPE that they can carry further on into life.This view is shared perfectly by the NSW PDHPE syllabus K-6 that states the physical activity is important in contributing to quality of life and can be an enjoyable , creative and social outlet that has a potential to build self esteem (Board of Studies NSW (BOS), 2006, pg 7)
  • There are a thousand and one academic papers on the PDHPE educator and we will refer to few of these in the next slides.But put quiet simply which one of these, yes they are quiet stereotypical, teachers do you think is more prepared to teach PDHPE effectively and motivate students to be involved not only in class but outside the classroom and later in life?We will explore some of the typical types of PDHPE teachers in the primary school next.
  • In a lot of primary schools there will be no physical education specialist, so this responsibility then falls onto the generalist teacher to organise and teach PDHPE to their students.This can mean, but not necessarily, that teachers can feel they have limited ability to perform skills to show and guide students in PDHPE classes, which in turn isn’t saying that being able to perform a skill means you are better equipped to teach it. But an even more important factor in a teachers ability or attitude towards teaching PDHPE comes from their own biographical experiences in PDHPE and whether physical activity is a positive part of their own life (Tinning, p4, 1993). This fact in itself surely means that having a teacher who will instil positive PDHPE experiences in children early at primary school level will have a great effect later on in life and whether students will value physical activity as a positive or negative experience. So in this regard, yes a generalist could be a very active person who could provide a fantastic PDHPE experience for their students, but it is never a guarantee that they will have this kind of person in their generalist teacher, who in all other aspects could be a fantastic educator of all other KLA’s.
  • The specialist PDHPE teacher is another common type of teacher seen in the primary school. But as pointed out by Tinning a specialist can be a wide variety of people, as some schools will view a specialist as someone who has completed a 4-year degree to teach primary PDHPE or some schools will view their specialist teacher as simply as the person who has been assigned the responsibility of coordinating and teaching physical education in the school. This means that if the school is lucky they can hire a person with the necessary four years of training behind them, or they may have a “generalist teacher” amongst their staff that is keen to take on the role of the PDHPE specialist. Which is better a better scenario than in some situations, that Tinning points out, where it can end up that one of the generalist teachers at the school “draws the short straw” in a way and ends up with the role of PDHPE specialist when they don’t really want to.So in a “specialist” PDHPE teacher you can end up with anyone from a fully trained PDHPE specialist to a generalist who is eager to take on the job and organise PDHPE to the school to a generalist who has little to no PDHPE background who is forced into this role depending on the school. When the right person is found this can take a lot of weight off the generalist classroom teachers and be very productive but takes the right person for this role.
  • The final of the three most typical PDHPE educators if the visitor. They can come in a wide variety of forms. They can be a sports development officers, to national sports teams and even private sports agencies.They usually focus on a specific sport and most school organise to have them come in prior to an school carnival for the same sport, whether it be cricket, football, netball etc. It is usually very exciting for the students and will be a memory for the rest of their lives which is reason in itself to have students meet some of their sporting idols.But as pointed out by Tinning that while visits from these groups is beneficial for students, the use of these people on a consistent basis takes away from the fact that there is more to PDHPE education than just sport, and these visits alone should not constitute all or even the majority of the physical activity in the curriculum as there is so much more to explore than just sport for the students to get the most beneficial and rewarding PDHPE experience at primary school level.
  • PDHPE has a very broad effect on many aspects of children's lives, as summarised by a definition supported by The Senate Inquiry which saw physical education as “an all encompassing term, including fitness, skills, movement, dance, recreation, health, games and sport, plus the appropriate values and knowledge in each” (Kirk, 1996)While the Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation use a similar broad definition of physical education “Physical education is that part of a child’s education that uses physical activity as the primary medium for education. Physical Education is any process that increases a child’s ability and desire to participate, in a socially responsible way, in physical activity in the forms of games, sports, dance, adventure activities and other leisure pursuits.” (Kirk, 1996)These two definitions for me not only highlight how broad this subject is, but also the fact that there is a lot more to be gained by students than just physical skills in PDHPE.
  • A keypoint brought up by Tinning (2001, pg 142-43) is the theory of learning through the physical where there a variety of skills children learn through physical education.This speaks about the way children learn social, cognitive and emotional skills along with their physical development. But this still relies on a teacher who is able to stimulate and encourage good behaviours like selflessness, sportsmanship and fair play, as in some circumstances the competition of games can just as easily lead students to cheating, aggressive behaviour and valuing individual success over team goals. Not only does physical education help students to develop children socially it can help to develop children’s problem solving skills. If children are involved in decision making and problem solving to do with the activities they are participating in they get to see sport from the other side of organisation and directing, umpiring etc in sport. Although typically this still keeps the teacher involved as although student choice is important so is teacher direction.Health, has been an important part of the PDHPE curriculum since the late 19th century (Tinning, 2001, p160). But as time has gone on the way health is approached in PDHPE has undergone huge transformations. Health now encompasses so much more than physical fitness as it did early on, it now encompasses physical, mental, social and sometimes spiritual well-being (Tinning, 2001, pg 164).Physical education also allows us to view the body from a scientific point of view, in two main ways, from a biological point of view and a biomechanical sense. Which is universally known as viewing the body as a machine in the physical education curriculum (Tinning, 2001, pg 173).
