37.6 million Spanish
Speaking in the United
States above 5yrs. old
34.8 million are Hispanics
2.8 million are non-Hispanic
Who are the 2.8 million non-Hispanics
who speak Spanish at home?
Some 59% trace their ancestry to nonSpanish European countries such as
Germany, Ireland, England and Italy. An
additional 12% say they are of African
…The racial composition of non-Hispanic
Spanish speakers mirrors that of the U.S.
non-Hispanic population. Overall, threequarters (77%) of non-Hispanics who
speak Spanish at home are white, 14% are
black, and 9% say they belong to some
other racial group.
Data from the U.S. Census 2010
308,745,538 Total U.S. Population 2010 Census
37.6 million Speak Spanish at home who are above 5yrs. old in the U.S.
Data from the U.S.
“We need immigration reform that will secure our borders, and… that finally brings the 12 million
people who are here illegally out of the shadows... We must assert our values and reconcile our
principles as a nation of immigrants and a nation of laws.” Barack Obama, June 28, 2008
“America‟s immigration system is outdated, unsuited to the needs of
our economy and to the values of our country. We should not be
content with laws that punish hard-working people and deny
businesses willing workers and invite chaos at our border.”
George W. Bush, February 2, 2005
Oppression of the Spanish Speaking population is
exaggerated by language issues and impacts education, jobs,
housing and creates segregation at all levels of society.
An Associated Press poll from 2010 found
that 61 percent of people said that
Hispanics face significant discrimination.
There has been a backlash against illegal
immigration that has created a divide
amongst Latinos in the United States. It is
leading to deeper concerns about
discrimination against Latinos (including
U.S. born and those who immigrated
Colorism: “a preference toward White skin both
within the United States and within and among
Latinos” (Quiros & Araujo Dawson, 2013).
Colorism is common in Hispanic countries as well
as the United States. Lighter skin is favored as
darker skin is connected to historically oppressed
populations of African descent and indigenous
Felix v. Manquez in 1980 found that color
discrimination is a violation of Title VII of the Equal
Rights Act of 1964. Manquez alleged that Felix,
both Latina women, did not promote Manquez due
the darker color of her skin.
Latin American “Telenovelas” cast actors who are
lighter skinned, or “blonde”, in starring roles.
Darker skinned actors are cast as maids (Jones,
Aracely Arambula “La Patrona” actress
Quiros, L., & Araujo Dawson, B. (2013). The color paradigm: The impact of
colorism on racial identity and identification. Journal of Human Behavior in the
Social Environment, 23(3), 287-297. doi: 10.1080/10911359.2012.740342
Jones, V. (2004, August 19). Pride or prejudice? Boston Globe. Retrieved
Movies, TV, Radio
Clips; Representing how Latinos are
represented on TV.
Click here to watch: http://youtu.be/0DechLBGg1c
Movies, TV, Radio
A scene from the „Crash‟ movie:
Sandra Bullock and Latino Locksmith scene.
Click to watch: http://youtu.be/N-Umf_chNHw
“Braceros” by Domingo Ulloa (1960)
Part of the Chicano art movement
activism of the 1970s in the U.S.
“Me and My
Parrots” by Frida
“Chopin” by Javier Cabada
Dali a Spanish
“Probably nothing derails an adolescent‟s future more
certainly than disconnecting from school, losing interest in
learning, and ultimately dripping out of school”
(National Research Council Report on High-Risk Youth, 1993, p. 417)
The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) or Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESAA) of 1968 was the first federal legislation related to
bilingual education and allowing for the allocation of funds to support school
districts. ESEA expired in 2002 and was replaced by No Child Left Behind
Lau vs. Nichols (1974) found that discrimination based on language minority
status was a violation of Title Vi of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
In education, language has been the controversy in education between
assimilation and multiculturalism (Weise & Garcia 1998).
Programs, such as Success For All (SFA) vacillate between bilingual education
where students are taught core subjects in their own language while learning
English and immersion programs where 30 minutes per day are for learning
English with the remainder of the day in a mainstream classroom. Programs
such as Success for All incorporate whole school reform using cooperative
learning are showing the greatest gains for Spanish speaking students
(Calderon, Slavin,& Sanchez, 2011).
The drop out rate for Hispanic students in Colorado is 6.2% as compared to
2.3% for White students. (Colorado Department of Education, 2009).
