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# Weather 101

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### Weather 101

1. 1. Weather 101 Weather from the ground up Part I
2. 2. It all begins with the Sun
3. 3. Visual UV X Ray
4. 4. Basic Solar Statistics <ul><li>Surface Temperature of ~5800 K </li></ul><ul><li>93,000,000 miles from Earth </li></ul><ul><li>It takes light eight minutes to reach us </li></ul><ul><li>It would take100 Earths to equal the Sun’s size </li></ul><ul><li>It emits 4 x 10 26 Watts/s </li></ul><ul><li>Mass of 2 x 10 30 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation of 24 days </li></ul>
5. 5. Solar Energy This is A LOT of energy..enough raise the temperature Of the Earth several 100 degrees…
6. 6. If this occurred we would be dead, but……. WE HAVE AN ATMOSPHERE!!
7. 7. The Atmosphere’s Energy Budget
8. 8. The Earth in Space <ul><li>365.25 days to orbit </li></ul><ul><li>23.5 degree axial tilt </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly circular orbit </li></ul><ul><li>The earth orbits on the solar plane </li></ul><ul><li>These orbital parameters can change but that’s a more complex story…….. </li></ul>
9. 9. Once the energy comes into the Atmosphere, how does it get distributed? It would be straight to the poles, of course…….
10. 10. <ul><li>                       </li></ul>There’s just one problem……… WE ROTATE!
11. 11. Creating Winds <ul><li>Hot air rises, cold air sinks </li></ul><ul><li>Energy surplus to deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Coriolis effect “tilts” the flow </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing winds </li></ul>
12. 12. Water, Water Everywhere <ul><li>Water is found in three states on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>All water is cycled over time </li></ul>
13. 13. Ocean Currents: Moving energy in Water <ul><li>Water, like air, rises and sinks </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water flows north </li></ul><ul><li>Cold water flows south </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between air and water create the weather dynamic </li></ul>
14. 14. Where Are We? Tuesday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind SSW 22 mph / 36 km/h Low: 46° F / 8° C Wednesday Chance of Rain. High: 51° F / 11° C Wind WNW 8 mph / 14 km/h Low: 37° F / 3° C Thursday Clear. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind SSE 8 mph / 14 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Friday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 15 mph / 25 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Saturday Clear. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 17 mph / 28 km/h Low: 42° F / 6° C Sunday Chance of Rain. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind South 33 mph / 54 km/h Low: 46° F / 8° C Monday Partly Cloudy. High: 48° F / 9° C Wind WSW 8 mph / 14 km/h London, England - January
15. 15. Happy Valley-Goose Bay Happy Valley-Goose Bay: Issued 11.30 AM NST Tuesday 10 January 2006 Today Sunny with cloudy periods. 30 percent chance of flurries near noon. Wind becoming west 20 km/h this afternoon. High 14. Tonight Cloudy periods with 40 percent chance of flurries. Wind northwest 30 km/h gusting to 50. Low 0. Cold wind chill minus 2. Wednesday Sunny. Wind northwest 30 km/h gusting to 50. Temperature falling to minus 2 in the afternoon. Cold wind chill minus 5. Thursday A mix of sun and cloud with 30 percent chance of flurries. Low minus 2. High 11. Friday A mix of sun and cloud with 30 percent chance of flurries. Low 11. High minus 12. Saturday A mix of sun and cloud with 60 percent chance of flurries. Low minus 3. High 9. For Comparision…..Labrador, Canada Temperatures in farenheit
16. 16. What do we know? <ul><li>The Sun is the ignition for the weather engine </li></ul><ul><li>The atmosphere protects us from over heating </li></ul><ul><li>Heat, water and air are the “ingredients” of weather </li></ul><ul><li>Energy moves around the Earth due to atomospheric and ocean circulation </li></ul>
17. 17. Weather 101 Part II
18. 18. Air Masses
19. 19. High Pressure Systems
20. 20. When Air masses meet.. <ul><li>The polar front or jet stream forms </li></ul><ul><li>Divides the cold air from the warm air </li></ul><ul><li>Storms form at this border of air </li></ul>
21. 21. When air collides <ul><li>Fronts are the boundary between two air masses </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air pushed up due to cold air </li></ul><ul><li>Move counterclockwise </li></ul>
22. 22. Interior of Fronts <ul><li>Frontal systems evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Warm and cold fronts are part of a low pressure system </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary fronts are “stalled” </li></ul><ul><li>Occluded fronts are one sitting on top of another </li></ul>
23. 23. Creating Cyclones <ul><li>Cyclones are Low pressure systems moving counter clockwise </li></ul><ul><li>They are “spun off” from the polar front </li></ul><ul><li>As Temperature reaches equilibrium, they dissipate. </li></ul>
24. 24. Low Pressure Systems <ul><li>Lows evolve over time </li></ul><ul><li>They can last as long as a week </li></ul><ul><li>Wave of unstable air </li></ul><ul><li>Mature system </li></ul><ul><li>Form occluded front </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary when stalled </li></ul>
25. 25. Friday 1/13
26. 26. Saturday 1/14
27. 27. Sunday 1/15
28. 28. Monday 1/16