  • I think I would fit into the earlier discussed scenario where I would be a generalist that if given the opportunity would love to be in charge of organising a PDHPE in a primary school setting as a specialist. As I know through my own PDHPE experience at school and at home that these early years can lead to enjoyable experiences in physical activity for years to come, I’m still enjoying them now! I would look forward to PDHPE classes as a generalist, and would be confident I could provide a meaningful PDHPE program for my students in regards to being able to demonstrate, teach, organise and facilitate activities and lessons that would foster development of skills, knowledge and have a key focus on making every child involved and enjoying themselves. The skills outside movement in health, social, cognitive, emotional, scientific etc would be of a huge focus to not only link in with movement but enhance its relevance to students.
  • Technology is something as I have grown older I have seen sports and health and fitness evolve and become more accessible, through technology which is used to promote and sell the health and sport to the community at large. This is another different way to motivate people to be involved in a different way in sport and health and can motivate some students to get involved.The video link I have hyperlinked in will appeal to not only lovers of sports but lovers of movies and could be a medium to get children interested in basketball before a basketball unit.
  • Teachers who are involved already in physical activity will be more confident and willing to teach physical education with their class (Tinning, 1993, pg 4) which can be hard to do as you cannot make teachers get involved in physical activity or change their past experiences in PDHPE.But regardless of a background in physical activity it is important for teachers to understand that teaching is a context-specific activity so it is essential teachers have some understanding of the variability of the context of physical education (Tinning, 1993, pg 21).Teachers must also have an idea of what will engage their students and get the best out of them. Key ideas that are agreed upon about students is that they learn at different rates and in different ways, and that they learn best if they are engaged in activities that are meaningful and relevant to them. With this in mind teachers need to provide teaching and learning opportunities that are varied in order to be responsive to the different learning styles, experiences and interests students bring to class (Tinning, 2001, pg 137).
  • Assignment 1 Ryland Head 11416716

    1. 1. PDHPE: You and the profession Ryland Head 11416716
    2. 2. Me and my PDHPE experience • My own PDHPE experience started when I was very young as my parents introduced me to sports like football and cricket. • My interest in these sports was helped by seeing these sports promoted and played on television and by seeing them live. • This involved early learning or rules and skills associated with these sports.
    3. 3. Me and my PDHPE experience • The next major influence in my PDHPE experience was in primary school. • This was based on a mostly developmental educational model (Kirk, 1996) • This introduced me to a lot of different games and athletics and gymnastic skills.
    4. 4. Me and my PDHPE experience • After these initial influences of school and my parents I moved into organised sport and leisure activities • These pursuits were influenced by my school PDHPE classes, my parents and friends.
    5. 5. Me and my PDHPE experience • Although it has changed a lot, I still enjoy a lot of physical activity which stems from my early PDHPE experiences • I have also become more concerned with the health aspects of PDHPE as I have gotten older.
    6. 6. Me and my PDHPE experience • Early positive influences on my PDHPE experiences were crucial in shaping how I approach it today.
    7. 7. The PDHPE Educator The specialist? The generalist?OR
    8. 8. The PDHPE Educator • The Generalist • These are teachers of a class in a certain grade who will teach a class all the KLAs to a class that the primary school does not have a specialist for • This doesn’t always mean there will be a poor outcome in PDHPE
    9. 9. The PDHPE Educator • The specialist/itinerant specialist • The word specialist can be misleading, teachers who are specialists can range from someone who has full training as a PDHPE specialist to someone unqualified but has been nominated by the school to be in charge of PDHPE classes (Tinning, 1993).
    10. 10. The PDHPE Educator • The visitor, which can be a Sport Development Officer (SDO) or professional sports people etc. • These are mostly one off visits I am sure most people experienced at primary school and were very exciting for the children involved. • But are they that useful?
    11. 11. PDHPE and Educational Settings-my position • PDHPE has a huge role to play in education, as it not only teaches you about your own body and physical skills. • I found through sport to have learnt huge lessons in things like sportsmanship and how you treat other people to health and general fitness to stay healthy and happy.
    12. 12. PDHPE and Educational Settings-my position • So what is so valuable about PDHPE? • There is the most obvious thing, which is movement and skills associated with the body. • But what else is there that makes this KLA so important?
    13. 13. PDHPE and Educational Settings-my position • As far as teachers already discussed I would probable fit into the keen generalist • I am excited about teaching PDHPE in the K-6 context as I know how meaningful these early experiences can be in future participation and enjoyment of physical activity.
    14. 14. PDHPE and Educational Settings-my position • The NSW PDHPE syllabus also speaks of how computer based technology can enhance the learning in PDHPE and motivate some students (Board of Studies NSW (BOS), 2006, pg 5). • m/watch?v=Z- s2pDHwSkw
    15. 15. PDHPE and Educational Settings-my position • As a teacher of PDHPE there are some key things teachers need to know and more importantly confidence in.
    16. 16. References • Board of Studies NSW. (2006). Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K-6 Syllabus. Sydney: Board of Studies NSW. • Kirk, D., Nauright, J., Hanrahan, S., Macdonald, D., & Jobling, I. (1996). Physical education and curriculum. The sociocultural foundations of human movement (chap. 10, pp.88-98). Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia. • Tinning, R., Kirk, D., & Evans, J. (1993) What stands for physical education in primary schools? In Learning to teach physical education. (pp. 1-21). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. • Tinning, R., McDonald, D., Wright, J., & Hickey, C. (2001). How do students learn? In Becoming a physical education teacher: Contemporary and enduring issues. (pp. 137-143). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia. • Tinning. R., McDonald, D., Wright, J., & Hickey, C. (2001). How do students learn? In Becoming a physical education teacher: Contemporary and enduring issues. (pp. 156-178). Frenchs, Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia.