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Here are the notes from the WWII unit.

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  1. 1. WWII: Causes & American Involvement<br />
  2. 2. Totalitarianism form of government in which the government practices complete control over its citizens<br />Fascism  political system based on a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictator<br />Nationalistic<br />Religion<br />Glorious past<br />Private business and property<br />Racial scapegoats for problems<br />Repression of opposition<br />1921, Italy<br />Benito Mussolini established fascism<br />1922, Mussolini and “black shirts” take over government<br />Adolf Hitler<br />National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)<br />Mein Kampf (1925 & 1927)<br />Unite all German-speaking people<br />“Aryans” = master race<br />Jews blamed for problems<br />National expansion, lebensraum<br />1932, Nazi’s win elections (not majority)<br />1933, Hitler appointed chancellor<br />Reichstag fire & decree<br />Weimar Republic dismantled<br />Third Reich installed<br />Communism  economic and political system based on one party government and state ownership of property<br />No boundaries (workers of the world)<br />Atheistic<br />Future revolution<br />No privately owned business or property<br />No blatant racism<br />Repression of opposition<br />1922, Soviet Union<br />1924, Joseph Stalin took control of USSR<br />Make USSR model state<br />1927, collectivization of agriculture<br />1928, 1933, 1937, “five year plan”<br />Turn USSR into industrialized nation<br />State-owned factories, mills, plants, etc… <br />
  3. 3. Militarists in Japan<br />Emperor Hirohito<br />Need for more “living space”<br />1931, invasion of Manchuria<br />Militarists in control<br />1941, Hideki Tojo becomes prime minister<br />Importance of U. S. supplies and oil<br />
  4. 4. Isolationism in U. S.<br />North Dakota senator Gerald Nye<br />Congressional committee formed to look into charges that banks and arms dealers had dragged America into WWI<br />1937 poll  70% of Americans believed that the U.S. should not have entered WWI<br />Neutrality Acts, 1935<br />Meant to keep U.S. out of foreign affairs<br />Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war<br />Breakdown  Spanish Civil War<br />
  5. 5. Spanish Civil War<br />Fascist general Francisco Franco attempts to overthrow democratic government, 1936<br />Hitler & Mussolini aid Franco<br />Saw it as a testing ground for their new forces<br />Americans found it difficult not to support democratic government<br />3,000 Americans joined Abraham Lincoln Brigade to fight Franco<br />Aid from U.S. and other countries too small (fear of larger war outbreak) 1939, Franco took power<br />
  6. 6. Europe Aggression<br />Mussolini<br />1935 invaded Ethiopia to expand new Roman Empire<br />1936, Ethiopia fell<br />Haile Selassie, “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.”<br />Nazi Aggression<br />1933, Germany left LON<br />1935, violated Versailles through military buildup<br />1936<br />Occupied Rhineland (supposed to be demilitarized)<br />Signed Rome-Berlin Axis Pact (alliance between Italy and Germany)<br />1938<br />Hitler unites Austria with Germany<br />Hitler threatens Sudetenland<br />
  7. 7. Munich Pact<br />France and Great Britain had promised to protect Czechoslovakia<br />Hitler invited Edouard Daladier and Neville Chamberlain to Munich<br />September 30, 1938 signed Munich Pact<br />Hitler promised Sudetenland was last territorial acquisition (and it was given to him)<br />Chamberlain, “Peace in our time.”<br />Winston Churchill disagreed<br />Appeasement giving up principles to pacify an aggressor<br />p. 550<br />
