Spanish speaking


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Spanish speaking

  1. 1. Spanish Speaking within the United States
  2. 2. 37.6 million Spanish Speaking in the United States above 5yrs. old 34.8 million are Hispanics 2.8 million are non-Hispanic • • • Who are the 2.8 million non-Hispanics who speak Spanish at home? Some 59% trace their ancestry to nonSpanish European countries such as Germany, Ireland, England and Italy. An additional 12% say they are of African American descent. …The racial composition of non-Hispanic Spanish speakers mirrors that of the U.S. non-Hispanic population. Overall, threequarters (77%) of non-Hispanics who speak Spanish at home are white, 14% are black, and 9% say they belong to some other racial group. Data from the U.S. Census 2010 Pew Research: 2013/08/13/spanish-is-the-most spokennonenglish-language-in-u-s-homeseven-among-nonhispanics/
  3. 3. 308,745,538 Total U.S. Population 2010 Census 37.6 million Speak Spanish at home who are above 5yrs. old in the U.S. Data from the U.S. Census 2010 Source:
  4. 4. Immigration: “We need immigration reform that will secure our borders, and… that finally brings the 12 million people who are here illegally out of the shadows... We must assert our values and reconcile our principles as a nation of immigrants and a nation of laws.” Barack Obama, June 28, 2008 “America‟s immigration system is outdated, unsuited to the needs of our economy and to the values of our country. We should not be content with laws that punish hard-working people and deny businesses willing workers and invite chaos at our border.” George W. Bush, February 2, 2005
  5. 5. Oppression: Oppression of the Spanish Speaking population is exaggerated by language issues and impacts education, jobs, housing and creates segregation at all levels of society.
  6. 6. Discrimination • An Associated Press poll from 2010 found that 61 percent of people said that Hispanics face significant discrimination. There has been a backlash against illegal immigration that has created a divide amongst Latinos in the United States. It is leading to deeper concerns about discrimination against Latinos (including U.S. born and those who immigrated legally).
  7. 7. Privilege • Colorism: “a preference toward White skin both within the United States and within and among Latinos” (Quiros & Araujo Dawson, 2013). • Colorism is common in Hispanic countries as well as the United States. Lighter skin is favored as darker skin is connected to historically oppressed populations of African descent and indigenous peoples. • Felix v. Manquez in 1980 found that color discrimination is a violation of Title VII of the Equal Rights Act of 1964. Manquez alleged that Felix, both Latina women, did not promote Manquez due the darker color of her skin. • Latin American “Telenovelas” cast actors who are lighter skinned, or “blonde”, in starring roles. Darker skinned actors are cast as maids (Jones, 2004). Aracely Arambula “La Patrona” actress Quiros, L., & Araujo Dawson, B. (2013). The color paradigm: The impact of colorism on racial identity and identification. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(3), 287-297. doi: 10.1080/10911359.2012.740342 Jones, V. (2004, August 19). Pride or prejudice? Boston Globe. Retrieved from
  8. 8. The Media: Movies, TV, Radio
  9. 9. The Media: Movies, TV, Radio Clips; Representing how Latinos are represented on TV. Click here to watch:
  10. 10. The Media: Movies, TV, Radio A scene from the „Crash‟ movie: Sandra Bullock and Latino Locksmith scene. • Click to watch: •
  11. 11. “Braceros” by Domingo Ulloa (1960) Part of the Chicano art movement activism of the 1970s in the U.S. “Me and My Parrots” by Frida Kahlo (1941) FINE ARTS “Cargador de Flores” by Diego Rivera (1935) “Chopin” by Javier Cabada Spanish-American artist “The temptation of St. Anthony” by Salvador Dali a Spanish artist (1946)
  12. 12. Education “Probably nothing derails an adolescent‟s future more certainly than disconnecting from school, losing interest in learning, and ultimately dripping out of school” (National Research Council Report on High-Risk Youth, 1993, p. 417) • The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) or Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESAA) of 1968 was the first federal legislation related to bilingual education and allowing for the allocation of funds to support school districts. ESEA expired in 2002 and was replaced by No Child Left Behind (NCLB). • Lau vs. Nichols (1974) found that discrimination based on language minority status was a violation of Title Vi of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. • In education, language has been the controversy in education between assimilation and multiculturalism (Weise & Garcia 1998). • Programs, such as Success For All (SFA) vacillate between bilingual education where students are taught core subjects in their own language while learning English and immersion programs where 30 minutes per day are for learning English with the remainder of the day in a mainstream classroom. Programs such as Success for All incorporate whole school reform using cooperative learning are showing the greatest gains for Spanish speaking students (Calderon, Slavin,& Sanchez, 2011). • The drop out rate for Hispanic students in Colorado is 6.2% as compared to 2.3% for White students. (Colorado Department of Education, 2009). Nationwide the rates are 14% and 5%, respectively (National Center for Education Statistics, 2011). Historic background of bilingual education video. Click here to watch: Behnke, A. O., Gonzalez, L. M., & Cox, R. B. (2010). Latino students in new arrival states: Factors and services to prevent youth from dropping out. