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Endocrine System


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Endocrine System

  1. 1. Endocrine System Ryan Elder Ricki Abrams Dylan McKessy Liz Anastos
  2. 2. Endocrine vs. Exocrine The Exocrine System Endocrine System Exocrine System Ductless Has ducts Release into bloodstream Release ex ternally Secrete hormones Secrete things other than hormones
  3. 3. Endocrine vs. Nervous Endocrine System Nervous System Cells Glandular epithelium Neurons Chemical Signal Hormone Neurotransmitter Specificity of action Receptor on target cell Receptors on postsynaptic cell Speed of onset Seconds to hours seconds Duration Brief to days Brief (generally) Neuron Glandular Epithelium
  4. 4. Glandular Epithelium <ul><li>Epithelium= cellular covering of any internal and external surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Glandular epithelium = epithelium that produce secretions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hormones <ul><li>Substances created by cells that regulate activity of others cells in the body </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hormones <ul><li>Amino acid-based hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroid hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made from cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid-based hormones </li></ul></ul>Peptide Hormone Structure of Steroid Hormone
  7. 7. How they Work <ul><li>Amino acid-based and peptide hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First messenger- hormone when binds to protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second messenger- molecule initiates changes in a cell in response to binding of a specific substance to a receptor </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How they Work Amino acid-based and peptide hormones
  9. 9. How they Work <ul><li>Steroid and fatty acid-based hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse through cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach to receptors in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormone-receptor complex enters nucleus, binds to DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes are activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are made, become active in cell </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How they Work Steroid and fatty acid-based hormones
  11. 11. Chemical Messengers <ul><li>Neuropeptide = hormone secreted by nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins = modified fatty acid, in most cells, accumulate in damaged areas </li></ul>Neuropeptide Prostaglandin
  12. 12. Feedback Mechanisms <ul><li>Positive feedback- release initial hormone stimulates release of different hormones which stimulate further release of initial hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feedback - one hormone inhibits the production and secretion of another hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonistic hormones- work together in pairs to regulate levels of critical substances </li></ul>
  13. 13. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Regulate vital processes </li></ul><ul><li>Each gland secretes hormones </li></ul>
  14. 14. Endocrine Glands
  15. 15. Endocrine Glands
  16. 16. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Area of brain that coordinates many acitivities of nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cells that secrete hormones (oxytocin and antidiuretic hormones) in hypothalamus </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Stores hormones made by hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Makes releasing hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Makes release-inhibiting hormones </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Produces and secretes hormones thyroxine and triidothyronine </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, metabolism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>TSH regulates release of thyroid hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Release of TSH from anterior pituitary is regulated by releasing and release-inhibiting hormone from hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Produces Calcitonin = hormone that stimulates transfer of calcium ions from blood to bone </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Hyperthyroidism = overproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overactivity, weight loss, high blood pressure, elevated heart rate, elevated body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism = underproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth retardation, lethargy, weight gain, low heart rate, low body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could cause cretinism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goiter = swelling of thyroid gland </li></ul>
  21. 21. Adrenal Medulla <ul><li>Adrenal Medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine- rapidly stimulates metabolism in emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine- stimulates circulatory and respiratory </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. What is Epinephrine?
  23. 23. Adrenal Cortex <ul><li>Adrenal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisol- promotes production of glucose from proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aldosterone – promotes salt and water retention, raises blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What is Cortisol?
  25. 25. Gonads <ul><li>Gamete producing organs (ovaries & testes) </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty - adolescent stage during which sex organs mature </li></ul><ul><li>Follicle-stimulating hormone - stimulates secretion of sex hormones from gonads </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gonads <ul><li>Luteinizing hormone - stimulates secretion of sex hormones from gonads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens- secreted by testes controls secondary male characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone- androgen that regulates male secondary sex characteristics and production of sperm cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen- regulates the sexual development and reproduction function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone - stimulates changes in uterus to prepare for implantation of fertilized egg </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. What is Testosterone?
  28. 28. What is Estrogen? Pre-Estrogen Post-Estrogen
  29. 29. Pancreas <ul><li>Insulin- simulates absorption of glucose by cells </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon- stimulates release of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia- excessive insulin, glucose is stored instead of transported </li></ul>
  30. 30. Insulin and Glucagon
  31. 31. Pancreas <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus- Insulin deficiency, cells can’t absorb glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1- born with it or later developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2- only developed later in life </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Thymus Gland & Pineal Gland <ul><li>Thymus Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymosin- stimulates maturation of T cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pineal Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin- helps regulate sleep patterns, concentrations increase at night and decrease during the day </li></ul></ul>Pineal Gland
  33. 33. What is Melatonin?
  34. 34. Parathyroid Glands & Digestive Cell <ul><li>Parathyroid Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parathyroid hormone- stimulates transfer of calcium ions from bones to blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digestive Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrin- stimulates the release of enzymes and hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretin- stimulates release of digestive fluids from pancreas </li></ul></ul>Parathyroid Hormone at work
  35. 35. Hormone Game Adrenal Gland Cell Nucleus Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Signal to Pituitary Send stimulating hormone to Adrenal Send Cortisol to cell Hormone diffuses into nucleus In nucleus, hormone binds to a gene, turns it on Nucleus (Bobby) DNA is transcribed, translated and proteins are made. Proteins sent to cell.