  8. 8. German Offensive<br />Czechoslovakia<br />March 15, 1939 Hitler invaded<br />Poland<br />Sizable German-speaking population<br />Hitler again charged that the Poles were mistreating these people<br />Potential Problems of German Invasion:<br />France & Great Britain had pledged to help Poland militarily if invaded<br />Would the USSR protect its western neighbor?<br />Solution: August 23, 1939  nonaggression pact signed between Hitler and Stalin agreeing not to fight one another<br />Also agreed to split up Poland<br />Threat of two-front war avoided for Hitler<br />Blitzkrieg (lightning war)<br />Take the enemy by surprise and crush all opposition with overwhelming force<br />September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland<br />Planes bombed bases, airfields, railroads and cities<br />Tanks <br />September 3, 1939 France & Great Britain declared war on Germany<br />Blitzkrieg worked too quickly for French or British forces to arrive and help<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Germany Turns Attention Westward<br />Phony War<br />Blitzkrieg gave way to waiting<br />French, British, and German troops waited almost 7 months<br />Stalin consolidated land in the east (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & Finland)<br />Denmark & Norway<br />April 9, 1940 Germany invades<br />Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg<br />All fell by May of 1940<br />France<br />French & British officials feared a German invasion through Belgium and sent forces north<br />Hitler anticipated this and sent forces (tanks) through the Ardennes<br />Allied forces cut off in the north<br />Road to Paris clear<br />Italy invaded from the south<br />June 21, 1940 Paris fell to Hitler<br />France occupied and puppet government set up in Vichy<br />General Charles de Gaulle fled to England and set up a government-in-exile<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Battle of Britain<br />August 1940<br />Germany assembled an invasion fleet on French coast<br />Germany could not compete with British navy<br />Luftwaffe (German air force) began bombing runs over Britain<br />Targeted military targets first and eventually bombed cities (London)<br />Great Britain turns Hitler away<br />Winston Churchill became Prime Minister in May 1940<br />“We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.”<br />Royal Air Force (RAF)<br />Used radar and fought off the Luftwaffe<br />September 1940  indefinite suspension of invasion declared by Hitler<br />
  13. 13. Holocaust<br />The systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom (6 million) were Jews.<br />Began in Germany<br />Nuremberg Laws (1935)  stripped Jews of their civil rights and property if they tried to leave Germany<br />Star of David patch<br />Final Solution<br />Meant to rid Germany and the world of its “Jewish problem”<br />Genocide deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people<br />Death Squads moved behind Hitler’s army<br />Set up concentration camps<br />Communists, Catholics, Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, people with disabilities, homosexuals & POW’s also sent<br />Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Belsen etc…<br />Labor, experimentation, extermination<br />
  14. 14. America Moves Toward War<br />“Cash-and-carry”<br />September 1939, Neutrality Acts revised<br />Allowed nations to buy American arms as long as they paid cash and carried them back in own ships<br />FDR thought providing arms to Britain and France was best way to keep U.S. out of war<br />Tripartite Pact<br />September 1940<br />Japan, Germany, and Italy signed a mutual defense treaty<br />Axis Powers<br />Implications for U.S.<br />FDR supplied British with “all aid short of war”<br />FDR & Congress increased military spending and implemented draft<br />Election of 1940<br />FDR runs for third term and wins<br />22nd Amendment (1951) set term limits<br />
  15. 15. The Great Arsenal of Democracy<br />Lend-Lease Act, 1941<br />Lend or lease arms and supplies to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States”<br />Importance of Great Britain<br />Soviet Union<br />Hitler invaded USSR on June 22, 1941<br />Scorched-earth policy and Russian winter halt Hitler<br />German wolf packs (15-20 U-boats) disrupt supply to Britain<br />FDR ordered Navy to protect shipments as far east as Iceland<br />Met secretly with Winston Churchill in August 1941 near Newfoundland<br />Atlantic Charter<br />Declaration of principles regarding why WWII was fought and the Allies’ intentions<br />“A Declaration by the United Nations”  formed Allies<br />