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 385-409. doi:10.1177/0739986310374025 Calderon, M., Slavin, R., & Sanchez, M. (2011). Effective instruction for English learners. The Future of Children, 21(1), 103-127. doi: 10.1353/foc.2011.0007 Colorado Department of Education (2010). 2008-2009 Dropout Data. National Research Council Panel on High-Risk Youth (1993). Social competence in the school setting: Prospective cross-domain associations among inner-city teens. Child Development, 66, 416-429. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). The Condition of Education 2013 (NCES 2013-037), Status Dropout Rates. Weise, A., & Garcia, E. E. (1998). The bilingual education act: Language minority students and equal educational opportunity. Bilingual Research Journal, 22(1), 1-18. doi: Factors influencing drop outs (Behnke, Gonzalez, & Cox, 2010): • Economic support to the family • Personal problems, including pregnancy • Academic difficulty • Peer pressure
  13. 13. Spanish speaking occupations in the United States 22.1 million Hispanics or Latinos of any race, 16yr. and older who were in the civilian labor force in 2010. (source: US Census) 8.4 million Unauthorized immigrants in the nation‟s workforce in 2007 in the United States. (source: Pew Hispanic Center) Census 2010 data: Read more: newsroom/releases/arc hives/facts_for_feature s_special_editions/cb1 2-ff19.html
  14. 14. Unemployment, Employment & Earnings SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2011
  15. 15. Health Care …there is a need and an opportunity to understand how immigration reform will meet health care reform during the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. ….. Lack of progress on immigration reform has placed financial pressures on safety-net health care organizations and created ethical challenges for health care professionals seeking to provide good care to their undocumented patients: how should we act now to prevent these problems going forward? Nancy Berlinger and Michael Gusmano, Undocumented Patients website, (Garrison, NY: The Hastings Center, 2012),
  16. 16. Religion & Spanish Speaking San Miguel Chapel, Sante Fe, New Mexico. Oldest church structure in the US. Original adobe walls built in approximately 1610AD. Photo from Wikimedia Commons SOURCE:
  17. 17. Lessons Learned: Population Growth and Spanish Speaking Between 2005 and 2050, the nation‟s population will increase to 438 million from 296 million, a rise of 142 million people that represents growth of 48%. The Hispanic population, 42 million in 2005, will rise to 128 million in 2050, tripling in size. Latinos will be 29% of the population, compared with 14% in 2005. (Figure 6) Lessons Learned; about the Media Level of Impact of Media Images have of Spanish Speakers in Our Culture Privilege exists within Spanish Speaking culture Latinos will account for 60% of the nation‟s population growth from 2005 to 2050. Significant Educational disparities for Spanish Speaking Students Data source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends:
  18. 18. • Lessons Learned Around Immigration & Policy The magnitudes of the costs and benefits of illegal immigration hold several important lessons for policymakers. One is that not withstanding all of the focus and controversy surrounding illegal immigration, the fate of the US economy is not riding on the country‟s policy toward unauthorized workers. Allowing a few more or a few less unauthorized immigrants into the country would not have dire consequences. • Reducing government benefits to the unauthorized population is not a meaningful option, given that the primary benefits they receive are in the form of public education, to which their access is constitutionally guaranteed, and Medicaid for their US-born children.
  19. 19. Lessons Learned Education Bilingual education was formally initiated as part of the Civil Rights act. This was new information for me as I related that legislation to the rights of Black Americans. The history of bilingual education was also new as it was purposefully used to force immigrants to break ties with their native countries. • Racism in Latin American countries has the same basis related to the darkness of a person‟s skin as it does in the US. This remains ironic to me as most White people want to be darker, but this does not equate to a negative state. • English language learners are not prepared to learn without support in the time that has been allowed in most school systems. The expectation is that children be mainstreamed within three years. Although they may have acquired spoken English skills, this does not equate to being able to complete most educational tasks; this advanced English understanding takes up to seven years
  20. 20. Spanish Speaking within the United States by Margaret Bender Matt McGaugh Jessy Moreland Sheila Strouse