Nationwide the rates are 14% and 5%, respectively (National Center for
Education Statistics, 2011).
Historic background of bilingual
Click here to watch:http://youtu.be/0tIppleeIjk
Behnke, A. O., Gonzalez, L. M., & Cox, R. B. (2010). Latino students in new arrival states:
Factors and services to prevent youth from dropping out. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral
Sciences, 32(3), 385-409. doi:10.1177/0739986310374025
Calderon, M., Slavin, R., & Sanchez, M. (2011). Effective instruction for English
learners. The Future of Children, 21(1), 103-127. doi: 10.1353/foc.2011.0007
Colorado Department of Education (2010). 2008-2009 Dropout Data.
National Research Council Panel on High-Risk Youth (1993). Social competence in the
school setting: Prospective cross-domain associations among inner-city teens. Child
Development, 66, 416-429.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). The
Condition of Education 2013 (NCES 2013-037), Status Dropout Rates.
Weise, A., & Garcia, E. E. (1998). The bilingual education act: Language minority students
and equal educational opportunity. Bilingual Research Journal, 22(1), 1-18. doi:
Factors influencing drop outs (Behnke, Gonzalez, & Cox, 2010):
• Economic support to the family
• Personal problems, including pregnancy
• Academic difficulty
• Peer pressure
occupations in the United
22.1 million Hispanics or Latinos of any race, 16yr.
and older who were in the civilian labor force in 2010.
(source: US Census)
8.4 million Unauthorized immigrants in the nation‟s
workforce in 2007 in the United States.
(source: Pew Hispanic Center)
Census 2010 data: http://quickfacts.census.gov
Unemployment, Employment & Earnings
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2011
…there is a need and an opportunity to understand
how immigration reform will meet health care reform
during the implementation of the Affordable Care Act.
….. Lack of progress on immigration reform has
placed financial pressures on safety-net health care
organizations and created ethical challenges for
health care professionals seeking to provide good
care to their undocumented patients: how should we
act now to prevent these problems going forward?
Nancy Berlinger and Michael Gusmano, Undocumented Patients website, (Garrison, NY: The Hastings
Center, 2012), www.undocumentedpatients.org.
Religion & Spanish
San Miguel Chapel, Sante Fe, New Mexico. Oldest church structure in the
US. Original adobe walls built in approximately 1610AD.
Photo from Wikimedia Commons http://en.wikipedia.org
Lessons Learned: Population Growth and Spanish Speaking
Between 2005 and 2050, the nation‟s population will increase to 438 million from
296 million, a rise of 142 million people that represents growth of 48%.
The Hispanic population, 42 million in 2005, will rise to 128 million
in 2050, tripling in size. Latinos will be 29% of the population,
compared with 14% in 2005. (Figure 6)
about the Media
Level of Impact of Media
Images have of Spanish
Speakers in Our Culture
Privilege exists within
Spanish Speaking culture
Latinos will account for 60% of the nation‟s
population growth from 2005 to 2050.
disparities for Spanish
Data source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2008/02/11/us-population-projections-2005-2050/
Lessons Learned Around
Immigration & Policy
The magnitudes of the costs and benefits of
illegal immigration hold several important
lessons for policymakers. One is that not
withstanding all of the focus and controversy
surrounding illegal immigration, the fate of the
US economy is not riding on the country‟s
policy toward unauthorized workers. Allowing
a few more or a few less unauthorized
immigrants into the country would not have
Reducing government benefits to the
unauthorized population is not a meaningful
option, given that the primary benefits they
receive are in the form of public education, to
which their access is constitutionally
guaranteed, and Medicaid for their US-born
Bilingual education was formally initiated as
part of the Civil Rights act. This was new information
for me as I related that legislation to the rights of Black
Americans. The history of bilingual education was
also new as it was purposefully used to force
immigrants to break ties with their native countries.
Racism in Latin American countries has the same
basis related to the darkness of a person‟s skin as it does
in the US. This remains ironic to me as most White people
want to be darker, but this does not equate to a negative
English language learners are not prepared to
learn without support in the time that has been allowed in
most school systems. The expectation is that children be
mainstreamed within three years. Although they may have
acquired spoken English skills, this does not equate to
being able to complete most educational tasks; this
advanced English understanding takes up to seven years
within the United States