  16. 16. Japan Attacks the U.S.<br />Militarism in Japan<br />Expansionist desires<br />French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, Burma, India, Malaya, Guam, & the Philippines<br />July 1941<br />Japanese take Indochina<br />U.S. placed embargo on Japan<br />Importance of American oil<br />Hideki Tojo<br />Prime Minister, October 1940<br />Began planning attack on U.S. in November 1941<br />Pearl Harbor<br />December 7, 1941<br />U.S. had broken Japanese code and knew attack was coming, but didn’t know where<br />180 Japanese warplanes launched from 6 aircraft carriers attacked the U.S. Navy base at Pearl Harbor for an hour and a half<br />18 American ships badly damaged<br />4 sunk<br />Oglala, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Utah<br />350 planes damaged<br />2,400 people dead (1,178 wounded)<br />Pacific Fleet crippled<br />No aircraft carriers sunk<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. U.S. Declares War<br />Japanese Admiral, Isoroku Yamamoto<br />“I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.”<br />FDR addressed Congress December 8, 1941<br />“A date which will live in infamy”<br />Declaration of war against Japan passed<br />Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on U.S.<br />
  20. 20. America Increases Forces<br />Selective Service<br />5 million volunteers<br />10 million draftees<br />Women & minorities<br />Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (1942)<br />250,000 women throughout WWII<br />Served in auxiliary roles<br />African Americans<br />Over 1 million<br />Tuskegee Airmen<br />Mexican Americans<br />Over 500,000<br />Native Americans<br />Over 25,000<br />First opportunity for many to leave reservations<br />Asian Americans<br />13,000 Chinese Americans<br />33,000 Japanese Americans<br />Influential as spies/code breakers<br />
  21. 21. America Increases Production<br />Industrial Production<br />February 1942<br />Automobile plants shut down<br />Reformed for production of tanks, planes, boats, and command cars<br />Other plants shut down to begin producing war products as well<br />Henry Kaiser<br />7 new shipyards<br />“a ship a day”<br />Laborers<br />1944, 18 million workers laboring in war industries<br />1945, unemployment < 2%<br />Women<br />6 million<br />Rosie the Riveter<br />Minorities<br />2 million<br />“Second Great Migration”<br />A. Philip Randolph<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Manhattan Project<br />Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), 1941<br />Improvements in radar and sonar<br />Pesticides (DDT) and penicillin<br />Atomic Bomb<br />Breakthrough in atomic physics by German scientists, 1939<br />German refugee scientists draft letter to FDR warning him of this<br />Led by Albert Einstein<br />FDR sets up department in OSRD to develop atomic bomb<br />Offices in NY  Manhattan Project<br />
  24. 24. Japanese American Internment<br />Executive Order 9066<br />February 19, 1942<br />Removal of all people of Japanese ancestry from California, Washington, Oregon, and Arizona<br />Fear of espionage<br />110,000 Japanese Americans interned in WWII<br />Pacific War  racial<br />European War  liberation<br />Similarities and differences to concentration camps<br />
  25. 25. Economic Controls<br />Office of Price Administration (OPA)<br />Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices, rents, and increasing taxes<br />Rationed foods such as meat, butter, cheese, vegetables, sugar, and coffee<br />Coupon books<br />Gas also rationed (carpools)<br />Department of Treasury<br />Issued war bonds to raise money for the war effort<br />“America on Guard” campaign<br />War Production Board (WPB)<br />Decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries<br />Organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, etc… <br />
  26. 26. Europe First<br />Churchill & FDR meet after Pearl Harbor<br />Decide on a “Europe First” policy<br />Reasons<br />1) FDR had always considered Hitler the most dangerous threat to the United States<br />2) Stalin was desperate for a second front<br />Germany had invaded the Soviet Union in 1941<br />USSR now an Allied country<br />3) Only after Germany was defeated could the United States look to Britain and the Soviet Union for help in defeating Japan<br />Decide only to accept unconditional surrender of the Axis powers<br />To avoid the situation WWI provided<br />
  27. 27. Control of the Atlantic<br />1942<br />German U-boats sank 87 American ships off Atlantic shore<br />Allied convoys protect cargo ships and seek and destroy U-boats<br />Liberty ships<br />“a ship a day”<br />1943<br />140 Liberty ships each month produced<br />1943<br />Allies controlled the Atlantic<br />
  28. 28. Eastern Front<br />German invasion of USSR stalled in winter 1941/1942<br />Hitler changed focus from Moscow to Stalingrad in summer 1942<br />Control of Stalingrad would give Germans ability to cut the movement of military supplies along the Volga River to Moscow<br />Battle of Stalingrad<br />Lasted from July 1942 to February 1943<br />By September 1942, Germans controlled 9/10 of the city<br />November 1942, Soviets launched massive counterattack defending “Stalin’s city”<br />Russian winter affected Germans worse<br />February 2, 1943, 91,000 Germans surrendered<br />German invading force totaled 330,000 in July ’42<br />Soviets lost 1,250,000 soldiers and civilians in defending city<br />Significance not known at the time<br />Ended Hitler’s offensive capabilities<br />USSR pushes westward toward Germany now<br />
  29. 29. North Africa<br />Stalin pleaded for second front during Stalingrad<br />Allies not ready yet for invasion across English Channel into France<br />Operation Torch, November 1942—May 1943<br />Invasion of Axis controlled North Africa<br />General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded Allied forces<br />German forces led by “Desert Fox” General Erwin Rommel<br />Landed in Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers<br />Chased Rommel eastward<br />May 1943, Afrika Korps surrendered<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Italian Campaign<br />Americans wanted invasion across English Channel through France into Germany<br />Churchill still thought Allies weren’t ready yet<br />Compromise: Began planning D-Day while Allied troops invaded Italy (Churchill, “the soft underbelly of the Axis”)<br />Captured Sicily in summer of 1943<br />Hitler seized control of the rest of Italy and dug forces in<br />Battle of Rome, May/June 1944<br />Germans surrendered Italy, May 1945<br />60,000 Allied casualties<br />50,000 German casualties<br />
  32. 32. Operation Overlord<br />Allied invasion of Nazi-controlled Europe<br />D-Day<br />June 6, 1944<br />Planned for two years<br />Paratroopers  June 5<br />Americans faced brutal resistance on Utah and Omaha beach<br />Despite heavy casualties, Allies eventually held the beach, allowing for invasion force to arrive<br />1 million troops & 170,000 vehicles <br />Largest land-sea-air operation in history<br />150,000 troops<br />11,000 planes<br />4,000 landing craft<br />600 warships<br />U.S. Third Army under General George Patton pushed forward into France<br />August 25, 1944 liberated Paris and thus France<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Hitler’s Last Push in the West<br />November 1944  FDR elected to fourth term, Harry Truman new VP<br />Battle of the Bulge<br />December 16, 1944<br />German tank (panzer) divisions broke through weak American defenses along the Ardennes<br />Pushed Americans back to Bastogne, Belgium<br />Demanded American surrender<br />Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe, commander of the 101st Airborne, “Nuts!”<br />By the end of January, 1945 American forces had pushed the Germans back<br />120,000 German casualties<br />70,000 American casualties<br />Largest engagement/loss by American forces in WWII<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Unconditional Surrender<br />Allied forces in the west and Soviet forces in the east pushed towards Berlin<br />Liberated death camps<br />April 25, 1945<br />Soviets reached Berlin first and stormed city<br />Hitler committed suicide April 30, 1945<br />May 8, 1945<br />V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)<br />Third Reich unconditionally surrendered to Dwight D. Eisenhower<br />
  37. 37. The War in the Pacific<br />Japanese consolidate empire<br />Simultaneous attacks with Pearl Harbor<br />General Douglas MacArthur eventually left the Philippines<br />April 18, 1942<br />American retaliation<br />Hornet launched air raids on Tokyo<br />The Battle of Midway<br />June 1942<br />Americans had intercepted/decoded Japanese message that an invasion force (over 110 ships) was headed to Midway<br />Set trap <br />Admiral Chester Nimitz<br />Aircraft carriers launched planes<br />Four Japanese aircraft carriers sunk and 322 planes destroyed<br />Turning point in the Pacific (without knowing it at the time)<br />Japanese losses irreplaceable<br />Japan made 6 more aircraft carriers during the war<br />U.S. made 20 more aircraft carriers<br />U.S. established naval base at Midway submarines<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Island Hopping<br />Japanese empire stretched thousands of miles<br />U.S. adopted policy of Island Hopping<br />Bypassed Japanese strongholds and hopped from one island to the next<br />Seized less fortified islands, built airfields/bases to stage attacks on other islands and cut off enemy supplies<br />Guadalcanal<br />August 1942<br />First land offensive/first land loss for Japanese<br />Return to the Philippines<br />October 1944<br />MacArthur returns<br />Japanese employ kamikaze (suicide-plane)<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Yalta Conference<br />February 1945<br />FDR, Churchill, & Stalin meet at Yalta<br />Set up U.N.<br />Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan after Germany surrendered<br />Also agreed to set up democracies in territories taken in Eastern Europe<br />
  42. 42. Iwo Jima and Okinawa<br />Iwo Jima<br />February 19—March 17, 1945<br />Importance<br />U.S. could set up base for bombers that could reach Japan<br />20,700 Japanese defended the island<br />6,000 marines died taking it<br />Okinawa<br />Last island between Allies and Japan<br />April 1—June 22, 1945<br />FDR died on April 12, 1945<br />Inexperienced Truman came to power during the middle of the operation<br />1,900 kamikaze attacks<br />7,600 American casualties<br />110,000 Japanese casualties<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. The War in the Pacific Ends<br />Manhattan Project<br />600,000 Americans worked on the project<br />J. Robert Oppenheimer<br />Truman learned of MP and Yalta only after becoming president<br />July 16, 1945<br />Alamogordo, New Mexico<br />First successful atomic bomb test<br />Debate over using the bomb<br />AGAINST<br />Immoral<br />Demonstration<br />FOR<br />Problems with a demonstration (3)<br />Save American lives  no need for invasion  high casualties from Iwo Jima and Okinawa<br />Needed to use weapon to justify the cost ($2 billion)<br />Defeat Japan without the Soviet Union<br />Distrust already forming<br />August 6, 1945<br />Little Boy (fission bomb) dropped over Hiroshima<br />August 8, 1945<br />Soviet Union declared war on Japan<br />August 9, 1945<br />Fat Man (fission bomb) dropped over Nagasaki<br />Estimated 200,000 people died in the blast or from radiation<br />September 2, 1945<br />Japan surrendered (V-J Day, August 15, 1945)<br />
  45. 45. Postwar Germany<br />July 1945<br />Truman, Churchill, & Stalin met at Postdam, Germany<br />Decide Nazis must face “stern justice”<br />Nuremberg trials<br />22 Nazi leaders tried by international tribunal<br />12 sentenced to death<br />200 additional Nazis given jail time in lesser trials<br />Germany divided into four zones<br />U.S., U.K., France, and Soviet Union each occupied and administered one zone<br />Berlin also divided into four zones (despite being in Soviet territory)<br />
  46. 46. Postwar Japan<br />Japan was occupied by U.S. forces for 6 years under General Douglas MacArthur’s command<br />Japanese officials tried<br /> Hideki Tojo<br />7 sentenced to death<br />MacArthur worked to change Japanese society<br />Free market economic principles<br />New democratic constitution<br />MacArthur Constitution<br />
  47. 47. Postwar America<br />Great Depression ended by war spending<br />“Second Great Migration”<br />GI Bill of Rights (1944)<br />Provided for education and training for veterans, paid for by the federal government<br />Opportunity and Discrimination<br />New opportunities for minorities in military<br />Segregation still existed<br />Korematsu v. United States (1944)<br />Supreme Court ruled that the government’s policy of removing Japanese Americans was justified by “military necessity”<br />1965, Congress paid $38 million in compensation<br />New Threat<br />Communism<br />“Iron Curtain” and the Truman Doctrine<br />